US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria

Civilians in the ruins of Mosul city. (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
US-led Coalition
Country
Iraq
Libya
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

CI604

Incident date

April 4, 2017

Location

الموصل: الثورة, Mosul, Thawra, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.34389, 43.103399 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

A single local sources reported that the wife of professor Hussein Qassem Al-Fakhri was killed in an airstrike on Al Thawra neighborhood in West Mosul.

No additional details are presently known. While the Coalition would later confirm two civilian casualty events in Mosul that day, the nearest was 2.5km from Al Thawra.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient evidence of civilian harm
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Thawra, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    38SLF298237
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Feb 22, 2018
  • After a review of available information and strike video it was assessed that there is insufficient evidence to find civilians were harmed in this strike.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For April 3rd-4th the Coalition publicly reported: “Near Mosul, six strikes engaged five ISIS tactical units and an ISIS machine gun team; destroyed five fighting positions, two VBIED factories, a weapons facility, and an anti-air artillery system; damaged three supply routes and three fighting positions; and suppressed four ISIS mortar teams, two ISIS tactical units, and an ISIS artillery team.”

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI637

Incident date

April 13, 2017

Location

الموصل: غرب/الجانب الأيمن, Mosul, West Mosul, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.336843, 43.117979 Note: The accuracy of this location is to level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Multiple local sources reported that Coalition airstrikes as well as raids carried out by Iraqi government forces led to the deaths of dozens of civilians, and left up to 181 people injured. The airstrikes hit several neighbourhoods in West Mosul on April 13th and 14th.

Entably Mumen (Facebook page) reported that Abu Yusuf was among the victims.

Also see CI636.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Abu Yusuf Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    22 – 37
  • (0–1 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    79–181
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Notice of death placed by Abu Yusuf's family on social media following his death on April 13th-14th 2017

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Mosul, Iraq
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jan 25, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For April 12th-13th the Coalition reported: “Near Mosul, six strikes engaged five ISIS tactical units and destroyed 11 fighting positions, five vehicles, two VBIEDs, two VBIED factories, a medium machine gun, a rocket-propelled grenade system, a mortar system; and damaged 15 ISIS supply routes, and a fighting position; in addition, suppressed 10 mortar systems, six fighting positions, two artillery systems and a rocket system.”

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    22 – 37
  • (0–1 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    79–181
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI669

Incident date

April 27, 2017

Location

مشيرفة, Mosul, Meshrfa, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.344722, 43.121111 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

A local eyewitness resident said that three civilians were killed including a young boy as a result of unspecified mortar shelling on a house in Meshrifa at the western side of Mosul.

An unpublished Amnesty International field report shared with Airwars cited a local resident: “A week before the liberation [27 April], a mortar landed on the side of our brother’s house. The strike killed three of our neighbours, including a young boy. He was in pieces – there were just pieces of his flesh, everywhere in the yard. Two other neighbours were wounded, and they had to bring them to the hospital on vegetable carts because there were no ambulances or vehicles. One of them had lost the lower parts of his legs in the strike. At the hospital, they said, “If the legs are cut, there’s nothing we can do.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention a house in Meshrifa neighbourhood (مشیرفة), West Mosul. The coordinates for Meshrifa neighbourhood (مشیرفة) are 36.344722, 43.121111.

  • Boundary of Meshrifa neighbourhood ( مشیرفة ), West Mosul

    Imagery:
    © 2018 Google

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Meshrfa, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    38SLF264391
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jan 25, 2018
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For April 26th-27th, the Coalition reported: “Near Mosul, seven strikes engaged five ISIS tactical units; destroyed 19 vehicles, eight front-end loaders, two ISIS fortifications, a command and control node, a mortar system, and an ISIS staging area; damaged seven ISIS supply routes and suppressed two mortar teams.“

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI706

Incident date

May 11, 2017

Location

17 تموز, Mosul, Tammuz / July 17th, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.3667014, 43.0854607 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

A local report said that a family was killed in shelling in the Tammuz neighborhood of western Mosul.

Ninawa Media Center reported that a father, son and the son’s daughter were all killed by shelling in Tammuz. As the report noted, “My dear brother, a random bombardment of July near the Mufti Mosque claimed the death of a father, son and daughter of his son. The people of the region buried them in the garden of his house. God let you stop the indiscriminate shelling.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient evidence of civilian harm
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Mosul, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    38SLF282264
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Feb 22, 2018
  • After a review of available information and strike video it was assessed that there is insufficient evidence to find that civilians were harmed in this strike.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For May 8th-9th: “Near Mosul, six strikes engaged five ISIS tactical units and a sniper; destroyed 12 fighting positions, seven rocket-propelled grenade systems, four medium machine guns, three mortar systems, two VBIED facilitation areas, two front-end loaders, a sniper position, a weapons cache, an IED facility, a roadblock, a VBIED; damaged 13 ISIS supply routes, three fighting positions; and suppressed a mortar position.

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI738

Incident date

May 30, 2017

Location

حي الزنجيلي, Mosul, Zanjili, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.3502851, 43.1098795 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Local sources reported that up to 200 civilians were killed and dozens wounded after airstrikes hit their houses in Zanjili neighbourhood (West Mosul) at dawn.

Omar Al Halbusi said on Facebook that the victims were mostly women and children, and that their bodies were still under the rubble.

@NinevehIraq reported on Twitter that Mohammed Bassil Tamimi Abu Yusuf was killed in the raids on Zanjili. He was married and had three children. The same was reported by a friend, Noble Al Ubeidy, who said that Mohammed had died as a result of shelling on his house.

Yaqein Agency said that both the Iraqi army and the international Coalition had bombed the area heavily, and said the counting of the victims was difficult due to the intensity of fighting and the ongoing shelling.

@Othmanmhmmadr said on Twitter that “horific testimonies come from Mosul”. He said “bodies are everywhere” and spoke of “a large massacre”.

Abu Alaa Wael Saimeh reported that as many as 200 civilians died, blaming the Iraqi government and the Coalition – the US in particular. This number was also mentioned by Alaraby news.

Alaraby spoke with an officer in the Iraqi army, who said that is unclear whether the strikes were carried out by the Iraqi government or the International Coalition. But “it is certain that dozens of houses in the neighbourhood were destroyed to the ground” and “the estimates speak of at least 200 victims, and these may be low estimates compared to reality.” He went on to say that “the streets of Al-Jadeed, Al-Naseem and the old school are filled with smoke, and a number of houses have been leveled.”

A member of the Mosul District, Mohammed Hassan, told the newspaper that the aircraft had chosen for this strategy after the army was unable to make progress and advance in the neighbourhood, resulting in “hysterical bombing”.

It furthermore reported that it saw hundreds of residents leaving the neighborhood after the air strikes, including dozens of wounded. They had left “through the corridors identified by the Iraqi Federal Police, which had announced that through loudspeakers after the bombing, which took several hours.”

A survivor told the newspaper “that he had buried his wife and then went out, while another [survivor] said that the people in the alley where they all lived had died because of the bombing. Residents who came out of the neighborhood seemed to be experiencing signs of extreme hunger and severe injuries.”

The newspaper concluded by saying that journalists had not been allowed to enter the area. Those that were given access, did so “with the requirement not to bring cameras, or even smart phones, into the neighborhood, indicating the commission of major crimes within the neighborhood.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Mohammed Bassil Tamimi Abu Yusuf Adult male Married with three children killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12 – 200
  • (1 woman1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Mohammad Basil al-Tamimi Abu Yusuf, killed in a strike on (via a friend of the victim, Noble Al Ubeidy)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Images of children allegedly injured in the attacks (via Abu Alaa Wael Saimeh)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient evidence of civilian harm
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Zanjili, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    38SLF308246
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Feb 22, 2018
  • After a review of available information and strike video it was assessed that there is insufficient evidence to find that civilians were harmed in this strike.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For May 29th-30th the Coalition publicly reported: “Near Mosul, four strikes engaged four ISIS tactical units and destroyed 34 vehicles, seven fighting positions, three VBIEDs, two mortar systems, two heavy machine guns, a medium machine gun, and a supply cache and damaged an ISIS-held building, an ISIS supply route and a fighting position.”

Iraq government forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iraq government forces
  • Iraq government forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12 – 200
  • (1 woman1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI774

Incident date

June 19, 2017

Location

الفاروق, Mosul, Farouk, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.3431411, 43.1257262 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Locals reported the deaths of 35 civilians during fighting for control of the Farouk area of Old Mosul.

Yaqein blamed the deaths on the assaulters, citing an Iraqi commander: “‘Our military operations in the Old City resulted in the killing of 32 people,’ the commander of the federal police, Raed Jawdat, told a news briefing.”

Iraqi Spring Media Center, citing agency reports, posted that 35 civilians had died as the result of a government attack on Farouk.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    32 – 35
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Oct 25, 2018
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For June 18th-19th: “Near Mosul, four strikes engaged three ISIS tactical units; destroyed 30 fighting positions, five medium machine guns, three mortar systems, two supply caches, and a rocket-propelled grenade system; damaged six ISIS supply routes and a tunnel; and suppressed two ISIS tactical units.” It was additionally reported that “On June 18, near Mosul, Iraq, two strikes engaged an ISIS tactical unit; destroyed 30 vehicles, two fighting positions, a rocket-propelled grenade system, and a medium machine gun; and damaged 18 ISIS supply routes.”

Iraq government forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iraq government forces
  • Iraq government forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    32 – 35
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Iraq government forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI807

Incident date

July 11, 2017

Location

المدينة القديمة, Mosul, Old City, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.34075, 43.126911 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Local sources reported that 200 homes in Old Mosul to the west of the city were completely destroyed with many of their residents presumed dead following the intense fighting of the previous weeks.

Hossam al Din al Abbar, a member of the Ninveh Provincial Council, was quoted by several sources as saying: The civil defence teams have recovered 1,700 bodies belonging to civilians from the rubble of the houses in the city of Mosul since the launch of the military campaign to liberate the city on October 17.

There are more than 200 homes that were destroyed in the Old City on the western side of Mosul so we expect the number of civilian casualties to double as the civil defence teams begin their recovery operations.

Presently, no further details with regards to the specifics of civilian casualties were available but will be presented when the information is acquired.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Unknown

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • A picture reveals the massive destruction following an intensive strike on Mosul. According to sources, civilians presumed dead following the intense fighting of the previous weeks (via Omar Al Halbusi)

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Old City of Mosul (موصل القديمة), for which the coordinates are: 36.34075, 43.126911.

  • Old City of Mosul (موصل القديمة)

    Imagery:
    © 2019 Google

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Mosul, Iraq
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Mar 28, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 10th-11th, the Coalition reported: “Near Mosul, one strike engaged an ISIS tactical unit; destroyed 28 fighting positions, 11 medium machine guns, an IED, and a VBIED facility; and damaged a fighting position.”

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Unknown

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI839

Incident date

September 7, 2017

Location

عنه, Anah, near Rafidain Bank, Anbar, Iraq

Geolocation

34.37167, 41.98286 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

Yaqein reported on the aerial bombardment of International Alliance aircraft on the districts of Anah, injuring 7 civilians. However, in two later reports, the news agency stated that the Iraqi army launched air raids targeting residential areas. The US-led Coalition later accepted responsibility for the event, saying it had unintentionally injured seven civilians.

The Iraqi Spring Media quoted the town council chief Abdul Karim al-Ani who confirmed the injury of 7 civilians, including children. He also stated that the Rafidain Bank was targeted.

In its July 2018 monthly report, the Coalition noted: “September 7, 2017, near Anah, Iraq, via Airwars report. During a strike on Daesh command and control nodes, seven civilians were unintentionally injured.”

The Coalition provided Airwars with the location of this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes (2) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention that the alleged Coalition airstrike targeted the Rafidain Bank in the center of Anah. The coordinates for the Rafidain Bank are: 34.372268, 41.983302. The bank itself doesn’t seem to be damaged, but on satellite imagery available to Airwars structural damage to a building in the vicinity can be seen between June 24 and September 19, 2017

  • The Rafidain Bank and the location at which structural damage can be seen on satellite imagery between June 24 and September 19, 2017

    Imagery:
    © 2018 Bing

  • MGRS coordinates

    Imagery:
    © 2018 Google

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    No reason given
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    7
  • Stated location
    near Anah, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SGU743074
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jul 26, 2018
  • September 7, 2017, near Anah, Iraq, via Airwars report. During a strike on Daesh command and control nodes, seven civilians were unintentionally injured.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For September 6th – 7th the Coalition reported “Near Al Qaim, one strike destroyed two ISIS front-end loaders.”

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (5) [ collapse]