Russian Military in Syria

A Russian combat aircraft at Khmeimim airbase in Syria being prepared for action. (Russian Ministry of Defence)

Belligerent
Russian military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Contested
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

RS107

Incident date

November 1, 2015

Location

معرتماتر, Ma’artamater, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

35.5701294, 36.5509047 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A child named as Ahmad Ali al-Yousef was reported killed following an alleged Russian or Assad regime airstrike on Ma’artamater.

The Violations Documentation Center and Syrian Observatory blamed Russia. The pro-regime Shaam Times – citing “military sources” – confirmed that unspecified aircraft had supported ground operations at Ma’artamater. And the Damascus Centre for Human Rights blamed the Assad regime.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • a Raid by warplanes targeting the village of Ma’artamater in the southern Idlib countryside on 1/11/2015

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

In its report for military actions on October 31st-November 2nd 2015, the Kremlin made no mention of strikes in Idlib governorate.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS127

Incident date

November 7, 2015

Location

كفر جوم, Kafr Joum, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.11127, 36.95655 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Several civilians were reported killed and a number injured in an alleged Russian or Assad regime airstrike on the Al Dairi fabrics factory in Kafr Joum, Aleppo, according to the White Helmets and the Syrian Network for Human Rights.

The White Helmets reported that Russian warplanes had carried out several raids targeting the factory, leading to widespread destruction and a massive fire which teams from Aleppo worked to put out. The civil defence force sad the strike caused the death of several civilians working in the factory.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights did not report any deaths but said some factory employees were injured, adding that the factory had put out of service due to a fire which also burnt out several vehicles.

The factory had represented “the largest source of employment in rural Aleppo down to Idlib” according to Syria Direct, which said 13 civilian workers injured in a strike it attributed to “regime aircraft.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    13
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • A member of the White Helmets attempts to put out a fire in the aftermath of an alleged Russian airstrike on the Al Dairi fabrics factory, Aleppo, Nov 7th (via White Helmets)
  • the aftermath image of an alleged Russian airstrike on the Al Dairi fabrics factory.
  • a video shows the fire in Al - Diri Textile Factory in Aleppo, Western Aleppo

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia confirms in its report covering November 6th-9th 2015 carrying out strikes in Damascus governorate.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    13
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS755

Incident date

April 14, 2016

Location

دارة عزة, Darat Izza, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.28247, 36.85216 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

One adult male civilian, Mohammed Ibrahreem Ello, was killed in an airstrike on Darat Izza according to local sources – though only one report alleged that this was a Russian strike.

Aleppo News named the victim and said that he was killed by a “warplane“. According to Al-Maghrib Today, the regime was to blame: “one man got killed and many injured in warplane attack by the government.”

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also said that there were strikes on Darat Izza (they did not say by whom), but that no one was killed.

But the Syrian Network for Human Rights blamed Russia, reporting that “Mohammad Ibrahim Alo, age 47, from Kafr Hamra town in Aleppo governorate died in suspected Russian warplanes missiles fired on Darat Azza city in Aleppo governorate, April 14.”

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Unknown, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Mohammad Ibrahim Alo, killed in an alleged Russian raid on Darat Izza, April 14th, according to SN4HR (via SN4HR)

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Unknown

The Kremlin has issued no public accounts of airstrikes in Syria from April 1st – 30th.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Unknown, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS173

Incident date

November 20, 2015

Location

الزباري, Zubari, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

35.12003, 40.40713 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

The Violations Documentation Center reported that 25 non-combatants, including 13 women and one child, were killed in an alleged Russian airstrike on Zubari. Deir Ezzor is Being Slaughtered Silently also posted a video showing the moment of the attack which it blamed on ‘Russian aviation.’ Also, Free Deir Ezzor Broadcast claimed the attack involved Russian ballistic missiles, which “left more than 40 people dead and injured, all of them civilians, and the destruction of approximately 20 per cent of the townhouses completely and almost completely.”

However, Smart News and the Syrian Network blamed Assad regime aircraft, while local media activist Ahmad al Horani insisted the attack be by French aircraft working with the Coalition.

The Violations Documentation Center has named the 25 fatalities.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (12)

Family members (3)

Family members (5)

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    25
  • (1 child13 women11 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    15–40
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Deir al-Zubari: The moment Russian air strikes on the village of Mund Zaman (via Ahmed Ramdan)
  • an image of one of the victim (via All 4 Syria)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia reported that “On November 20, the ships of the Caspian flotilla performed launches of 18 cruise missiles against 7 targets in the Raqqah, Idlib and Aleppo provinces. All the aims were hit.” It added that “29 aircraft of long-range and bomber aviation made strikes from the zone of the Caspian Sea,” though gave no details of the areas targeted.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    25
  • (1 child13 women11 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    15–40
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS349

Incident date

January 7, 2016

Location

عربين, Arbeen, Damascus, Syria

Geolocation

33.538143, 36.364331 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

Twelve civilians were killed including two to three women and two to four children and  as many as 85 injured in airstrikes on Arbeen, according to multiple sources – although reports were conflicted as to whether Russian or Assad regime forces were responsible.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that 18 non-combatants died including women and children – with tens injured – in regime airstrikes and shelling in Eastern Ghouta. Among the casualties were four children and two women “killed in the aerial bombardment and shelling by the regime forces which targeted cities of Arbeen and Zamalka.”

However, a subsequent SOHR report blamed “warplanes believed to be Russian“, adding that they killed at least 10 people, including two women in “intense bombing“.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights said regime shelling claimed the lives of at least 10 civilians, including one child and two women, adding that “even the rescue and aid teams were targeted with a Russian raid“. According to Shaam News Network, however, Russian warplanes killed 12 and injured more than 80.

The White Helmets published several reports on the incident but referred only to “warplanes” carrying out up to 13 raids with vacuum missiles which left 12 dead and up to 85 injured, including women and children, but said that the number of dead was likely to rise due to the severity of injuries. They added that there had been great destruction of civilian neighbourhoods.

The White Helmets as also named one unidentified victim.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (4)

  • Ala’a Sleiman Al Najjar Age unknown named by the White Helmets killed
  • Nadia Mamdouh Al Najjar Age unknown named by the White Helmets killed
  • Abd Al Rahman Adnan Al Najjar Age unknown named by the White Helmets killed
  • Mohammad Adnan Al Najar Age unknown male named by the White Helmets killed
  • Sleiman Ramadan Age unknown named by the White Helmets killed
  • Ameer Abdo Al Marji Age unknown named by the White Helmets killed
  • Mohammad Deeb Omar Al Bakouni Age unknown male named by the White Helmets killed
  • Mahmoud Al Kahhala Age unknown male named by the White Helmets killed
  • Mohammad Omar Rihan Age unknown male named by the White Helmets killed
  • Ahmad Al Harbawi Age unknown named by the White Helmets killed
  • Jihad Al Sheikh Child named by the White Helmets killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12
  • (2–4 children2–3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    80–85
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (13) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Graphic footage of deceased bodies and injured civilians being taken from the scene into an ambulance. (via, The White Helmets)
  • Smoke rises from the scene of the incident in Arbeen. (via, The White Helmets)
  • Chaos as White Helmets run to the scene to rescue civilians in Arbeen. (via, The White Helmets)
  • White Helmets leave their van to make it to the buildings on foot due to rubble blocking the roads. Burning buildings can be seen at the end of the footage. (via, The White Helmets)
  • A photo of the alleged plane which dropped the airstrikes on Arbeen. (via, SNN)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

In its report for military actions on January 11 2016, the Kremlin reports carrying out strikes in Damascus governorate: “In the course of 10 days of the year 2016, the Russian aircraft have performed 311 combat sorties engaging 1097 objects in the Aleppo, Idlib, Latakia, Hama, Homs, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Hasakah, Daraa, and Raqqah provinces.“

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12
  • (2–4 children2–3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    80–85
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (13) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS384

Incident date

January 13, 2016

Location

مسكنة, Maskanah, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

35.964534, 38.036764 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

Up to four civilians were reported killed in an alleged airstrike by Russian warplanes on Maskanah, according to the Syrian Network for Human Rights.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • A new bulletin which includes information on the alleged Russian and Syrian Regime raid on 13th of January 2016. (via, Al Jisir TV)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between 11-15 January.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS955

Incident date

June 29, 2016

Location

سراقب, Saraqib, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

35.859101, 36.797731 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Up to four civilians including a child died and as many as five more were wounded in airstrikes on the outskirts of Saqabib, according to local sources – though reports were conflicted as to whether Russia or the Syrian regime were to blame.

LCCSY, Syria News Desk, Qasioun and al-AMAWI blamed Russia.  

Regarding the scope of the strike, a media opposition activist called Mohamed Ali from the countryside of Idlib, told Syria News Desk that “the air force carried out four raids the northern outskirts of the city. The injured were transported via ambulance teams to a border hospital with Turkey, The strikes caused widespread destruction to property”.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights was the only source to blame the Syrian Regime.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between June 1st – 31st 2016.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS790

Incident date

May 3, 2016

Location

حي البلليرمون, Al Baleirmoon neighbourhood (Aleppo), Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.2423248, 37.1057626 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Local sources reported that up to six people, including two women and two children, had died in shelling on Al Baleirmoon neighbourhood. Reports are conflicted as to whether Russia or the Assad regime was responsible.

Egypt News said that “a man, a woman and her daughter were killed due to warplane shelling in Al Baleirmoon.” Multiple sources, including Aletihad news, reported the use of cluster bombs. Aletihad news said that the bombs “killed 6 people including two women and a child and injured dozens and destroyed buildings.”

According to the Syrian Network for Human Rights, six civilians including two girls and two women died when “suspected Russian warplanes” fired missiles on the Al Baleirmoon neighborhood of Aleppo.

However, LCCSY and many other sources said that regime warplanes were responsible. Others did not identify the warplanes. It was unclear from Shaam News Network who carried out the attack. It reported clashes as the regime attempted “to advance towards Alcastello road, amid artillery and aerial bombardment by Assad’s forces and Russian aircraft over the region”. It said that three died and others were wounded.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 6
  • (2 children2 women1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6–24
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (19) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (8) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A child injured in the cluster bomb raids on al Leirmon, 3rd May 2016 [via: ShahbaPress]
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Shahba press tweets a photo of an injured child following 'cluster bomb raids' on the town of al Leirmoon, 3rd May 2016
  • Shahba press tweets that there are '6 dead including two women and a child' in the cluster bomb raids on al Leirmoon neighbourhood in Aleppo, 3rd May 2016
  • Syria post tweets that alleged Russian planes carried out two raids on the outskirts of Al Leirmoon, 3rd May 2016
  • Anadan media says that most of the civilians wounded were children, 3rd May 2016
  • News Flash Aleppo tweets that 'warplanes' target al Leirmoon with cluster bombs leading to civilian casualties, 3rd May 2016
  • Jisr TV confirms dead and wounded in alleged regime raids on al Leirmoon, 3rd May 2016
  • Al Jazeera confirms that three were killed following alleged regime raids on al Leirmoon neighbourhood in Aleppo, 3rd May 2016

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between May 1st – 31st

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 6
  • (2 children2 women1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6–24
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (19) [ collapse]