Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Confirmed
Fair
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

TS474

Incident date

September 17, 2021

Location

قرية الدبس, Al Dabas village, Raqqa, Syria

Airwars assessment

At least four civilians, including a child, were killed and up to three others were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al Dabas on September 17, 2021.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), four people, including a child, were killed by Turkish missile shells while digging tunnels for the Syrian Democratic Forces in the village of Al Dabas. SOHR had originally reported that two people were killed and three people were injured but later updated their death toll.

Al Monitor reported that trenches and tunnels for the Syrian Democratic Forces are dug by “civilians who receive a daily wage of $3 to $5 without medical insurance”.

North Press Agency reported that four civilians were killed in the strikes and according to a medical source, “Turkish forces’ drones targeted a car carrying four civilians heading towards the town of Ain Issa. The source added that the four civilians lost their lives immediately.”

Sputnik News also identified four civilians as being killed in intense Turkish bombardment and provided their names: Malik Al-Muharib Al-Hamid, 25 years old, Idan Hamad Al-Amiri, 40 years old, Hamad Al-Khunais Al-Jarbou’, 20 years old, and Khamis Al-Busaili, 17 years old.

Zaman Al Wasl provided information from the “Hawar” agency, a spokesman for the Democratic Union Party, that in addition to the four people that were killed, three others were injured.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured around dawn.

  • Malik Al-Muharib Al-Hamid 25 years old killed
  • Idan Hamad Al-Amiri 40 years old killed
  • Hamad Al-Khunais Al-Jarbou’ 20 years old killed
  • Khamis Al-Busaili 17 years old killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI071

Incident date

September 7–8, 2021

Location

قرية سناموك, Sinamoka village, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Up to two civilians were killed and up to two others were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes on the village of Sinamoka on September 7, 2021.

According to Roj News, two civilians were injured in the Turkish bombing of the village of Sinamoka that involved three airstrikes. Baghdad concurred that two civilians were wounded.

Basnews initially reported that two civilians were injured but later stated that two civilians were killed in the strikes on Sinamoka. Mayor Nahro Abdullah told BasNews that the airstrikes occurred around 1:30am and that Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) fighters were in the area.

In addition to the civilian casualties, the bombing resulted in damage to civilian property.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the airstrikes to Turkey.

The incident occured at approximately 1:30 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS473

Incident date

September 6, 2021

Location

قرية الخالدية, Al Khalidiya village, Raqqa, Syria

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian, a young man, was injured in alleged Turkish bombing of the village of Al-Khalidiya on September 6, 2021.

According to North Press Agency (NPA), a 28 year old man named Yasser Youssef Hajo was injured by shrapnel when Turkish forces bombed the village of Al-Khalidiya. A medical source in Ain Issa Town Hospital, whether the man was treated, told NPA that the injured man may ned surgery.

Both Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and Ronahi TV also reported that one civilian was wounded in the bombing of Al-Khalidiya and both attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    28 year old Yasser Youssef Hajo was injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Khalidiya on September 6, 2021. (Image posted by Ronahi TV)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI070

Incident date

September 4, 2021

Location

قرية هرور, Hirrur, Dohuk, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Up to three civilians, including two women, were reported injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling on Hirrur on September 4th 2021. There were some claims that chemical weapons featured in the attack.

A resident of the village of Hirrur told IQ News, “Turkish artillery bombed our village this evening, as a result of which a woman and her daughter were wounded, and they were taken to the hospital for treatment.” Various other news outlets quoted the same source and reported the same information.

ANF News reported that three civilians were injured when an artillery shell landed near their home and that the injured were transferred to Zakho Hospital.

ANF News later added that Turkish forces also used chemical weapons during the bombardment. Those affected by the chemicals “had shortness of breath, redness in their eyes and an irregular heartbeat.” According local sources reported on ANF News, Turkey has been using chemical weapons in the Werxelê area and a video posted by ANF shows chemical gas coming out of a tunnel following an attack.

According to Rudaw News, Turkish forces dropped six bombs and they landed nearly a kilometer from Abdullah Hassan’s house. Hassan, his wife Hadiya Mustafa, and their daughter Zhiman were hospitalized two hours after smoke from the bombs reached their house.

“A Turkish bomb brought this to me. Smoke came towards me and I said ‘go inside as this smoke stinks.’ I went into the house,” Mustafa, 66, told Rudaw. Adeeb Mousa, who lives in the same village, said that six bombs landed in the vicinity of the village and one of them “produced a black smoke” that spread to Hassan’s house. The others emitted a yellow smoke. Hassan was discharged from the hospital a day after the attack while his wife and daughter were discharged two days after the attack.

This was not the first time that Haasan and his family have been impacted by the conflict. They narrowly survived an alleged Turkish bombardment in late June when shrapnel hit the front of their house.

Dr. Rasul Mohammed, the doctor who provided them with first aid at the nearby Rozana health center told Rudaw that the family’s symptoms were that “They had breathing issues. Their eyes teared up and were painful. Two of them felt nauseous and dizzy. It was strange to me to see that a bombardment could cause these symptoms.” Amir Ali, head of Zakho health directorate’s media office, said that he was in touch with the specialists regarding the incident, but that “there is no equipment to know whether it was 100 percent a poisonous gas or something else.”

All of the sources attributed the attack to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

  • Abdullah Hassan 76 years old male injured
  • Hadiya Mustafa Adult female injured
  • Zhiman 28 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Image of Hadiya Mustafa being treated at a hospital following an alleged chemical attack on the village of Hirrur on September 4, 2021. (Image posted by Rudaw News)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI068

Incident date

September 2, 2021

Location

قرية سيدان, Sidan village, Dohuk, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Between two and three civilians were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Sidan village on September 2, 2021.

Amedi Mayor Warshin Salman told BasNews that two civilians were wounded in Turkish fighter jets and ground artillery bombardment of Sidan village. At the time of reporting, both of the wounded civilians were in a stable health condition.

A security source told Mawazine News that the Turkish bombing resulted in the injury of three civilians.

Alyaum TV reported that two civilians, Haji Abdullah, aged fifty-five, and Saber Omar, forty-five, were wounded in the strikes. Xeber24 added that both Haji and Saber were injured on their farms and were transferred to the city’s hospital for treatment.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI069

Incident date

September 2, 2021

Location

قرية باريي, Bari village, Mosul, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least three people were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Bari village on September 2, 2021.

Security sources told Shafaq News Agency that “Turkish aircraft bombed the headquarters of the Asayish Yazidkhan forces, west of Mount Sinjar” and that the targeted location was close to a site of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). However, another security source told Shafaq News agency that three civilians were seriously injured in the attack.

Alyaum TV quoted a local source as saying that Turkish warplanes bombed different areas in Sinjar district, injuring three people.

BasNews also reported that Turkish warplanes targeted a facility and vehicle belonging to the PKK-affiliated armed groups but did not know the number of injuries that resulted.

Several local media sites also told Xeber24 that a Turkish drone bombed one of the points of the Asayish Ezidkhan in the village of Bariya, affiliated to the city of Şengal but as a result of the intensity of the bombing and the flight of Turkish aircraft, they were unable to know the extent of human losses and material damage.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS472

Incident date

August 23, 2021

Location

قرية الدردارة, al-Dardarah village, Hassakah, Syria

Airwars assessment

At least two civilians, including a woman, were injured in alleged Turkish shelling of al-Dardarah village on August 23, 2021.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “a young man and a woman were injured due to Turkish bombardment on al-Dardarah village”.

Nabd News provided the names of the civilians injured: Amena Al Faris (21 years), and Khidr al-Fars (39 years)”.

In addition to the injuries, houses in the village sustained material damage.

Nabd News added that the two civilians were “lightly wounded” and that their health condition was stable following treatment and discharge from the hospital they were being treated at, the Martyr Legarin Hospital in the town of Tel Tamr.

All of the sources attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured in the evening.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI065

Incident date

August 17, 2021

Location

قرية سكينة, Medical center in the village of Sakina, Nineveh, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least eight people were killed, including four members of the medical staff at a hospital and four fighters of the Sinjar Resistance Units who were receiving treatment at  a hospital, and four others were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Al-Askiniyah Hospital in the village of Sakina in Sinjar district on August 17, 2021.

Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê published that “according to the statement of the Autonomous Administration Council in Sinjar, the attack resulted in the death of at least 8 people and the injury of 4 others. Among the martyrs were 4 fighters of the Sinjar Resistance Units who were receiving treatment in the hospital, in addition to the martyrdom of 4 members of the medical staff in the hospital who were serving the Yazidi community.” An image posted on Facebook shows that a baby was among those injured.

The names of those killed in the bombing are: Hamid Saadoun (Qiran Siba), a fighter of the Sinjar Resistance Units; Khader Sharaf (Bir Khader), a fighter of the Sinjar Resistance Units; Rami Al-Salem (Ronny), a fighter of the Sinjar Resistance Units, from the Arab component of the people of the Ba’aj region; Maytum Khader Khalaf (Sarhad Zammar), a fighter of the Sinjar Resistance Units; Ali Rasho Khader, from the medical staff; Saadu Elias Rasho, from the medical staff; Hajji Khader, from the medical staff; Mukhlisat Sidar, from the medical staff.

A report from the PKK identified Mukhlisat Sidar as being a doctor in the medical facility and added that he “had come to Sinjar in  2014 as a medical volunteer from North Kurdistan (southeast Turkey) to help provide medical  treatment for the local population during the IS attacks.”

An activist from Singer told Independent Arabia that “today’s operation came to complete the attack launched by Turkish planes yesterday in Sinjar, which killed three people from the Sinjar Protection Units and wounded two others.” The activist added that the two wounded, one of whom is a leader of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, were taken to this hospital for treatment.

A statement from the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) pointed out that the initial strike was against “an Ezidi diplomatic delegation on its way to a meeting with Iraqi government officials on August 16”.  The reported added that “five members of a diplomatic delegation representing our  Democratic Autonomous Council of Sinjar (MXDŞ) were targeted by a Turkish air strike while  driving through the center of Sinjar city. Two members of the delegation, Seîd Hesen and Îsa  Xwedêda, were killed in the attack while Medya Qasim Simo, Şamir Abbas Berces and Mîrza  Alî were wounded.”

An Iraqi security source told Al-Ain News that “Turkish warplanes bombed this afternoon the military hospital of the Sinjar Protection Forces, which is located in the village of Al-Sakina, south of the district, in Nineveh Governorate. The Turkish aircraft deliberately targeted the building and made any attempts to evacuate those sleeping in it.”

According to the PKK report, the hospital that was bombed had been treating many civilian patients, including COVID patients, at the time of the attack and that “the hospital in the village of Sikêniyê – a former school building – had been established in  2016 after the liberation of the village by the Kurdish guerrilla and YBŞ/YJŞ forces. Ever since,  it had been run solely with the resources provided by the local population and the MXDŞ. It  had been used both by the civilian population of Sinjar and members of the YBŞ/YJŞ”.

“The hospital was subjected to three raids with drones that destroyed the entire building,” said Jalal Khalaf Basso, deputy mayor of Sinjar, to Agence France-Presse. A report from the PKK recalled that “after the first air strike had hit the hospital and  had wounded several people, civilians and Iraqi soldiers from a nearby military base who were  rushing to the scene to help were targeted by three more air strikes.”. All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured in the afternoon.

  • Hamid Saadoun (Qiran Siba) Age unknown male a fighter of the Shingal Resistance Units killed
  • Khader Sharaf (Bir Khader) Age unknown male a fighter of the Shingal Resistance Units killed
  • Rami Al-Salem (Ronny) Age unknown male a fighter of the Shingal Resistance Units, from the Arab component of the people of the Ba’aj region. killed
  • Maytum Khader Khalaf (Sarhad Zammar) Age unknown male a fighter of the Shingal Resistance Units killed
  • Ali Rasho Khader Age unknown from the medical staff killed
  • Saadu Elias Rasho Age unknown from the medical staff killed
  • Hajji Khader, Age unknown from the medical staff killed
  • Mukhlisat Sidar Age unknown from the medical staff killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Iraqi militias (PMUs)

Sources (21) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (11) [ collapse]

  • Victims of the bombing of a medical center in the village of Sakina (Image posted by ANF)
  • Image of Hamed Saadoun (with his wife), who was killed in alleged Turkish bombing of Al-Askiniyah Hospital on August 17, 2021. (Image posted by Shingal Sinjar my city on Facebook)
  • Four of the people that were killed at a medical facility on August 17, 2021. (Image posted by Shingal Sinjar my city)
  • Image of Khidr Sharaf, Ali Rasho Khidr, and Hajji Khidr, killed in strikes on a medical facility on August 17, 2021. (Image posted by Shingal Sinjar my city)
  • A baby injured in the strikes on the medical facility in the village of Sakina on August 17, 2021. (Image posted by Shingal Sinjar my city)
  • Image of Hamed Saadoun, who was killed in alleged Turkish bombing of Al-Askiniyah Hospital on August 17, 2021. (Image posted by Shingal Sinjar my city on Facebook)
  • Image of a car destroyed in the initial strikes by Turkish forces that killed three Sinjar Protection Forces personnel and injured two others. (Image posted by Shafaq News)
  • Image of a car destroyed in the initial strikes by Turkish forces that killed three Sinjar Protection Forces personnel and injured two others. (Image posted by Irq women via Facebook)
  • Hassan Saeed, commander of the 80th Brigade, was killed the day before in a strike along with two others and another two personnel were injured. The injured were receiving treatment at the hospital when the Turkish launched another strike and killed four military personnel. (Image posted by Murad Sheikh Kalou)
  • Image of a car destroyed in the initial strikes by Turkish forces that killed three Sinjar Protection Forces personnel and injured two others. (Image posted by Kurdistan Workers' Party)
  • Before and after photos of the Mt. Shengal clinic that was allegedly bombed by Turkish forces on August 17, 2021.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Iraqi militias (PMUs)

Sources (21) [ collapse]