Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

TS029

Incident date

December 22, 2016

Location

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.371972, 37.51631 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Between 23 and 94 civilians were killed in an alleged Turkish airstrike on Al Bab, Syria, according to local media.

Al Jazeera reported the lowest death toll at 20 and refered to the ISIS media agency Al A’amaq as the source. Later Al A’amaq itself said the toll rose to 50.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights described “The death of 23 civilians because of Euphrates Shield forces missiles and shells fired on Al Bab city in Aleppo governorate suburbs, December 22, SNHR yet unable to verify the news, 2016.”

7al said 32 civilians died in the attack, whereas Russia Today reported 72 people dead.

Al Bab News posted on Facebook that “nearly 18 members of the al Shalash family, most of them women and children, killed following Turkish bombardment on al Bab.”

Halab News gave the highest death count at 91 and named many of the victims. Al Bab News reported the same names and said 45 more people were injured.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (6)

  • Jaafar Omar Ne'ma Adult male killed
  • Wife of Jaafar Omar Ne'ma Adult female killed
  • Child of Jaafar Omar Ne'ma Child killed
  • Child of Jaafar Omar Ne'ma Child killed
  • Child of Jaafar Omar Ne'ma Child killed
  • Child of Jaafar Omar Ne'ma Child killed

Family members (19)

  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Unknown victim from the Asfour family Adult killed
  • Ahmed Hussein Al-Asfour Adult male killed
  • Wife of Ahmed Hussein Al-Asfour Adult female killed
  • Son of Ahmed Hussein al-Asfour Child male killed
  • Son of Ahmed Hussein al-Asfour Child male killed
  • Daughter of Ahmed Hussein al-Asfour Child female killed
  • Daughter of Ahmed Hussein al-Asfour Child female killed

Family members (6)

  • Member of the Abo family Adult female killed
  • Member of the Abo family Adult male killed
  • Child from the Abo family Child killed
  • Child from the Abo family Child killed
  • Child from the Abo family Child killed
  • Child from the Abo family Child killed

Family members (2)

  • Member of the Fadel Sabbagh family Adult killed
  • Member of the Fadel Sabbagh family Adult killed

Family members (28)

  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed
  • Member of the Shalash family Adult killed

Family members (3)

  • Member of the Kazakaz family Adult killed
  • Member of the Kazakaz family Adult killed
  • Member of the Kazakaz family Adult killed

Family members (11)

  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family Adult killed
  • Member of the Naunu family killed

Family members (6)

  • Member of the Ghazal family Adult killed
  • Member of the Ghazal family Adult killed
  • Member of the Ghazal family Adult killed
  • Member of the Ghazal family Adult killed
  • Member of the Ghazal family Adult killed
  • Member of the Ghazal family Adult killed

Family members (2)

  • Mustafa Mahmoud al-Sukkar Adult male killed
  • Wife of Mustafa Mahmoud al-Sukkar Adult female killed

Family members (4)

  • Jafar Bertawi Adult male killed
  • Wife of Jafar Bertawi Adult female killed
  • Mohamed Jaafar Bertawi Child male killed
  • Fatima Jafar Bertawi Child female killed

Family members (4)

  • Mahmood al-Naama Adult male killed
  • Wife of Mahmood al-Naama Adult female killed
  • Mahmud al-Naama Child male killed
  • Yusuf Mahmud al-Naama Child male killed
  • Member of the al-Uday family Adult female killed
  • Child from the village of Qarodi Child killed
  • Ibrahim Qabalawi Adult male killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    23 – 94
  • (16 children9 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    45
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (26) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Some of the victims of the mass civilian causality incident in Al Bab, Aleppo on 22nd December 2016. (via Aleppo 24)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    23 – 94
  • (16 children9 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    45
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (26) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS088

Incident date

July 10, 2017

Location

أحرص , Ihress, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.484167, 36.398889 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

According to Rumaf, “a whole family was seriously injured by the indiscriminate Turkish shelling of the residents of Ihress village. They were also transferred to the hospital.”

YPG Press reported: “The Turkish occupation army and its mercenaries also attacked the liberated villages in al-Shahba areas. Names of the villages are Tal Rifat, Harbal, Sheikh Issa, Ahras, Tal Madiq, Om Housh, Om al-Qura, al-Shahabiyah, Ayn Daqneh, Minag and Kafrantone. Here the occupiers used shells, missiles and heavy weapons on civilians’ houses on Monday [July 10th]. The assault resulted in killing 2 civilians and wounding other 8 civilians. among them children.” The source published an image of a boy who was missing one leg – though he was not named and it’s unclear in which location he was wounded.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

  • Musa Hassan Adult male injured
  • his wife Jihan Kusa Adult female injured
  • daughter 10 years old female injured

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS416 TS024

Incident date

December 16, 2016

Location

الباب, Al-Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.371972, 37.51631 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Between eleven and 15 civilians were reported killed in a Turkish (or less likely Coalition) action at al Bab.

According to LCCSY eleven civilians died, “most of them killed in Coalition raids on al Bab.”However, the source had consistently denied civilian harm from Turkish actions during the al-Bab campaign.

Al Bab News reported “more than 15 dead most of them women and children and dozens injured as a result of the bombardment on al Bab yesterday. There are families still under the rubble and the rescue operations are underway.”

However ISIS’s media wing reported “intense raids with more than 15 Turkish air raids and 180 shells falling on al Bab in the Aleppo countryside since dawn today.” And the Syrian Observatory reported that “Turkish warplanes bombed areas on the outskirts of al-Bab city which is under the control of the “Islamic State” northeast of Aleppo province, amid clashes in several places in the area between members of the organisation against the factions of Euphrates Shield supported by Turkish forces, which caused casualties.”

The Syrian Network suggested Free Syrian Army (FSA) or Turkish artillery may also have been responsible: “Three civilians from the same family including a child died in Der’ Al Furat forces, supported by Turkish forces, artillery fired shells on Al Bab city in Aleppo governorate eastern suburbs, December 16, 2016.”

In an emailed response to a report submitted by Airwars on this and other incidents in December 2016, Coalition officials said the event was presently assessed as ‘Not credible for Coalition caused civcas.’

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    11 – 15
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Khaled Shaban reports more than 150 shells fired and 15 air raids targeting al Bab allegedly by Turkish forces and allied militias since dawn. 16th December 2016. (via Khaled Shaban)
  • Jahra online reports Turkish army declarations that they had destroyed 60 Daesh targets near al Bab amid accusations of killing civilians. 16th December 2016. (via Jahra)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Al Bab, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Aug 4, 2017
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area of the reported civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For December 15th-17th 2016 the Coalition has publicly reported no strikes in the vicinity.

France
  • English
    /
    Original

For December 14th to 20th, France reports 10 strikes: 8 in Iraq – 7 of which were in Mosul – and 2 in Syria. They reported that 16 targets were destroyed.

#Chammal : 10 frappes contre Daech en Irak et en Syrie cette semaine, 16 objectifs détruits.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    11 – 15
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS056

Incident date

January 20, 2017

Location

الباب, Al Bab city, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.371972, 37.51631 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Between three and four civilians died and up to 13 more were wounded in alleged Turkish artillery and air strikes on Al Bab, Syria, local media reported.

According to Al Bab News, there were “three dead and 11 injured in a continuous Turkish aerial and artillery bombardment of Al Bab”.

Syria News Desk gave more detail on the event. It said: “Four civilians were killed and 13 others injured this afternoon [Jan 20th] by Turkish artillery and air raids targeting residential areas in the city of Bab under the control of the Islamic State Organization in the eastern countryside of Aleppo.

The source who, refused to reveal his identity, told the Syria News Desk that the Turkish warplanes launched more than 15 raids on the sites of the organization around the city, including three raids, residential sites near the roundabout Manshiyet central Bab, killing four Civilians and wounding four others.

Nine civilians, five of them from a single family, were injured when three artillery shells fired by the Turkish army targeted residential buildings near the industrial zone to the southeast of Bab.

The source added that the artillery and aerial bombardment resulted in the destruction of two residential buildings in full, and a large destruction of four other houses, in addition to the burning of two cars and damage to a number of shops and other property.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 4
  • Civilians reported injured
    11–13
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 4
  • Civilians reported injured
    11–13
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS092

Incident date

August 29, 2017

Location

عفرين, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.511389, 36.864167 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Between six and 10 civilians including one or more child were wounded in an alleged Turkish shelling on Afrin, according to local media.

Rudaw said that “Rizan Haddu, a political writer, told them that the initial result of the shelling that targeted the neighborhoods of Afrin injured six civilians to varying degrees”.

Yekiti reported the same figures, saying “six civilians were wounded when four mortar shells hit the center of the city of Afrin in Syrian Kurdistan on Tuesday evening.”

Sputnik – also blaming Turkey – put the number of “seriously wounded” at 10, including a female child.

Rok added that two Turkish rockets hit Afrin, while Step referred to “Turkish artillery” injuring several civilians, including a 10-year-old boy.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    6–10
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A wounded civilian following an alleged Turkish mortar attack on Afrin, Aug 29th 2017. (via Rudaw)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    6–10
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS045

Incident date

January 10, 2017

Location

الباب , Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.371972, 37.51631 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Seven or eight civilians died including one child and as many as 30 more were injured in alleged Turkish air and artillery strikes on Al Bab, Syria, according to sources on the ground.

Ameer Alabaad put the death toll at six civilians with 12 more wounded – “mostly children and women” – in a “Turkish air and artillery bombardment” on Al Bab.

IS propaganda source, Al Raed La Ykazeb Ahlahu, also reported these figures and blamed Turkey. It also published graphic footage showing the aftermath of the attack.

LCCSY said that eight people had died and also pointed to Turkey.

Halab News named the victims killed by Turkish artillery in Al Bab on January 10th.

According to jabal-aqel-albab.tk, a further 30 civilians were wounded in the shelling.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Abd al Hakim Abd al Hamid al Hamdan Age unknown male named by Halab News killed
  • Yasser Zakkour al Baho Age unknown male named by Halab News killed
  • Unidentified victim Child named by Halab News killed
  • Unidentified victim Adult male named by Halab News killed
  • Abdallah Hassan Salam Al Hashem Age unknown male named by Halab News killed
  • Mohammad Ghazal Fares Age unknown male named by Halab News killed
  • The son of Mohammad al A’bo Age unknown male named by Halab News killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    7 – 8
  • (1 child1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    10–30
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • A’maq Agency: # breaking: 6 dead and 12 wounded, mostly children and women as a result of aerial bombardment and Turkish artillery on the city of Al Bab. (via ameer_albab)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    7 – 8
  • (1 child1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    10–30
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS040

Incident date

January 5, 2017

Location

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.371972, 37.51631 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Two civilians were reportedly killed in an alleged Turkish artillery shelling on Al Bab.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights wrote: “And two citizens, including a child, were killed in shelling by Turkish forces on areas in Al Bab city in the northeastern countryside of Aleppo.”

The ISIS propaganda outlet Al Raed La Ykazeb Ahlahu published a similar report and also said that 11 people were injured.

Jabal Aqel Al Bab reported that one person killed came from the Sukkar family, while the other one is a child from Al Mahdatha school. In addition, the source mentioned 15 wounded people.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Member of the Sukkar family Age unknown killed
  • Child from Al Mahdatha school Child killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    11–15
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    11–15
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS333 TS005a

Incident date

October 8, 2016

Location

دويبق, Dabiq, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.5643925, 37.2749805 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Twelve to 14 civilians, including up to seven children and five women, were killed in air raids on the village of Dabiq in Aleppo governorate, according to local reports. It was alleged that both the Coalition and Turkey were responsible.

The Syrian Network reported “at least 8 civilians died in International Coalition warplanes missiles fired on Al Dabiq village in Aleppo governorate.” Halab Today TV, citing activists, reported that 12 civilians had been killed and others injured “following the targeting by international coalition planes.”

Sky News Arabia also reported a figure of “at least” 10 civilians, which it said were from “the same family,” and it blamed the bombardment on the international coalition – as did Hara FM which added that 23 people were injured. It described raids in residential areas that destroyed five houses, which killed “eight civilians from one family, most of them children and two from a second family” and said eight people had been transferred to Al Bab due to injuries, most of them critical.

However, the Syrian Observatory assigned blame to Turkey and put the death toll at 9 members from the same family. It said the victims were “an elderly man, 3 citizen women and 5 children” and added that others were injured and the death toll was expected to rise as some were in a “critical situation.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

  • Mahmoud Fara Age unknown male killed
  • Mahmoud Fara's wife Age unknown female killed

Family members (6)

  • Sheikho Imam's wife Age unknown female killed
  • Sheikho Imam's wife Age unknown female killed
  • Sheikho Imam' child 1 Child killed
  • Sheikho Imam' child 2 Child killed
  • Sheikho Imam' child 3 Child killed
  • Sheikho Imam' child 4 Child killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    9 – 14
  • (4–7 children4–5 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    23
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For October 7th-8th 2016 the Coalition reported strikes in Aleppo governorate: “Near Mar’a, one strike damaged an ISIL VBIED facility. Near Washiyah, two strikes engaged an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed an ISIL-held building and a command and control node.”

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    9 – 14
  • (4–7 children4–5 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    23
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]