US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria

Civilians in the ruins of Mosul city. (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
US-led Coalition
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Contested
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

RS021 CS134

Incident date

October 6, 2015

Location

تدمر, Palmyra, Homs, Syria

Geolocation

34.5655244, 38.2873535 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

According to the Syrian Observatory, “preliminary information reported the death of civilians – including women and children – in the bombing by Russian warplanes on areas at the eastern outskirts of Palmyra city which is controlled by the ‘Islamic State’.”

According to most sources, between 12 and 14 members of two Bedouin families died, including five children and four women. Russian aircraft reportedly targeted the Al Wadi Al Ahmar [Red Valley] residential area in the east of the city.

The Violations Documentation Center said 15 civilian males were killed, though did not identify any by name. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights instead said 15 Daesh fighters died alongside civilians.

A Russian Defence Ministry spokesperson was quoted as saying “We do not hit populated areas .. especially those with antiquities” when asked whether Russia had carried out strikes at Palmyra. Repeated Russian strikes have since targeted the city according to reports.

It remains possible the action was instead by the US-led Coalition, which publicly reported airstrikes at Palmyra on October 1st, 4th, 9th and 10th 2015.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    12–15
  • (5 children4 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    Russian Armed Forces, US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Interview with activist confirming that Russian strikes targeted Palmyra. No further details of any casualties, 6th October 2015. (via: Media office of the rebels of Syria)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

As noted above, Russia explicitly denied carrying out strikes at Palmyra. No Russian airstrikes were publicly reported in Homs governorate for October 6th 2015.

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

The Coalition did no report any strikes in Palmyra for October 5th-7th 2015.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    12–15
  • (5 children4 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    Russian Armed Forces, US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI014

Incident date

November 4, 2014

Location

القائم, Al Qa'im, Anbar, Iraq

Geolocation

34.3957715, 40.9943684 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

An alleged coalition airstrike reportedly hit a market at Al Qaim in western Anbar, killing at least 3 people and injuring up to 35. Two of the victims were named as as Mohamed Ahmed and Ahmed Munir Khitab. Significant damage was reported at the scene. However, the coalition denies carrying out any airstrike in the vicinity on this date.

According to one eyewitness, the attack happened after Islamic State militants in the vicinity fired on coalition aircraft: “The reckless action of the militants led to the death and injuries of more than 37 people, all of them civilians, and causing substantial material damage in the shops.”Al Jazeera cited witnesses as saying that 15 died and 35 were injured in an ‘international coalition’ strike, adding that according to one source, “the aircraft bombed once then bombed a second time once people had gathered to look for the victims.” NINA placed the number of injured significantly lower, at 14.

The attack was denounced by Sheikh Najm Al Alyawi, a member of the council of tribes of the district, who said in a press release “The people of the district strongly denounce the bombing by warplanes of the main market in Al Qaim, western Anbar province, which resulted in the death and injury of dozens of innocent citizens.”

The United Nations cited the incident in its quarterly report on Iraq, noting: “It was also alleged that on 4 November, an air strike hit a market in al-Qaim, western Anbar, killing at least five civilians and wounding at least 27 more.” The attack was generally attributed to Iraqi government forces and their allies, which might include the coalition.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Mohamed Ahmed Age unknown male Listed by Herak killed
  • Ahmed Munir Khitab Age unknown male Listed by Herak killed
  • Imad Hadi Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Ahmed Abboud Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Ra’ed Nuri Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Nouri Afar Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Mohammad Yousuf Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Hakim Marwan Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Amash Jassim Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Bilal Abdul-Jabbar Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Subhi Jamil Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Ali Naseer Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Mohamed Wadah Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Zia Abboud Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Yousef Salem Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Saif Abdul Hadi Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Qusay Rahim Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Hamad Talal Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Osman Yusuf Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Walid Youssef Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Amal Eid Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Mua’az Nuri Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Raed Nuri Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Abdul Rahman Hamid Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Mohammed Shaker Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Rifa’at Radi Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Atheer A’thal Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Alaa Jassim Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Yasser Sabbar Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Ammar Yasir Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Osama Haitham Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Muhannad Mohammed Ahmed Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Wassfiya Jawhar Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Mu’awya Muhannad Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Walid Youssef Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Adnan Mohamed Ahmed Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured
  • Mua’az Sabah Awad Age unknown male Listed by Herak injured

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    3–15
  • (0–2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    14–35
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • The aftermath of the alleged strike (via Herak)
  • Another image of the alleged incident (via Herak)
  • Another image of the alleged incident (via Herak)
  • Another image of the alleged incident (via Herak)
  • Another image of the alleged incident (via Herak)
  • Another image of the alleged incident (via Herak)
  • Another image of the alleged incident (via Herak)

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the alleged Coalition strike hit a market in the city of Al-Qaim, for which the coordinates for its midpoint are: 34.3957715,40.9943684. One source reports a “market in the Rumanna (رمانة) area,” which is just North of the Euphrates river, opposite the city of Al-Qaim. The coordinates for the midpoint of this area are: 34.3930610, 41.0779810

  • Location of a "market in the Rumanna (رمانة) area,” North of the Euphrates river opposite the city of Al-Qaim

    Imagery:
    © 2018 Google

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near al-Qaiem, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SFU833078
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jul 26, 2018
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

No coalition reports of airstrikes on Al Qaim or the vicinity for November 3rd-5th 2014. A spokesman also later told Airwars that “no Coalition airstrikes have taken place in the vicinity” on the date in question.

Iraq government forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iraq government forces
  • Iraq government forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    3–15
  • (0–2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    14–35
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS128

Incident date

September 20, 2015

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

An internally displaced person, a young girl named as Fatima Hasan Al Steif from Aleppo, was allegedly killed by a Coalition strike according to sources. Fatima was said to be the daughter of Hasan Al Steif, and the family had been displaced from the town of Al Safira, in Aleppo province, to Raqaa.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Fatma Hasan Steif (via al Safira News)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

No publicly-reported Coalituion strike between September 19th-21st appeared to match this event.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI214

Incident date

April 3, 2016

Location

حي الجري, Hit, Jerri and Amina, Anbar, Iraq

Geolocation

33.638333, 42.822778 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Locals reported that eight civilians died after the Coalition or Iraq government aircraft struck the Jerri and Amina neighbourhoods of Hit. The Coalition has denied responsibility.

Among those killed was a family of six: a Facebook tribute page noted: “This is a picture of the martyr Riad Ahmed Rzeyk, who was forced out of his house in the Railway Quarter by Daash, and so moved to the Aminah neighbourhood. There his house was bombed by mistake which led to his martyrdom and that of his four children and his wife.”

While most blamed the US-led Coalition, Iraqi Spring instead blamed “the air force” – possibly a reference to the Iraqi military.

Multiple sources published eight victim names.

In its July 2017 monthly casualty report, the Coalition classed the event as non credible on grounds of having conducted no strikes in the near vicinity: “April 3, 2016, near Hit, Iraq, via Airwars report: After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographic area that corresponds to the report of civilian casualties.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (6)

  • Riad Ahmed Rzeyk Adult (via Hiet News al-Hadath) killed
  • wife Raghad Adult (via Hiet News al-Hadath) killed
  • Child 1 Child (via Hiet News al-Hadath) killed
  • Child 2 Child (via Hiet News al-Hadath) killed
  • Child 3 Child (via Hiet News al-Hadath) killed
  • Child 4 Child (via Hiet News al-Hadath) killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    8
  • (4 children1 woman2–3 men)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • A picture of the victims who were killed after al alleged Coalition or Iraq government airstrike on the Jerri and Amina neighbourhoods of Hit, April 3rd (via Heet al-Hadath News).

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Hit, Iraq
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jul 7, 2017
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographic area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For April 2nd-3rd 2016, the Coalition reported: “Near Hit, two strikes struck an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed an ISIL used-bridge, an ISIL VBIED factory, 22 ISIL boats, and an ISIL bed down location and denied ISIL access to terrain.”

Iraq government forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iraq government forces
  • Iraq government forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    8
  • (4 children1 woman2–3 men)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI304

Incident date

October 22, 2016

Location

بخديدا (Bakhdida), Qaraqosh, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.27093, 43.37758 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

The Coalition announced in December 2016 it was conducting an assessment of a possible civilian casualty event: Currently, three reports received in October are still being assessed… Oct. 22, 2016, near Qaraqosh and Hasana, Iraq.

On January 2nd 2017 a new Coalition report noted: No Coalition strikes were conducted on structures in the geographic area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties. A senior Coalition official later told Airwars that the allegation had been “Based on Russian social media and Russian MinDef accusations.

However local reporting at the time said that Coalition airstrikes were conducted at Qaraqosh in support of ISF ground operations.

Given reported British actions in the area that day, Airwars flagged the incident to the UK’s MoD which said we can confirm that there was no UK involvement in the event. However given that RAF strikes were reported in Qaraqosh, Airwars has requested further clarification.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–1
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, US-led Coalition

Sources (5) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Qaraqosh and Hasana, Iraq
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jan 2, 2017
  • No Coalition strikes were conducted on structures in the geographic area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For October 22nd 2016, the Coalition reported at the time that “Near Kisik, one strike damaged an ISIL tunnel. Near Mosul, four strikes engaged five ISIL tactical units, 12 staging areas, six mortar systems, a rocket position and a heavy machine gun; destroyed 21 fighting positions, 10 mortar systems, eight vehicles, eight command and control nodes, seven ISIL-held buildings, five bunkers, four anti-aircraft guns, four artillery systems, three tunnels, three VBIEDs, two supply caches, two heavy machine guns, a VBIED facility and a front end loader; and damaged three VBIEDs, two tunnels, a fighting position, a repeater tower and a vehicle.”

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–1
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, US-led Coalition

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI379

Incident date

December 29, 2016

Location

الموصل‎, Mosul, East, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.368483, 43.184281 Note: The accuracy of this location is to level. marker Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local sources said that up to 41 civilians died and a further 143 were injured following alleged Coalition airstrikes on eastern Mosul neighbourhoods in support of a renewed push to capture the city from ISIL.

Iraqi Spring placed the death toll at 41, while MNN said at least 30 died.

In its February 2017 civilian casualty report, the Coalition noted two events for December 29th – one of which had been dismissed, the other still under investigation. An official confirmed to Airwars on February 16th 2017 that this event had been assessed as not credible.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    30–41
  • Civilians reported injured
    143
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For December 28th-29th 2016, the Coalition reported that “Near Mosul, three strikes engaged an ISIL tactical unit; destroyed seven front-end loaders, four command and control nodes, two land bridges, a VBIED factory, a vehicle, and a steam roller; and damaged 24 supply routes.”

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    30–41
  • Civilians reported injured
    143
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS468 RS1875

Incident date

January 31, 2017

Location

صبيخان, Sbeikhan, Deir Ezzor, Syria

Geolocation

34.85305, 40.59987 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A civilian guard was killed in an air raid on an asphalt plant or nearby oil facility by unidentified aircraft. The Coalition has confirmed striking oil installations in the area that day, although some sources blamed Russia.

According to multiple reports at least two civilians were also injured in the incident. Asharqiya reported, Mr al Khairi was a civilian guard.

In comments attached to a report by Boukamalna, locals said the civilian died when an asphalt plant attached to the facility was struck. Most reports specified only unspecified aircraft. Boukamalna said the Coalition was responsible – while according to Baladi News, “warplanes believed to be Russian and regime” took part.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1–2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (22) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Sbeikhan (Al Mayadin), Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    1 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SFU4625757914
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Sep 29, 2017
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For January 30th-31st the Coalition stated: “Near Dayr Az Zawr, three strikes destroyed 10 oil drums, two oil storage tanks and an oil wellhead.“

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any specific strikes between January 1st – 31st 2017.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1–2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI508

Incident date

March 4, 2017

Location

حي المطاحن, Mosul, Al-Matahin / Mills, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.3380482, 43.0899453 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Local sources said that up to 40 civilians were killed and more than 76 injured, mostly children and women, in Coalition airstrikes on the Station, Mills and Fatah neighborhoods at the right side of Mosul.

While Iraqi Spring Media Center blamed the US for carrying out the raids (and posted several graphic images of children allegedly killed) Yaqein said Iraqi government forces were responsible.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    36–40
  • (7 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    76–84
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (6) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Victims of the alleged attack (via Iraqi Spring)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Another victim of the alleged attack (via Iraqi Spring)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A man allegedly injured in the attack (via Iraqi Spring)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Another victim of the alleged attack (via Iraqi Spring)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Another victim of the alleged attack (via Iraqi Spring)
  • Aftermath of the alleged attack (via Iraqi Spring)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For March 3rd-March 4th the Coalition publicly stated: “Near Mosul, three strikes engaged an ISIS tactical unit and an ISIS staging area; destroyed 21 mortar systems, 13 fighting positions, five heavy machine guns, four medium machine guns, and an ISIS headquarters; and damaged five supply routes.”

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    36–40
  • (7 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    76–84
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (11) [ collapse]