Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents

Incident Code

TS500

Incident date

April 16, 2022

Location

قرية الغازلي, Al-Ghazili village, Raqqa, Syria

Airwars assessment

One civilian was injured by alleged Turkish artillery shelling of Al-Ghazili village east of Ain Issa on April 16, 2022, reported by Hawar News.

According to Hawar News, civilian “Hassan Hamad al-Salama” was wounded by Turkish artillery shelling and “two light bombs”, and significant material damage was caused to his house, car and sheep.

No other information is available to Airwars at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Hassan Hamad al-Salama Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS498

Incident date

April 6, 2022

Location

قرية الاسدية, Al Asadiya village, Hassakah, Syria

Airwars assessment

Between three and five civilians, including up to four children and a woman, were injured in alleged Turkish shelling of the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022.

According to Hawar News, five people from one family were injured when Turkish forces bombed the village of Al-Asadiya in the countryside of Zarkan district. Records of the People’s Hospitals in Al-Darbasiyah district and Al-Hasakah city, which received the injured, reported the names of the injured from the Al-Zaher family: Mahmoud Al-Zahir (42 years old), Bara Mahmoud Al-Zaher (16 years old), Narges Mahmoud Al-Zaher (15 years old), and Shafak Mahmoud Al-Zaher (9 years old), and a relative of the family, Inas Ismail Al-Khalaf (17 years).

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that the shelling was carried out by Turkish forces stationed in “Peace Spring” areas in Ras Al-Ain “Sere Kanye” countryside and resulted in the injury of three people, including a woman. The source added that the shelling coincided with residents of the area attempting to flee due to the heavy shelling and that the shelling struck civilians’ houses.

Various other sources, including North Press Agency and Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firate, reported that Turkish forces carried out shelling but did not provide any details on casualties.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (5)

  • Mahmoud Al-Zahir 42 years old injured
  • Bara Mahmoud Al-Zaher 16 years old injured
  • Narges Mahmoud Al-Zaher 15 years old injured
  • Shafak Mahmoud Al-Zaher 9 years old injured
  • Ismail Al-Khalaf 17 years old injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • One of the civilians injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Shell from the alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to civilian homes caused by alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to civilian homes caused by alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to civilian homes caused by alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to civilian homes caused by alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to civilian homes caused by alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to civilian homes caused by alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Asadiya on April 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS497

Incident date

April 1, 2022

Location

القحطانية, “M4” international highway, Al-Qahtaniyah town, Hassakah, Syria

Airwars assessment

One person was killed and two others were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on a car traveling on the “M4” international highway near Al-Qahtaniyah town on April 1, 2022. The combatant status of one of the people injured is contested due to his role in the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), while the others killed and wounded were identified as members of the SDF.

Hawar News quoted the Syrian Democratic Forces, who “announced that a Turkish occupation drone targeted a car of the Self-Defense Forces, killing one person and injuring two, including the poet Farhad Mardi.” Syria TV reported his condition to be “serious, and he was immediately transferred to a military hospital in the city of Qamishli for treatment.”

The media center of the Syrian Democratic Forces issued a statement: “This afternoon, the occupation launched a drone attack targeting a vehicle belonging to the Self-Defense Forces.  As a result, our comrade Dirar Juma Hamza was martyred and two of our comrades were injured, including the well-known poet Farhad Mardi. The condition of our wounded comrades is good.”

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) described the location of the incident as occurring on the M4 international highway south of Al-Qahtaniyah town, adding that “the car was heading from Al-Tabqah city to Al-Qahtaniyah area to celebrate Assyrian day”.

SOHR also described the poet Farhad Mardi as someone who was “elected to be a member of “Self-Defence” to be a cheerleader for young men”, putting his combatant status into question. However, Syria TV reported that “Mardi is considered one of the first members of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), and he has dozens of songs and poems in support of the party, as well as anti-Turkey and Kurdish parties opposing the PKK”.

According to Syria TV, the vehicle that was hit by the drone strikes was a “a military transport vehicle (van) of the Hyundai H1 type” and that the people in the vehicle were an SDF member, who was killed, and two PKK cadres, who were injured.

All of the sources that reported on the incident blamed Turkish forces and specifically identified a drone as being involved in the attack.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1
  • Belligerents reported injured
    1

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Vehicle destroyed by alleged Turkish drone strikes on a vehicle south of Al-Qahtaniyah town on April 1, 2022. (Image posted by Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firate)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1
  • Belligerents reported injured
    1

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS496

Incident date

March 15, 2022

Location

قرية الجات, Al Jat village, Aleppo, Syria

Airwars assessment

Two civilians were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Al-Jat village on March 15, 2022.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a drone struck Al-Jat village in the northeast of Manbij city with several bombs, injuring two civilians.

A Facebook post from Hawar News quoted the media center of the Manbij Military Council, who said that Turkish forces bombed multiple villages northeast of the city of Manbij, without mentioning any casualties.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS495

Incident date

February 28, 2022

Location

قرية التوخار, Al Tafkhar village, Aleppo, Syria

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was injured in alleged Turkish shelling of the village of Al Tafkhar on February 28, 2022.

Hawar News reported that a civilian was injured by Turkish shelling on the village of Al Tafkhar. The media center of the Manbij Military Council said that the Turkish forces struck at exactly 8:00 this morning the inhabited village of Al Tafkhar, located north of the city of Manbij, with 7 mortar shells, “which led to the injury of a civilian.”

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights added that the shelling resulted in material damage to civilians’ property. A local source told North Press that “the bombing also targeted the house of Kafi Al-Jassem (35 years), a resident of the village, without mentioning additional information.”

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkish forces and North Press Agency identified the shelling as coming from the Turkish base overlooking the village of Al-Tokhar Al-Kabeer and Al-Waqa’a, at the northwestern edge of the village.

The incident occured at 08:00:00 local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS494

Incident date

February 27, 2022

Location

تل تمر, Tal Tamr, Hassakah, Syria

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian, a woman, was injured in alleged Turkish bombardment of the village of Umm al-Khair in the countryside of Tal Tamr district on February 27, 2022.

According to Hawar News, a woman was injured as a result of Turkish forces bombing of the countryside of Tal Tamr district. Turkish forces bombed the Assyrian villages of Tel Shanan, Umm al-Khair and Dashisha in the countryside of Tal Tamr, resulting in the injury of Marwa Muhammad Khalif (30 years), from the village of Umm al-Khair. The bombing also resulted in severe material damage to the property of the people of the villages.

A medical source at the Lycrane Hospital in Tal Tamr told North-Press, “The woman was wounded by several shrapnel and was taken to a hospital in Hasaka for an urgent operation.”

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkish forces.

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS493

Incident date

February 24, 2022

Location

الطريق بين القامشلي وعامودا, Road between Qamishli and Amouda, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

37.041217, 41.109385 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Street level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Street

Airwars assessment

Four civilians, including three women and their driver, were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on the Qamishlo-Amouda road on February 24, 2022.

According to Hawar News, a car was struck by a Turkish drone, resulting of the injury of four people, including three women. The car was traveling on the Qamishlo-Amouda road, east of the Faruj resort, and it was coming from Amouda towards Qamishlo. The names of the wounded are: Dalia Sheikhmus (20 years); Munifa Hamidi (33 years), who was hit by shrapnel in the leg area; Rosa Hammo (38 years), who was hit in the thigh area; the driver Lazkin Abed (35 years old) who was hit in the shoulder by shrapnel.

The injured civilians were transferred to the “Farman” hospital in Qamishli for treatment, according to Enab Baladi. A medical source in the hospital told North Press Agency, “The four people sustained varying injuries and shrapnel, and their health condition is stable, after receiving first aid.” The medical source added that the driver of the targeted car has been discharged from the hospital, and two women will also be discharged after receiving treatment, but one of them needs an operation, and it was determined two days later.

The driver of the car carrying passengers, Lazkin Abed, explained the details of the attack to Hawar News: “We were in the car coming from Amuda towards the city of Qamishlo, and I had 14 passengers, and suddenly the attack happened and a strong sound was issued and the windows of the car were shattered. I did not stop in that moment. I kept [driving] until the tires of the car exploded on my way to Himo. The passengers who were sitting on the left side of the car were more affected than others, as a result of the strong attack, as shrapnel was scattered towards them.”

Rosa Hamo told North-Press, “We were on our way to Qamishli, and when we arrived at Hemo, and before reaching the city’s entrance checkpoint, I heard a strong sound and shrapnel began to fall on us, and I did not know what happened after. I was hit by shrapnel in my left shoulder and arm as well.”

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that the Turkish drone intended to hit a military vehicle that was also traveling on the road.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • Damage to a van carrying civilians on the Qamishlo-Amouda road caused by a Turkish drone strike on February 24, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to a van carrying civilians on the Qamishlo-Amouda road caused by a Turkish drone strike on February 24, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to a van carrying civilians on the Qamishlo-Amouda road caused by a Turkish drone strike on February 24, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Damage to a van carrying civilians on the Qamishlo-Amouda road caused by a Turkish drone strike on February 24, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention a vehicle being struck east of the Faruj Tourist Resort (منتجع فاروش السياحي) on the road between Amouda (عامودا) and Qamishli (قامشلو). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Faruj Tourist Resort are: 37.041217, 41.109385.

  • Reports of the incident mention a vehicle being struck east of the Faruj Tourist Resort (منتجع فاروش السياحي) on the road between Amouda (عامودا) and Qamishli (قامشلو).

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS492

Incident date

February 15, 2022

Location

تل رفعت, Tal Rifaat, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.472576, 37.096272 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Up to five civilians, including up to four children and a woman, were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022.

Hawar News reported that five civilians, including women and children, were injured when Turkish forces bombed Tal Rifaat. North Press Agency put the total number of injuries at four and identified all for of those injured as children, including images of the children being treated for their injuries.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Turkish artillery struck near the stadium in Tal Rifaat while children were inside the stadium, which resulted in the injury of four children. The source added that the shelling coincided with the entry of several Russian armored vehicles into the city.

FOX Press specified that the strikes occurred in the center of the city, causing material damage to property, and that the wounded were taken to Tal Rifaat Hospital for treatment. A local source also provided FOX Press the names of the wounded: Newroz Ali Muhammad, Ibrahim Abdo Muhammad, Ali Abdo Muhammad and four-year-old Siban Mustafa Nabi Bakr.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Newroz Ali Muhammad Child injured
  • Ibrahim Abdo Muhammad Child injured
  • Ali Abdo Muhammad Child injured
  • Siban Mustafa Nabi Bakr 4 years old injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (6) [ collapse]

  • Children injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by North Press Agency)
  • Children injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by North Press Agency)
  • Children injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by North Press Agency)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Children injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by North Press Agency)
  • Impact caused by alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by Moaaz_alkamil via Facebook)
  • Impact caused by alleged Turkish strikes on Tal Rifaat on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by Moaaz_alkamil via Facebook)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Tal Rifaat (تل رفعت), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.472576, 37.096272. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]