Russian Military in Syria

A Russian combat aircraft at Khmeimim airbase in Syria being prepared for action. (Russian Ministry of Defence)

Belligerent
Russian Military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident date

Incident Code

RS4509

LOCATION

كنصفرة, Kansafra, Idlib, Syria

Between one and three civilians were injured in alleged Russian or regime artillery strikes on the town of Kansafra on July 7, 2020. A tweet from @BelalBayoush90 reported that three civilians were injured by heavy artillery and rocket launcher attacks on the town of Kansafra, attributing the attack to the regime while @thawrat111 identified two

Summary

First published
July 7, 2020
Last updated
March 1, 2022
Strike status
Contested strike
Strike type
Airstrike and/or Artillery
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
1–3
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

Incident Code

R4456

LOCATION

الباره, Al Bara, Idlib, Syria

A woman was injured in an alleged missile strike by Russian or Syrian regime forces in the Al Bara district in Jabal Al Zawiya in southern Idlib on August 6th, 2022. The woman’s injuries were not specified though @RadioAlKul tweeted that she was “slightly injured” whereas all other sources reported that she was injured without

Summary

First published
August 6, 2022
Last updated
August 30, 2022
Strike status
Contested strike
Strike type
Airstrike and/or Artillery
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
1
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Syrian Regime, Russian Military
View Incident

Incident date

Incident Code

R4362

LOCATION

تديل, Tadel, Aleppo, Syria

At least one civilian was injured in alleged Russian or regime shelling of Tadel on August 1, 2021. According to @Ahmad_1alshble, “a civilian was injured by shelling by Assad’s gangs that targeted residential houses and agricultural lands in the town of Tadel”. A tweet from @rdwanalshhwan identified the civilian injured as a “young man”. Syria TV

Summary

First published
August 1, 2021
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Strike status
Contested strike
Strike type
Artillery
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
1
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerent
Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

September 30, 2015

Incident Code

RS001

LOCATION

الزعفرانة, Za`faranah, Homs, Syria

Fifteen non-combatants were reported killed at the village of Za`faranah in Russia’s first wave of airstrikes in support of the Syrian regime. According to the Syrian state-run news agency SANA, Russian warplanes targeted “ISIS dens” in al-Rastan, Talbiseh and Zafaraniya in Homs province; Al-Tilol al-Hmer, in Qunaitra province; Aydoun, a village on the outskirts of

Summary

First published
September 30, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Strike type
Airstrike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
15
(2 children5 women3 men)
Civilians reported injured
46
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
Named victims
8 named
View Incident

Incident date

September 30, 2015

Incident Code

RS002

LOCATION

تلبيسة, Talbisah, Homs, Syria

Up to 18 non-combatants were reported killed at Talbiseh by Russian aircraft in their first day of bombing in Syria. Paramedic Omar Al Daqa, based at one of Talbiseh’s field hospitals, told VDC: “Around 10am, Russian warplanes launched several fierce airstrikes, targeting a number of neighbourhoods with vacuum missiles, including: Karameh, Bareed and Mashjer streets,

Summary

First published
September 30, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Strike type
Airstrike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
17 – 18
(4–5 children2 women12 men)
Civilians reported injured
65–72
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
Named victims
18 named
View Incident

Incident date

September 30, 2015

Incident Code

RS003

LOCATION

الرستن‬, Ar-Rastan, Homs, Syria

According to SN4HR, Russian actions reportedly killed eight or more civilians – including four children, most from one family – in a further series of strikes as part of the Kremlin’s first day of military action in Syria. VDC placed the toll at 11 civilian deaths, with its local contact reporting: “Russian warplanes, likely Sukhoi

Summary

First published
September 30, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
8 – 11
(5 children2 men)
Civilians reported injured
40–50
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
Named victims
6 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

September 30, 2015

Incident Code

RS004

LOCATION

المكرمية, Al Makrmeya, Homs, Syria

The Syrian Network for Human Rights, reported that a Russian airstrike at Al Makrmeya had killed a non-combatant. No other details were given. VDC named an adult male civilian from Makrameih as having been killed by alleged Russian strikes. They also published a graphic photo of his body.  

Summary

First published
September 30, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 man)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

September 30, 2015

Incident Code

RS005

LOCATION

جسر الشغور, Jisr al Shughour, Idlib, Syria

The Syrian Network for Human Rights reported that “Allegedly Russian warplanes shelled Omar Bin Al Khattab Mosque in Jisr Al Shoughour city, killed one individual and destroyed the mosque completely.” Footage showed the mosque and surrounding houses to be severely damaged, with other reports placing the death toll higher. Two videos were posted. In one,

Summary

First published
September 30, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2 – 5
(1 child1 man)
Civilians reported injured
6–8
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Russian Military
Named victims
2 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 1, 2015

Incident Code

RS006

LOCATION

الهبيط, Al Habeet, Idlib, Syria

Up to five civilians including one or two children were reported killed in an alleged Russian airstrike at Al Habeet. The 9pm attack was said to involve high-explosive rockets, and three of the the dead, two men and a child were later named. Another child may also have died in the incident according to some

Summary

First published
October 1, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3 – 4
(1–2 children2 men)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
Named victims
4 named, 2 families identified
View Incident

Incident date

October 1, 2015

Incident Code

RS007

LOCATION

بليون‎, Belyon, Idlib, Syria

Alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Belyon, near Jabal al Zawiyah in southern Idlib, reportedly killed four civilians including a woman and child. ‘Several others’ were said to have been injured in the attack, some seriously. SN4HR placed the civilian slightly higher at six deaths, noting that “the town is under the control of

Summary

First published
October 1, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
4 – 6
(1 child1–2 women)
Civilians reported injured
8
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
View Incident

Incident date

October 2, 2015

Incident Code

RS008

LOCATION

الباب, Al-Bab, Aleppo, Syria

At least 19 civilians and as many as 80 – including children and women – were reported killed in alleged Russian airstrikes on Al Bab. According to al Jazeera – which placed the death toll as high as 80 with 200 injured – the attacks were carried out by helicopters, most likely Russian Hind-24 gunships. According

Summary

First published
October 2, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
19 – 80
(2 children1 woman)
Civilians reported injured
200
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

October 2, 2015

Incident Code

RS009

LOCATION

تادف, Tadif, Aleppo, Syria

Intense bombardment was reported on the 2nd of October 2016 in and around the province of Aleppo.  In the town of Tadef two people were reported to have been killed as a result raids that were widely blamed on Russia. Only one source, Sada Islamic, blamed the coalition for the strikes publishing photos of the

Summary

First published
October 2, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1 – 2
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, US-led Coalition
View Incident

Incident date

October 2, 2015

Incident Code

RS010

LOCATION

دير حافر‎, Dayr Hafir, Aleppo, Syria

Six civilians including three children were reported killed in alleged Russian airstrikes on Dayr Hafir. According to the Syrian Network for Human Rights, ten civilians were also injured when the attack struck the local market. Al Jazeera placed the death toll at 25 while Shaam Network said that 20 were killed. There were some local

Summary

First published
October 2, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
6 – 25
(3 children)
Civilians reported injured
10
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Unknown, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

October 2, 2015

Incident Code

RS011

LOCATION

اللطامنة, Al-Latamnah, Hama, Syria

An alleged Russian airstrike on a field hospital at Al-Latamnah resulted in injuries to a number of medics and severe damage to the building, according to the Syrian Observatory. Although the Syrian Network for Human Rights described the attack as the work of the Syrian regime, the Russian MoD has confirmed a number of airstrikes

Summary

First published
October 2, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian infrastructure
Healthcare facility
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0
Civilians reported injured
2
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Unknown, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

October 2, 2015

Incident Code

RS012

LOCATION

مَعَرَّة النُّعْمَان, Maarat al Numan, Idlib, Syria

According to the Syrian Observatory, “Russian warplanes carried out airstrikes on several places at the town of al-Ghadqa in the countryside of Maarat al Numan in the eastern countryside of Idlib, and we have information about injuries to several people, including paramedics from the civil defence.” While no other sources reported the attack, the Russian

Summary

First published
October 2, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0
Civilians reported injured
2
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerent
Russian Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 3, 2015

Incident Code

RS013

LOCATION

إحسم, Ihsem, Idlib, Syria

Russian aircraft reportedly bombed the town of Ihsem in Idlib, killing five members of one family – four of whom were young girls. The victims were later named. The White Helmets civil defence force tried to reach the dead and injured, but were subjected to a ‘double tap’ strike which killed one of their rescuers

Summary

First published
October 3, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
6 – 11
(4 children1 woman2 men)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
Named victims
15 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

October 3, 2015

Incident Code

RS014

LOCATION

عقرب, Akrab, Hama, Syria

The Syrian Network reported that Russian warplanes attacked Akrab, a town under the control of the Free Syrian Army, in a joint attack with the Assad regime. All4Syria also reported that “regime forces tried to storm the town, in southern Hama, after several raids by Russian aviation, resulting in several casualties among civilians.“ Two rockets,

Summary

First published
October 3, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
(1 child)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Unknown, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

October 3, 2015

Incident Code

RS015

LOCATION

عقيربات, Akeerbat, Hama, Syria

A reported airstrike on the sheep market at Akeerbat village killed six civilians, including a child. While some blamed Russia, others such as the Syrian Network initially held the Syrian regime responsible. Five victims were later named.

Summary

First published
October 3, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
6
(1 child4 men)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Unknown, Syrian Regime
Named victims
5 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 4, 2015

Incident Code

RS016

LOCATION

جسر الشغور, Jisr al Shughour, Idlib, Syria

Russian aircraft returned to the attack at Jisr al Shughour, with the Kremlin carrying out strikes which it said targeted ‘uninhabited‘ militant storage depots, an all-terrain vehicle workshop, and a base. There were some reports that Syrian aircraft also participated in the attacks. According to the Syrian Network at least one of the strikes hit

Summary

First published
October 4, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

October 4, 2015

Incident Code

RS017

LOCATION

غرناطة, Gharnata, Homs, Syria

Two civilians were reported killed following an airstrike on Gharnata near Talbiseh city, in Homs governorate. While some sources attributed the attack to Russian aircraft, the Assad regime also reported carrying out strikes in the vicinity, with state news agency SANA reporting that “the Air Force destroyed nests and mechanisms for terrorist organizations… in the

Summary

First published
October 4, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
(1 man)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Unknown, Syrian Regime
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 4, 2015

Incident Code

RS018

LOCATION

أم شرشوح, Umm Sharshuh, Homs, Syria

An alleged Russian raid killed up to three civilians at Umm Sharshuh, a town near Al Rastan. The Syrian Network cited local activist Abu Baraa Al Homsi: “Russian warplanes launched a number of air-strikes on Garnata and Umm Sharshuh. The strikes targeted civilian targets as usual. A number of individuals were killed and injured.” The

Summary

First published
October 4, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1 – 3
Civilians reported injured
2–24
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
View Incident

Incident date

October 5, 2015

Incident Code

RS019

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

At least six and as many as 17 civilians were reported killed in afternoon airstrikes – reportedly by Russian jets – on the ISIL-occupied city of Al Bab near Aleppo. According to Qasioun the strikes hit “a popular food market in the city, resulting in mass civilian casualties, and the burning of several cars and

Summary

First published
October 5, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
6 – 17
Civilians reported injured
20–30
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
View Incident

Incident date

October 6, 2015

Incident Code

RS020 CS133

LOCATION

عندان, Anadan, Aleppo, Syria

Two children and a 46 year old male were reported killed during four alleged Russian strikes in the evening on Anadan. Another man was also named as a victim by VDC. Eyewitnesses described at least one secondary, or ‘double tap’ strike. A local medic told Qassioun: “Between the afternoon and evening Russian planes carried out intensive

Summary

First published
October 6, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3
(2 children2 men)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, US-led Coalition
Named victims
4 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 6, 2015

Incident Code

RS021 CS134

LOCATION

تدمر, Palmyra, Homs, Syria

According to the Syrian Observatory, “preliminary information reported the death of civilians – including women and children – in the bombing by Russian warplanes on areas at the eastern outskirts of Palmyra city which is controlled by the ‘Islamic State’.” According to most sources, between 12 and 14 members of two Bedouin families died, including

Summary

First published
October 6, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
12 – 15
(5 children4 women)
Civilians reported injured
2
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, US-led Coalition
View Incident

Incident date

October 6, 2015

Incident Code

RS022

LOCATION

القريتين, Al Qaryatayn, Homs, Syria

The Syrian Observatory reported an unspecified number of casualties from an alleged Russian strike at Qarayatain, a town to the south west of Palmyra. Qasioun also reported that “a raid by fighters of the Russian Air Force on Tuesday afternoon led to deaths and injuries among civilians, some serious, as well as widespread destruction of

Summary

First published
October 6, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0
Civilians reported injured
2
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerent
Russian Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 7, 2015

Incident Code

RS023

LOCATION

جبل الزاوية, Jabal al Zawiya, Idlib, Syria

According to the Syrian Observatory, Russian aircraft targeted a number of locations in Idlib governorate on October 7th including “Khan Shekhon, al-Tama’a, and al-Habeet in the southern countryside of Idlib, and other areas of Ehsim and al-Bara in the Zawyia mount [area].” As many as 10 non-combatants may have died at five different locations. However

Summary

First published
October 7, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3 – 9
(1 child1 woman2 men)
Civilians reported injured
10
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Unknown, Syrian Regime
Named victims
3 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 7, 2015

Incident Code

RS024

LOCATION

معصران, Ma'asaran, Idlib, Syria

An alleged Russian airstrike killed seven civilians at Ma’asaran in Idlib governorate. Most of those who died were from one family. A neighbour told Smart News: “This is my house, I arrived and I found everyone OK. But our neighbours? May God have mercy on them. I went to pray and then went to the

Summary

First published
October 7, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
6 – 7
(2 children2–3 women1 man)
Civilians reported injured
12
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Russian Military
Named victims
5 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 7, 2015

Incident Code

RS025

LOCATION

دارة عزة, Darat Izza, Aleppo, Syria

A mother and her two children were killed along with another woman in a suspected Russian cruise missile strike on the town of Darat Izza. Amnesty International later reported: “More than six residential buildings with at least a dozen homes were destroyed by the attack according to an eyewitness interviewed by Amnesty International as well

Summary

First published
October 7, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
4 – 5
(2 children2 women)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Unknown
Named victims
5 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

October 7, 2015

Incident Code

RS026

LOCATION

بابيلا, Babilla, Hama, Syria

A father and his three children were among those reported killed in an alleged Russian airstrike on Babilla, along with four other children, three of whom were named by the Syrian Network for Human Rights. Eyewitness Moustafa Ghareeb told the Syrian Network: “The Russian shelling occurred 7 kilometres away from Marat Al Nu’man, at Babilla

Summary

First published
October 7, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
4 – 9
(4–7 children1 man)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Russian Military
Named victims
3 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 8, 2015

Incident Code

RS027

LOCATION

خان شيخون, Khan Shaykhun, Idlib, Syria

According to reports two civilians – a man and a woman – died in a Russian airstrike at Khan Shaykhun, with other victims left in critical condition. SNN News described the attack as “a terrible massacre of civilians,” with footage showing a devastated civilian neighbourhood. And Al Jazeera aired frantic scenes as White Helmets tried

Summary

First published
October 8, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
(1 woman1 man)
Civilians reported injured
11
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
Named victims
2 named
View Incident