Civilian Casualties

Civilian Casualties

Belligerent
Country
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

Lib2011-135

Incident date

August 5, 2011

Location

مسكن مصطفى ناجي المرابط, Mustafa Naji Al Morabit, Murqub, Libya

Geolocation

32.472842, 14.489344 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (other) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Two children and their mother were allegedly killed in a NATO airstrike on Zliten.

The Telegraph said: “Residents from the town said the strike happened just after 6am, killing brothers Mohammed, three, and Moataz, five, and their mother Ibtisam.

Moussa Ibrahim, Libyan government spokesman, accused Nato of bombing civilian targets frequently.

He said: In the city of Zlitan, you saw with your own eyes the dead bodies of small children and their mother, there are many other examples around the country.

‘Unfortunately we are only able to take you to some scenes of these crimes, these take place everyday, sometimes whole families are killed, sometimes individuals.’

The Ministry of Defence said it had carried out air strikes on Tuesday and Wednesday against buildings, staging posts and a tank being used by Gaddafi forces near Zlitan.”

NDTV reported on a possibly related strike in the area without mentioning civilian harm: “A senior Libyan government official has denied rebel reports that Moammar Gaddafi’s youngest son was killed in a NATO airstrike on the western town of Zlitan.

Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim says Khamis Gaddafi is alive and spoke to Libyan government officials to confirm his well-being.”

An Amnesty International report later found: “On 4 August 2011 at about 6.30am the home of Mustafa Naji al-Morabit, in Zlitan west of Misratah, was struck, killing his 37-year-old wife, Ibtisam, and two of his three children, three-year-old Mo’taz and six-year-old Mohammed, as well as injuring his 60-year-old mother, Fatima ‘Omar Mansur. According to information provided by Mustafa Naji al-Morabit to Amnesty International, a nearby house (approximately 50 metersaway) had been used, until 1 August 2011, for meetings by military officers. Because they feared that the nearby house may be attacked by NATO, Mustafa Naji al-Morabit and his family had not been sleeping in their own home. They remained in the house during the day as it was common belief that NATO strikes were carried out at night. As opposition fighters were closing in on the area, the owner of the nearby house and others who had been meeting there fled by 2 August 2011, leaving the front gate wide open – a sign that they were not going to return. The al-Morabit family decided that it was therefore safe to return to their home and slept in their home for the first time on the night between 2 and 3 August 2011. The night passed without incident and the nearby house remained abandoned and the al-Morabit family again slept in their home the following night (between 3 and 4 August 2011), but the house was struck in the early hours of that morning.”

The NGO added: “In its 15 February 2012 letter to the ICIL, NATO referred to the above incident stating that the site was in fact struck on 4 August 2011, because it had been identified as ‘a senior regime commander’s command and control node located within a residential property’. Based on its examination of the site, interviews with witnesses and satellite images the ICIL found that ‘evidence suggests NATO hit the wrong building (and) that those killed were civilians’. Amnesty International reached the same conclusions.”

A Human Rights Watch investigation quoted the father saying: “Around 6:30 a.m., I heard an explosion, a terrible sound. I got up, and dust was falling all over; I couldn’t see in front of me. I was trying to reach my children and family, but I kept falling down. I reached the main road, and with the help of neighbors, we tried to lift the blocks and reach my family.

The first one we reached was my wife; we found her dead in her place. And then we got to my mother who was still alive, wounded in the left leg and right shoulder. Then we found [my son] Naji, who was alive. Mohamed, five years old, we found next to him still alive. I had no strength to continue and looked to others to save my family. They took Mohamed to the hospital, but he died before he got there; they say he suffocated from the dust. Then they found [my other son] Moataz, three years old. His brain was out of his head; I saw it. My house is demolished. My children are dead.”

The report added: “Al-Morabit and neighborhood residents initially said that no Gaddafi forces were in the area at the time of the attack. But in a subsequent interview on December 7, 2011, without the presence of a government minder, they said that the house next door had housed Gaddafi military personnel until August 2, two days before the attack. At the al-Morabit house itself, they said, they knew of no military equipment or personnel. A Human Rights Watch inspection of the house and yard on August 7 revealed no signs of military activity or material; however, evidence of a military target could potentially have been moved.

According to al-Morabit and two neighbors, interviewed separately, Libyan military personnel had used the large house next door to the al-Morabit house since late June. When the personnel moved into the house, al-Morabit said, he and his family began sleeping at his brother’s house, fearing a NATO attack in the area. He did not know how many military personnel and from which forces had moved into the neighboring house.”

NATO reported hitting “1 Military Radar Site, 1 Military Storage Facility” in Zliten on August 5th in its operational update.

The incident occured at approximately 6:30 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (4)

5 years old male killed
3 years old male killed
37 years old female killed
60 years old female

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (2 children1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Known attacker
    NATO forces
  • Known target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (24) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • Destroyed Morabit family home in Zliten after NATO airstrike on August 5th, 2011 (via Amnesty International)
  • Killed Morabit family members after NATO airstrike in Zliten on August 5th, 2011 (via Amnesty International)
  • Killed Morabit family members after NATO airstrike in Zliten on August 5th, 2011 (via Amnesty International)
  • Killed and injured Morabit children after NATO airstrike in Zliten on August 5th, 2011 (via Amnesty International)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    The three victims of the the NATO strikes on the Morabit family home in Zliten on August 4th, 2011 (Youssef Shaftar)

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the house of Mustafa Naji Al Morabit (مسكن مصطفى ناجي المرابط) being struck, within the city of Zlitan (زليتن), the exact location of which has been published by New York Times and Human Rights Watch. The exact coordinates are: 32.472842, 14.489344.

  • Reports of the incident mention the house of Mustafa Naji Al Morabit (مسكن مصطفى ناجي المرابط) being struck, within the city of Zlitan (زليتن), the exact location of which has been published by New York Times and Human Rights Watch.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

NATO forces Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    NATO forces
  • NATO forces position on incident
    Under investigation
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None

Civilian casualty statements

NATO forces
  • Jan 8, 2012
  • This target had been identified as a regime senior commander’s command and control node, located within a residential property four miles west of Zlitan. At no time were civilians intentionally targeted. The target building and buildings immediately adjacent to it were used exclusively by senior regime commanders as an active command and control facility directing forces in the Zlitan area. The structure was positively identified and one precision guided weapon was dropped on 4 August. Review of intelligence confirms that the correct and intended building was struck, and assessment of the claimed civilian casualties at the time concluded that this was highly unlikely. This incident is under further assessment.

Original strike reports

NATO forces

In the vicinity of Zlitan: 1 Military Radar Site, 1 Military Storage Facility.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (2 children1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Known attacker
    NATO forces
  • Known target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (24) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-136

Incident date

August 5, 2011

Location

المليعب, Al Mleeb, Jabal al Gharbi, Libya

Geolocation

32.027635, 12.593237

Airwars assessment

Between 28 and 49 people, including 28 men, were killed by Gaddafi forces in Al Mleeb in the vicinity of Al Qalaa village on August 5, 2011 according to various sources, including a video on ImazighenLibya’s YouTube and a post on Safit Al Somoud’s Facebook.

A graphic video posted by ImazighenLibya shows rows of dead bodies, more than 15, many of them with their hands tied behind their backs. Graphic images posted by Safit al Somood show some of the victims covered in mud. Other videos and images posted by various other sources show hundreds of people attending the funeral for the victims.

Names of victims killed:

M’hamed Ahmed Ghida

Muhammad Ghida, son of M’hamed Ahmed Ghida

Fouad Ghida, nephew of M’hamed Ahmed Ghida

Ashraf Abu Kassem Saleh Al-Ezabi

Abu Kassem Al-Ezabi,, father of Ashraf Abu Kassem Saleh Al-Ezabi

al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator

Muhammad Al-Shator, father of al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator

Mhammed Muhammad Al-Shator, younger brother of al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator

Saleh Ali Omar

Salem Suleiman Ali Khalifa

Rabie Saeed Omar Al-Ezabi

M’hamed Ajal

Yusef Ajal, son of M’hamed Ajal

Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden

Ali Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden, son of Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden

Salem Younis Kreir

Saeed Ali Othman

Uribi Othman, brother of Saeed Ali Othman

Suleiman Abdul Salam Ajal

Abd al-Salam Ajal, father of Suleiman Abdul Salam Ajal

Abdullah Ammhamad (Al-Dardouri)

Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari

Mahmo al-Harari, brother of Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari

Uncle of Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari

Uncle of Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari

Abdul Hamid Qarad Al-Taher

Talal Al-Hadi Omar Oreibi

Omar Qirqab Ahmed Al-Baden

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

M'hamed Ahmed Ghid
Adult male killed
Muhammad Ghida
Adult male Son of M'hamed Ahmed Ghida killed
Fouad Ghida
Adult male Nephew of M'hamed Ahmed Ghida killed

Family members (2)

Ashraf Abu Kassem Saleh Al-Ezabi
Adult male killed
Abu Kassem Al-Ezabi,
Adult male Father of Ashraf Abu Kassem Saleh Al-Ezabi killed

Family members (3)

al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator
Adult male killed
Muhammad Al-Shator
Adult male Father of al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator killed
Mhammed Muhammad Al-Shator
Age unknown male Younger brother of al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator injured

Family members (2)

M'hamed Ajal
Adult male killed
Yusef Ajal
Age unknown male killed

Family members (2)

Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden
Adult male killed
Ali Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden, Son of Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden
Adult male killed

Family members (2)

Saeed Ali Othman
male killed
Uribi Othman
male Brother of Saeed Ali Othman killed

Family members (2)

Suleiman Abdul Salam Ajal
Adult male killed
Abd al-Salam Ajal
Adult male Father of Suleiman Abdul Salam Ajal injured

Family members (4)

Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari
male killed
Mahmo al-Harari
male killed
Uncle of Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari
male killed
Uncle of Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari
male killed

The victims were named as:

Saleh Ali Omar
Adult male killed
Salem Suleiman Ali Khalifa
Adult male killed
Rabie Saeed Omar Al-Ezabi
Adult male killed
Salem Younis Kreir
Adult male killed
Abdullah Ammhamad (Al-Dardouri)
Adult male killed
Abdul Hamid Qarad Al-Taher
Adult male killed
Talal Al-Hadi Omar Oreibi
Age unknown male killed
Omar Qirqab Ahmed Al-Baden
Adult male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    30 – 49
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (46) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • Funeral for Aug 5, 2011 victims
  • August 5 victims
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    August 5 victims
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    August 5 victims
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    August 5 victims
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    August 5 victims
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    August 5 victims
  • M'hamed Ahmed Ghida
  • Ashraf Abu Kassem Saleh Al-Ezabi
  • Abu Kassem Al-Ezabi,
  • al-Hashemi Muhammad al-Shator
  • Mhammed Muhammad Al-Shator
  • Saleh Ali Omar
  • Salem Suleiman Ali Khalifa
  • Rabie Saeed Omar Al-Ezabi
  • M'hamed Ajal
  • Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden
  • Salem Younis Kreir
  • Saeed Ali Othman
  • Suleiman Abdul Salam Ajal
  • Abdullah Ammhamad (Al-Dardouri)
  • Uribi Ali Othman
  • Muhammad Mhammed Al-Harari
  • Fouad Abdullah Ahmed Ghida
  • Abdul Salam Ajal
  • Talal Al-Hadi Omar Oreibi
  • Abdul Hamid Qarad Al-Taher
  • Mahmoud Mhamed Al-Harari
  • Mohammed Al-Shator
  • Muhammad M'hamed Ghida
  • Omar Qirqab Ahmed Al-Baden
  • Ali Mhamed Suleiman Al-Baden
  • Yusef Mhammed Ajal

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Al Mleeb (المليعب) area, in the vicinity of Al Qalaa (القلعة) village, for which the generic coordinates are: 32.027635, 12.593237. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    30 – 49
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USYEM026-B

Incident date

August 1, 2011

Location

مديرية زنجبار, Al-Khamila, Abyan, Yemen

Geolocation

13.128649, 45.339509 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three drone strikes taking place on August 1st 2011, allegedly by US drones or Yemeni airplanes, killed up to 16 suspected Al Qaeda fighters and wounded up to 32 others in various areas of Zinjibar according to military officials. One report stated that the drones were acting in conjunction with the Yemeni government, but the Yemen Interior Minister said all attacks were carried out by the Yemeni army and the United States was not involved. There are currently no known reports of civilian harm.

There were a series of conflicting reports concerning the strike, as Fahd Othman Aljebzi tweeting as @Aljebzi noted that thirteen individuals were killed, which was supported by a tweet from @AdenLang citing a Reuters report. Albawaba.com reported that a military source told Agence France-Presse that Al Qaeda leader Nader al-Shaddadi was among the possible 16 alleged militants. However, al-Shaddadi was reportedly killed on October 18, 2012 in US drone or Yemeni airstrikes (USYEM131-B).

Local sources noted as many as thirty-two people wounded. Yusra A tweeting as @YusraAIA noted that apparently sixteen suspected Al-Qaeda members were killed and another seventeen wounded over the course of three strikes, while Aljazeera reported that Yemeni government airstrikes killed fifteen suspected Al-Qaeda operatives and destroyed a tank controlled by militants.

Multiple sources, including Albawaba, reported that “the raid destroyed an army armored vehicle, truck, personnel carrier and artillery that Al Qaeda militants had seized during the previous battles.”

The Washington Post identified the locations of the three strikes: “The security and local officials said the first strike targeted the al-Wahdah stadium and surrounding areas. They said it destroyed military equipment that the militants seized during a June 30 battle to control the stadium in which dozens of soldiers and militants were killed. They said the second strike hit the al-Amodiah region between Zinjibar, the provincial capital of Abyan taken over by militants in May, and the city of Jaar. The third attack hit the al-Khamilah area, which the militants also use as a hideout.” Reports that Al-Khamleh and Al-Amudiyah were also struck was corroborated by Elaph, Lebanese Forces, and Radio Sawa. None of the sources specify how many militants were killed in each individual strike.

In an article for The Washington Post, Mohammad Al-Qadhi reported that Yemeni local and security officials claimed the strikes stemmed from US Predator drones, yet Reuters reported that Yemeni warplanes conducted at least one of the strikes, on the village of Al Khamila. Bill Roggio, writing for Long War Journal, reported that unmanned US Predator or Reaper drones carried out the strike, but Yemeni Interior Minister denied that claim. Writing in August 2011, Roggio said the US had carried out ten strikes since December of 2009 and four since May of 2011.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    No
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Suspected attackers
    US Forces, Yemeni Air Force
  • Suspected target
    Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
  • Belligerents reported killed
    13–16
  • Belligerents reported injured
    17–32

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Three different locations are mentioned in reports of this incident. A first strike targeted Al Wahda (Unity) stadium. Due to limited information and satellite imagery available to Airwars, we were unable to locate Al Wahda stadium. A second strike occurred in Al Amudiya (عمودية) area between Zinjibar and the city of Ja’ar, for which the coordinates are: 13.1351, 45.3635. A third strike took place in Al Khamila village (الخاملة), for which the coordinates are: 13.125000, 45.313889. The coordinates for a mid-point between Al Amudiya and Al Khamila are: 13.128649, 45.339509.

  • Imagery:
    © Google 2019

US Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US Forces
  • US Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Yemeni Air Force Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Yemeni Air Force
  • Yemeni Air Force position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    No
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Suspected attackers
    US Forces, Yemeni Air Force
  • Suspected target
    Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
  • Belligerents reported killed
    13–16
  • Belligerents reported injured
    17–32

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-139

Incident date

August 11, 2011

Location

تاورغاء‎, Tawergha, Misrata, Libya

Geolocation

32.053695, 15.048778 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between 24 and 74 civilians, including at least 2 women, in Tawergha were killed by shelling and rockets launched allegedly by the rebels and/or NATO as they advanced into the town after taking control of Misurata. Civilian homes were struck by shells and were killed and injured, eventually resulting in a massive exodus of the population. The shelling took place from August 10-12, 2011.

Mukhtar.altawaragi posted on Facebook that as many as 74 people were killed during the shelling and named Salah Ahmed Gaddafi, Muhammad Al-Hamali Musa, and Abdul Salam Saleh Laban as being killed.

Khal.eltawrghi posted a list of 24 names, including Abdullah Al-Zaidi, Abdulmutallab, Ameryhel Salem, Abdel Halim Suleiman, Muftah Qurallah, Ahmed Mustafa Gaddafi, Colonel Gomaa Mabrouk, Kamal Al-Hamali, Muammar Al-Toumi, Khaled Qurifa and his mother, the old woman Saliba, Saleh Al Shakshak and his family, Haji Ahmed Al Shakshak and his family, the Joubran family, Musa Al-Ajili, Sheikh Mabrouk Elyan, Ahmed Alyan, Alyan Milad, Mahmoud Sweilam, Ashour Salem, the teacher Juma Salihin, Ibn Thabet, the old man Awad and Muftah Harib.

Some homes were completely destroyed from the shelling, especially in the Al-Kosha neighborhood.

A Facebook post by Sabha 17th Feb identified Professor Saleh al-Shakshak and his family, including Abd al-Rahman al-Shakshak, as being killed by the bombing in Tawergha, which is composed of 7-8 people. Tawergha Local Council reported that one of the sons of Saleh al-Shakshak survived the attack.

A Facebook post by Tawrgha and 17th feb revolution identified the Gibran family as being killed inside of their house.

Jumaa Salihin Ali, a teacher, was identified by Why Taghoura as being killed in Tawergha.

Mabrouk Elyan, who is the imam of a mosque in Tawergha, was identified by Tawragha martyrs as being killed.

A video was posted by THE.SON.OF.TAWARGAH showing Kamal Al-Hamali, who was allegedly killed.

Airwars later spoke to one of the relatives of the victims: “‘130 men from Tawergha are missing ever since, and no one knows anything about them. They were taken by the rebels. My brother is one of them,’ Gabriel Farag, who also had to flee Tawergha, told Airwars. ‘These 130 men were arrested just for the mere fact that they are from Tawergha.'”

The incident occured at 11:00:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Family members (1)

killed

Family members (1)

Family members (1)

Family members (1)

The victims were named as:

Adult male a teacher in education killed
Adult male imam of a mosque in Tawergha killed
Adult male killed
Age unknown male killed
Age unknown male killed
Age unknown male killed
Age unknown male killed
Age unknown male killed
Age unknown male killed
Age unknown female killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown killed
Age unknown male carried his handicapped mother on his shoulders and ran with her killed
Atiqa Hadiri
Age unknown female at Gate 14, who was taken by zeal and fever, carried a Kalashnikov assault rifle defending Tawergha and was martyred killed

Summary

  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    24 – 74
  • (2 women1 man2–74 undetermined)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Suspected targets
    Libyan rebel forces, NATO forces

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Jumaa Salihin Ali ... a teacher in education, the date of martyrdom 13/8/2011 in Tawergha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Abdel Halim Suleiman Abu Sadeegh ... was killed while entering Tawergha
  • Mabrouk Elyan, who is the imam of a mosque in Tawergha, was killed.
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Sheikh Mabrouk Elyan, who was killed in Tawergha
  • son of the late Salih al-Shakshak that survived the attack on Tawergha on August 11, 2011
  • Images of TAWARGAH on August 11, 2011
  • Images of TAWARGAH on August 11, 2011

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Tawergha (تاورغاء‎), for which the generic coordinates are: 32.053695, 15.048778. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Gaddafi Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Gaddafi Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    24 – 74
  • (2 women1 man2–74 undetermined)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Suspected targets
    Libyan rebel forces, NATO forces

Incident Code

Lib2011-132

Incident date

July 31, 2011

Location

مرسى البريقة, Brega, Al Wahat, Libya

Geolocation

30.411123, 19.570076 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One child was allegedly injured by a NATO or rebel airstrike on Brega.

Surt Son posted a video on Youtube showing the victim named Mohamed Musa. According to the video he was injured by artillery shelling on his home which would point at the rebels as the culprit. The description however says he was bombed by NATO planes.

NATO on this day reported striking “1 Armed Military Vehicle, 6 Multiple Rocket Launchers” in the vicinity of Brega.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Child male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Brega (مرسى البريقة), for which the generic coordinates are: 30.411123, 19.570076. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-133

Incident date

July 31, 2011

Location

منطقة سوق الثلاثاء, Suq Al Thulatha, Misurata, Libya

Geolocation

32.416186, 14.629205 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On July 31st, 2011, eight people were reported killed in Misurata by artillery strikes from Gaddafi forces. In addition, 20 were reported injured by AlMukhtar news. The attacks occurred within the market area of western Misrata. No additional information on the victims were report was unclear how many casualties were civilians or rebel forces.

AlMukhtar reports “after restarting it, received 8 martyrs and 20 wounded who fell on the western axis after the revolutionaries were stationed in the Tuesday market area, and the clashes are continuing so far.”

Two sources confirmed the eight dead, but only Al Mukhtar reported the 20 wounded.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 8
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–20
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Suspected target
    Libyan rebel forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–8
  • Belligerents reported injured
    0–20

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Suq Al Thulatha (سوق الثلاثاء) area in the vicinity of Zliten (زليتن) and Misurata (مصراتة), for which the generic coordinates are: 32.416186, 14.629205. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

  • Reports of the incident mention the Suq Al Thulatha (سوق الثلاثاء) area in the vicinity of Zliten (زليتن) and Misurata (مصراتة).

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

Gaddafi Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Gaddafi Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 8
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–20
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Suspected target
    Libyan rebel forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–8
  • Belligerents reported injured
    0–20

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-134

Incident date

July 31, 2011

Location

مصراتة, Misrata, Misurata, Libya

Geolocation

32.374457, 15.087794 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On July 31st, 2011, seven missiles were fired on Misurata, leading to the death of 3 men and wounding four others. Two brothers, Abdul Salam Abdul Latif and Youssef Abdul Latif were killed in the strikes, and their cousin Muhammad Abdul Latif died of injuries after. Four others were reported injured as a result of the strikes. It was unclear the combatant status of any of the wounded or dead.

LoverMisurata posted on Facebook “7 missiles fell on the city of Misurata, which led to the death of 2 of the Abdul Latif family, as well as wounding 5 residents of the city and losses in property.” They later described one fo the wounded, Muhammad Abdul Latif, as deceased due to injuries.

No additional information was provided on wounded.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Muhammad Abdul Latif
Age unknown male Cousin of Youssef and Abdul Salam
Abdul Salam Abdul Latif
Age unknown male Brother of Youssef
Youssef Abdul Latif
male Brother of Abdul Salam

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Misurata (مصراتة), for which the generic coordinates are: 32.374457, 15.087794. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Gaddafi Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Gaddafi Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Gaddafi Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-131

Incident date

July 30, 2011

Location

طرابلس‎, Tripoli, Libya

Geolocation

32.886602, 13.190912 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three journalists were reportedly killed in a NATO airstrike on Tripoli.

SBS News tweeted: “Three journalists have reportedly been killed in a NATO air strike while on state television in Libya.”

Uruknet wrote: “Libya says three journalists have been killed in a NATO air strike on state television, and that the murder of the rebels’ army chief proves al-Qaeda is instigating the country’s armed revolt.

‘Three of our colleagues were murdered and 15 injured while performing their professional duty as Libyan journalists,’ said Khaled Basilia, director of Al-Jamahiriya television’s English-language service.”

NATO later published a statement on the incident: “A few hours ago, NATO conducted a precision airstrike that disabled three ground-based Libyan state TV satellite transmission dishes in Tripoli. The strike, performed by NATO fighter aircraft using state-of-the art precision guided munitions, was conducted in accordance with the UN Security Council Resolution 1973, with the intent of degrading Qadhafi’s use of satellite television as a means to intimidate the Libyan people and incite acts of violence against them.

Our intervention was necessary as TV was being used as an integral component of the regime apparatus designed to systematically oppress and threaten civilians and to incite attacks against them. Qadhafi’s increasing practice of inflammatory broadcasts illustrates his regime’s policy to instill hatred amongst Libyans, to mobilize its supporters against civilians and to trigger bloodshed.

In light of our mandate to protect civilian lives, we had to act. After due consideration and careful planning to minimize the risks of casualties or long-term damage to television transmission capabilities, NATO performed the strike and we are now in the process of assessing its effect. Striking specifically these critical satellite dishes will reduce the regime’s ability to oppress civilians while at the same time preserve television broadcast infrastructure that will be needed after the conflict.”

Amnesty International wrote on that matter that it “did not have the opportunity to monitor and analyse the full content of Libyan state television broadcasts when it was under the control of Colonel al-Gaddafi, but the question of whether Colonel al-Gaddafi is using television broadcasts to instil hatred and mobilize its supporters is not the determining criteria for whether television transmitters are military objectives. The definition of military objective in Article 52(2) of Protocol I, which reflects customary IHL, specifies that ‘military objectives are limited to those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage#. Propaganda is not ‘an effective contribution to military action’ and it is difficult to consider that the destruction of the transmitters offers ‘an anticipated definite military advantage’.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Known attacker
    NATO forces
  • Known target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Video report from Libyan state TV on the incident

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Tripoli (طرابلس‎), for which the generic coordinates are: 32.886602, 13.190912. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

NATO forces Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    NATO forces
  • NATO forces position on incident
    Non credible / Unsubstantiated
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Other
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None

Civilian casualty statements

NATO forces
  • Mar 8, 2012
  • Transmission dishes belonging to Libyan State Television were deliberately targeted and destroyed to prevent their continued use to incite regime supporters to violence against civilians. This transmission station was a key element in broadcasting such incitement by regime leaders. Although the target had earlier been rejected because of the rhetoric broadcast over it did not at that time reach the threshold of incitement to violence, speeches made in early July reached a new level of intensity and focus. It should also be noted that the crimes against humanity (including murder and persecution) for which the International Criminal Court (ICC) had in late July indicted Col. Gaddafi and other senior regime members corresponded closely to the actions incited via the Libyan State Television transmission station. The target was struck at night, on a particular heading, to minimise any chance of injury to civilians. The dishes were targeted precisely and with low-intensity weapons to minimise the risk of collateral damage and to avoid broader disruption to the Libyan communications infrastructure. Battle damage assessment indicated that these precautions were fully successful in avoiding such injury or damage.

Original strike reports

NATO forces

In the vicinity of Tripoli: 2 Anti-Aircraft systems

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Known attacker
    NATO forces
  • Known target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (10) [ collapse]