US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria

Civilians in the ruins of Mosul city. (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
US-led Coalition
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Confirmed
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

CS162

Incident date

January 5, 2016

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.95088, 39.00887 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

Airstrikes targeted the Water Foundation building on the outskirts of Raqqah around midnight, killing an employee of the organization and two building guards according to the Syrian Observatory (which did not attribute the strike to any particular party.)

Other sources made no mention of casualties, although a propaganda video released by Daesh appeared to show damage to adjacent homes and shops.

On July 7th, 2017 the Coalition admitted responsibility for the incident, reporting: “Jan. 5, 2016, near Raqqah, Syria, via Airwars report: During a strike on an ISIS headquarters building, it was assessed that three civilians were unintentionally killed.”

In July 2019, the Coalition provided Airwars with the location of this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Aftermath of an apparently confirmed Coalition strike January 5th, which may have killed three non-combatants (via Raqqah Is Being Slaughtered Silently)
  • Tweet and images via @trbrtc relating to confirmed Coalition strike on Raqqa water facility.

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars had geolocated it to the nearest city at 35.9505639, 39.0094148

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    No reason given
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    3
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SEV008785
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jul 7, 2017
  • Jan. 5, 2016, near Raqqah, Syria, via Airwars report: During a strike on an ISIS headquarters building, it was assessed that three civilians were unintentionally killed.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For January 5th-6th 2016, the Coalition reported that “Near Ar Raqqah, one strike struck an ISIL headquarters building.”

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS158a

Incident date

December 24, 2015

Location

منبج, Manbij, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

35.80078, 38.26733 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

In an incident previously not tracked by Airwars, the Coalition later confirmed the injuries of two civilians near Manbij, Syria.

Their June 2019 civilian casualty report noted: “Coalition aircraft conducted an airstrike against Daesh terrorists. Regrettably, two civilians were unintentionally wounded due to their proximity to the strike.”

The Coalition provided Airwars with the location of this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    Other
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    2
  • Stated location
    near Manbij, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SDV338621
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jun 28, 2019
  • Dec. 24, 2015, near Manbij, Syria, via self-report. Coalition aircraft conducted an airstrike against Daesh terrorists. Regrettably, two civilians were unintentionally wounded due to their proximity to the strike.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

Near Manbij, five strikes struck four separate ISIL tactical units and destroyed six ISIL vehicles,
an ISIL fighting position, and wounded two ISIL fighters

Summary

  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS158

Incident date

December 24, 2015

Location

تشرين, Tishreen, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.34864, 38.221 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

In a previously unknown casualty event, CENTCOM confirmed on April 22nd 2016 that one civilian was killed during a US airstrike at Tishreen near Manbij.

According to the official release, “On Dec. 24, 2015, in Tishreen, Syria, near Manbij, during a strike on two ISIL fighters in a vehicle, it is assessed that one civilian on a motorcycle was killed riding up to the target area after weapons were already in flight.”

Local media reported that Syrian rebels captured Tishreen from Islamic State that day. According to Step News, “The international coalition launched three raids on residential areas in the area of Tishreen Dam in the Manbij countryside which led to material damage to a bakery and a mosque in the city, though the human cost is not known.”

In July 2019 the Coalition provided Airwars with coordinates for this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • tweet linking to video [no longer available] showing the automatic bakery in Tishreen dam area, Manbij, eastern Aleppo after it was destroyed by warplanes. 24th December 2015
  • Step news tweet reporting news of SDF gaining control of Tishreen Dam following 'intense clashes with Islamic state', 24th December 2015

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars had geolocated it to the nearest neighbourhood/area at 36.3895748, 38.1604528

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    Entered target area just prior to or after munition released
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    1
  • Stated location
    in Tishreen, Syria, near Manbij
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SDA301229
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Apr 22, 2016
  • On Dec. 24, 2015, in Tishreen, Syria, near Manbij, during a strike on two ISIL fighters in a vehicle, it is assessed that one civilian on a motorcycle was killed riding up to the target area after weapons were already in flight.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI164

Incident date

December 21, 2015

Location

الرمادي, Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq

Geolocation

33.43747, 43.28632 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

A Coalition strike, possibly by drone, killed five civilians after a missile was said to have hit a restaurant in 17 Street in Ramadi.

On June 7th, 2017 the Coalition admitted responsibility for the incident, reporting: “Dec. 21, 2015, near Ramadi, Iraq, via Airwars report: During a strike on ISIS fighters, it was assessed that five civilians were unintentionally killed in an adjacent structure.”

In July 2019, the Coalition provided Airwars with the location of this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars had geolocated it to the nearest city at 33.437441, 43.286666

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    Killed in adjacent structure
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    5
  • Stated location
    near Ramadi, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    38SLC407011
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jul 7, 2017
  • Dec. 21, 2015, near Ramadi, Iraq, via Airwars report: During a strike on ISIS fighters, it was assessed that five civilians were unintentionally killed in an adjacent structure.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

The Coalition reported that for December 21st-22nd 2015, “Near Ramadi, six strikes struck two separate ISIL tactical units and destroyed four ISIL command and control nodes, four ISIL weapons caches, two ISIL buildings, an ISIL vehicle borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), wounded two ISIL fighters, and denied ISIL access to terrain.”

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI156

Incident date

December 12, 2015

Location

الرمادي, Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq

Geolocation

33.52068, 43.00152 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

A family of five including three children was killed in a US airstrike on the Albothiab Island area of Ramadi.

The deceased, the Kazem family, were later named by Al Fallujah News.

CENTCOM confirmed the casualty event on April 22nd 2016, noting: “On Dec. 12, 2015, in Ramadi, Iraq, during a strike on ISIL personnel at a suspected ISIL checkpoint, it is assessed that five civilians were killed after they unexpectedly moved into the target location after weapons were already in flight.“

It was also reported that the day before the incident, Iraqi government aircraft had targeted civilian taxis in the same area, killing two.

In July 2019 the Coalition provided Airwars with coordinates for this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (5)

  • Duraid Ibrahim Kazem Adult male Father, named by Al Fallujah News killed
  • Nebras Abdul Alkarim Adult male Mother, named by Al Fallujah News killed
  • Mustafa Child male Child, named by Al Fallujah News killed
  • Mohammed Child male Child, named by Al Fallujah News killed
  • Farah Child female Child, named by Al Fallujah News killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (3 children1 woman1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Family of five killed in a reported Coalition strike December 10 (via Ramadi News)

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars had geolocated it to the nearest city at 33.437441, 43.286666

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    Entered target area just prior to or after munition released
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    5
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    5
  • Stated location
    in Ramadi, Iraq
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    38SLC144108
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Apr 22, 2016
  • On Dec. 12, 2015, in Ramadi, Iraq, during a strike on ISIL personnel at a suspected ISIL checkpoint, it is assessed that five civilians were killed after they unexpectedly moved into the target location after weapons were already in flight.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

Near Ramadi, six strikes struck three separate ISIL tactical units and destroyed an ISIL vehicle, two ISIL command and control nodes, an ISIL assembly area, two ISIL fighting positions, and denied ISIL access to terrain.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (3 children1 woman1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS155

Incident date

December 10, 2015

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.94907, 39.00222 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

In a casualty event previously unknown to Airwars, CENTCOM confirmed on April 22nd 2016 that one civilian was killed during a US airstrike against a high value target in Raqqah.

According to the official release, “On Dec. 10, 2015, near Ar Raqqah, Syria, during strikes against Siful Sujan, an ISIL external operations planner, it was assessed that one civilian was killed.”

Our researchers have been unable to identify any additional reports relating to this incident.

In July 2019, the Coalition provided Airwars with coordinates for this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars geolocated it to the nearest city at 35.9505639, 39.0094148

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    No reason given
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    1
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SEV002783
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Apr 22, 2016
  • On Dec. 10, 2015, near Ar Raqqah, Syria, during strikes against Siful Sujan, an ISIL external operations planner, it was assessed that one civilian was killed.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

Near Ar Raqqah, one strike struck an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed an ISIL vehicle and wounded ISIL fighters.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS149 RS175

Incident date

November 20, 2015

Location

البوكمال, Abu Kamal, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

35.32887, 40.12997 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Within 100m (via Coalition)

Airwars assessment

The Violations Documentation Center listed five non-combatants, including two women and one child, as killed in an alleged Russian or Coalition airstrike near Al Bukamal. At least two of those killed were said to work for the local electricity company, who died when an oil tank was targeted.

VDC named two male victims and additionally they listed three unidentified victims – 2 women and a male child.

The Syrian Observatory also reported a man and child killed.

The United States later said it was responsible, noting a year later that “near Dayr Az Zawr, Syria, against an ISIL tactical unit, it is assessed that five civilians were killed and three individuals were injured after the civilians entered the target area after the aircraft released its weapon.”

In July 2019, the Coalition provided Airwars with the location of this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (1 child2 women2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • @DeirEzzor24 tweets a photo of the alleged Russian raids on al Mayadeen on 20/11/2015
  • tweet reporting death of two employees of the electricity company following an air raid that targeted a fuel tank near the company. [Via: ahraralmayadein]
  • Tweet reporting dead and wounded among employees in the electricity company in the town of al Boukamal following alleged coalition raids. [Via: @JisrTV]
  • Tweet reporting Russian raids on al Sukariya neighbourhood in al Boukamal and on the town of Hatla Tahtani. [Via: @Syria_Rebels]

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars had geolocated it to the nearest city at 34.466049, 40.907593

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    Entered target area just prior to or after munition released
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    5
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    3
  • Stated location
    near Dayr Az Zawr, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SFV027101
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Nov 9, 2016
  • November 20, 2015, near Dayr Az Zawr, Syria, against an ISIL tactical unit, it is assessed that five civilians were killed and three individuals were injured after the civilians entered the target area after the aircraft released its weapon.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

The Coalition has confirmed in its November 20th-21st reports to attacking the city that day: “Near Abu Kamal, one strike struck an ISIL crude oil collection point.”

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia reported that “On November 20, the ships of the Caspian flotilla performed launches of 18 cruise missiles against 7 targets in the Raqqah, Idlib and Aleppo provinces. All the aims were hit.” It added that “29 aircraft of long-range and bomber aviation made strikes from the zone of the Caspian Sea,” though gave no details of the areas targeted.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (1 child2 women2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS144

Incident date

November 14, 2015

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah [exact location], Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.955939, 38.992188 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Exact location (via Airwars)

Airwars assessment

At least three civilians died in a Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, the alliance later confirmed.

At the time the Syrian Observatory cited “reliable sources’ as saying that “Coalition warplanes targeted a heavy machine gun for IS near al-Nour mosque but missed the target and killed 3 people at least by opening fire on a house.”

Airwars initially listed the event for November 15th. In its monthly July 2017 report, the Coalition denied responsibility, saying it had conducted no strikes in the near vicinity that day: “Nov. 15, 2015, near Raqqah, Syria, via Airwars report: After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographic area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties. “

After reassessing original reports, the reported incident [originally S140] was identified by Airwars as likely having occurred on November 14th. The Coalition has since confirmed a civilian casualty event on this date. According to the Coalition’s August 2017 monthly casualty report, “Nov. 14, 2015, near Raqqah, Syria, via self-report: During a strike on an ISIS vehicle, after reviewing post-strike video, it was assessed that three civilians were unintentionally killed and one was injured.”

The Coalition provided Airwars with the location of this incident, accurate to within a one metre box. The location given placed the strike next to the Al Nour mosque in the an Nadah neighbourhood of Raqqa.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (11) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    No reason given
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    3
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    1
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    1 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SDV9929579061
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Aug 4, 2017
  • Nov. 14, 2015, near Raqqah, Syria, via self-report: During a strike on an ISIS vehicle, after reviewing post-strike video, it was assessed that three civilians were unintentionally killed and one was injured.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For November 13th-14th the Coalition reported that “Near Ar Raqqah, two strikes destroyed an ISIL building.”

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (11) [ collapse]