Russian Military in Syria

A Russian combat aircraft at Khmeimim airbase in Syria being prepared for action. (Russian Ministry of Defence)

Belligerent
Russian military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Contested
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

R4259

Incident date

March 3, 2020

Location

شارع الثلاثين, Al Thalatheen Street, Idlib city, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Up to nine civilians including five children were reported killed and up to 21 others injured in alleged Russia airstrikes with missiles, or the fall of rocket-propelled grenades believed to be from the regime forces and Iranian militias in Maarat al-Numan, on Al Thalatheen street in Idlib city on March 3rd, 2020.

Justice Organization identified names of six civilians killed in this attack, which shows that the victims belong to two families. From Haj Hamdo Family, a father (Hamza Haj Hamdo) died with his son (Shahem Hamza Haj Hamdo) and daughter (Rimas Haj Hamdo). Also from Al Asemi family, three children died: Abdul Rahman Al-Asemi, Abdullah Al-Asemi and Abdul Salam Al-Asmi.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights reported that “at least eight civilians, including four children, were killed in the explosion of an unknown source and in front of unequipped buildings sheltering IDPs in Al Thalatheen Street in Idlib city.” The Syrian Civil Defence reported nine killed, including four children.

Edlib Media Center blamed the Syrian regime and Iranian ‘militias’ for the attack, while @ShahbaPress blamed Russia. Edlib Media Center said “nine civilians were martyred and 14 others were wounded due to the fall of rocket-propelled grenades believed to be from the regime forces and Iranian militias in Maarat al-Numan, south of Idlib.” The Syrian Civil Defence reported that 21 people were wounded.

Shaam Network said that women and children are also among those injured.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Family members (3)

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7 – 9
  • (5 children1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    14–21
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Three children from Al Asemi family were killed in an airstrike on Idlib City on March 3rd, 2020 (via Justice Organization).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7 – 9
  • (5 children1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    14–21
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4258

Incident date

March 2, 2020

Location

عدوان, Adwan, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

One civilian was reportedly killed and at least one man and woman were wounded in alleged Russian airstrikes on a school housing displaced people in the village of Adwan, western Idlib countryside, on March 2nd, 2020, according to local sources.

Step News Agency reported that Russian raids targeted camps for displaced people in the village of Adwan, killing one civilian and wounding an unknown number of others. The Syrian Network for Human Rights reported that Adwan  Secondary School was targeted.

A spokesperson for the Syrian Civil Defence in the Sahel Al Rouj region reported that “during the night, Russian warplanes bombed a school inhabited by displaced people in the village of Adwan (19 km southwest of Idlib), which resulted in the wounding of a woman and a man who were treated by the civil defence teams and brought to the Darkush village hospital.”

Shaam News Agency reported that “Russian and Assad’s warplanes launched airstrikes in the midst of artillery and missile shelling” targeting several cities and towns in Idlib governorate, among which a camp for displaced people in Adwan village.

Currently, further information is unavailable to Airwars.

The incident occured during the night.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4253

Incident date

March 1, 2020

Location

باتنتة, Batneta, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Up to four civilians, including a child, were killed and five others, including two women, were reportedly wounded in alleged in Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on agricultural lands near the village of Batneta on March 1st, 2020, according to local sources.

Ahmed Sheiko, director of the media office of the Syrian Civil Defence in Idlib, told Smart News Agency that “four civilians, including a child, were killed and five others were wounded, including two women, as a result of a raid by Russian warplanes targeting agricultural lands in the vicinity of Batneta village, north of Idlib”.

The Syrian Civil Defence reported the same numbers on Facebook, but added that the incident occurred in the morning. Edlib Media Center reported two killed civilians. EMC mentioned the use of rockets in the attack.

Nearly all sources reported Russia as the belligerent of the airstrikes, but the Syrian Network for Human Rights reported the Syrian regime had been responsible.

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Aftermath of alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on agricultural lands near the village of Batneta, Idlib governorate, on March 1st, 2020 (via SCD).
  • Site after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on agricultural lands near the village of Batneta, Idlib governorate, on March 1st, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Aftermath of alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on agricultural lands near the village of Batneta Idlib governorate, on March 1st, 2020 (via EMC).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4252

Incident date

March 1, 2020

Location

كفرنتين, Kafar Natin, Aleppo, Syria

Airwars assessment

Five civilians, including a child, were killed and more than three others were wounded in alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the village of Kafar Natin, Aleppo governorate, on March 1st, 2020, according to local sources.

SMART News Agency reported that “five civilians, including a child, were killed and three others wounded on Sunday [March 1st, 2020], by Russian airstrikes on the village of Kafarnatin village, west of Aleppo, northern Syria”.

The Syrian Civil Defence reported that Syrian regime warplanes targeted the homes of civilians in the morning. The SCD in Aleppo reported the names of five killed civilians, including four male adults and a child: Mahdi Al JarrRaji Abdullah HassanIbrahim Jameel Al JarrImran Jamil Al Jarr and the child Muhammad Abdul Kafi Mustafa.

SCD Aleppo also identified three wounded victims, all part of the Al Jarr family, and stated there were three more unnamed injured civilians, putting the total toll of injured at six civilians.

Nearly all sources reported Russia as the belligerent, but the Syrian Civil Defence and the Syrian Network for Human Rights reported that the Syrian regime had been responsible.

The incident occured in the afternoon.

The victims were named as:

Family members (6)

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (1 child4 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • The aftermath of alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD).
  • Syrian Civil Defence volunteers recovering the body of a victim after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD).
  • Syrian Civil Defence volunteers recovering the body of a victim after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD).
  • Rubble after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD Aleppo).
  • Syrian Civil Defence volunteers searching for victims underneath the rubble after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD).
  • Civilian homes were reportedly targeted in alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD Aleppo).
  • Civilian homes were destroyed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD Aleppo).
  • Civilian homes were reportedly targeted in alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD Aleppo).
  • Syrian Civil Defence volunteers at the site after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the town of Kafar Natin on March 2nd, 2020 (via SCD Aleppo).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (1 child4 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4250

Incident date

February 27, 2020

Location

جنوب مدينة ادلب, Idlib city (south), Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Two children brothers were reported killed and between four and seven civilians were reported injured after alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the southern outskirts of Idlib city on February 27th, 2020, according to local sources.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights reported that “The children, brothers Ghaid and Majd Mustafa al Qadah, from Kafranbel city in the southern suburbs of Idlib governorate, were killed as fixed- wing warplanes we believe were Russian fired missiles on the southern outskirts of Idlib city, on February 27th.”

Shaam reported that a displaced child was killed, as Russian warplanes targeted the city several times.

Abdul Razzaq Ghafir, administrator in the documentation section of the Clinics hospital in Idlib city, told SMART News Agency that “the regime’s warplanes targeted the southern neighbourhood of Idlib, killing a child. As a result, seven civilians were wounded.”

@Step_Agency reported that four civilians were wounded in the airstrikes, not specifying the belligerent.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4249

Incident date

February 27, 2020

Location

شلخ, Shalakh, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Four or five civilians, including women and children, were killed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on the village of Shalakh, northern Idlib countryside, in the evening of February 27th, 2020, according to local sources.

Shaam News Network reported that the airstrikes occurred in the evening. Activists told Shaam that “Russian warplanes targeted civilian homes in the village of Shalakh in the northern countryside of Idlib, leaving a massacre of five civilians: four women and a girl”, which were pulled from underneath the rubble by Syrian Civil Defence volunteers.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights also reported that four women and one child were killed in Russian airstrikes, adding that most of the victims were part of the same family.

An employee from the media office of the Directorate of Civil Defence in Idlib reported the deaths of four civilians, including two children and a woman, and the injury of a man, possibly a Syrian Civil Defence volunteer.

Whereas most sources pointed to Russia as the belligerent, Step News Agency stated the Syrian regime had been responsible for the airstrike.

The incident occured in the evening.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4 – 5
  • (1–2 children1–3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4 – 5
  • (1–2 children1–3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4247A

Incident date

February 26, 2020

Location

قرية بيلون في جبل الزاويه, Billion village in Jabal Al Zawiya, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

A family of four, consisting of a man, woman and two children, was killed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes in the village of Billion in Jabal Al Zawiya, Idlib governorate, on February 26th, 2020, according to local sources. The bodies were reported found by the Syrian Civil Defence on February 28th, 2020.

Shaam reported that that Syrian Civil Defence volunteers found the bodies of four family members, identifying a father, mother and two children. Shaam wrote that the family was directly targeted during their attempt to flee near the outskirts of the village of Billion. The family was reportedly targeted with rockets while trying to displace a motorcycle near them.

A Syrian Civil Defence officer told SMART News Agency on February 28th that their volunteers had recovered the bodies two days after the incident, meaning that the incident must have occured on February 26th. SMART and Step News Agency blamed Russia for the airstrikes, whereas Shaam mentioned both Russia and the Syrian regime.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (2 children1 woman1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (2 children1 woman1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4243

Incident date

February 25, 2020

Location

بنش, Binnish, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Up to four civilians from the same family were reported killed, and 12 others injured in alleged Russian or Syrian regime forces airstrikes and/or artillery shelling on Binnish in Idlib, Syria on February 25th, 2020. Edlib Media Center said the regime attacked Binnish with rockets.

According to @abuhuzaifa_, the victims are Abdullah Abdul-Qadir Qutini aged 13, Abdel-Qader Anas Qutini aged 2, Samira Abdullah Makhzoum aged 50 and Safia Abdel-Moneim Makhzam aged 24. According to the same source, those are the child, brother, mother and wife of Anas Al Qutni, who lost his family in one day.

Shaam News said that four civilians died in Binnish after “Russian and Asadian air forces launched dozens of airstrikes amid artillery and missile shelling that targeted the  Idlib on February 25th, 2020.”

@ShahbaPress said that “four were killed, including a child and two women, and 12 civilians wounded, including six children and three women, as a result of intense raids by Assad warplanes on the city of Binnish in the eastern Idlib countryside.”

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 4
  • (1 child2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–12
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (20) [ collapse]

  • Aftermath of aristrikes in Binnish in Idlib, on February 25th, 2020. (via @ShahbaPress).
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish on Feb 25th, 2020, and SCD volunteers seen responding to the incident. (via MMC)
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • Damage to civilian houses caused by alleged Russian or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, February 25th, 2020 (via EMC).
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Two children killed in alleged Russian forces or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, Syria on February 25th, 2020. (via @abuhuzaifa)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Two children killed in alleged Russian forces or Syrian regime airstrikes on Binnish in Idlib, Syria on February 25th, 2020. (via SNHR)
  • Anas Qattini lost his children, his wife, his mother and his brother by alleged Russian bombing of the city of Binnish on February 25th, 2020. (via @abuhuzaifa)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 4
  • (1 child2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–12
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]