Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TI089

Incident date

December 2, 2022

Location

جبل اسوس شارباجار, Mount Assos, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed and up to five others were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes/drone strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022.

The mayor of Charbajar, Shaho Othman, told Kurdistan 24  that three people were wounded and three civilians were missing following Turkish airstrikes on Mount Assos. Kurdistan 24 later revised their casualty count to one person killed and two others wounded, adding that four people were hunting in the mountain and hiding in the cave of Kelashin when the strikes occurred and that one person is still missing.

Kurdistan Revolution posted on Facebook that a civilian named Aziz Muhammad Rasool who worked as a farmer was killed and two others were injured.

A tweet from @cptiraq reported that six civilians were victims of the bombing, with one civilian killed (Aziz Muhamed) and five others injured (Muhamad Kadir, Kwexa Muhamad, Zana Muhamad, Saeed Muhamad and Salih Kadir).

Roj News Agency, quoting the mayor of Mawat district Kamiran Hassan, reported that a group of civilians were collecting wild herbs in the village of Kalala when Turkish airstrikes hit. Mayor Kamiran Hassan told Rudaw News Network that one civilian was killed and one was injured from the bombing, and that the victims were from the village of Qamish. Medya News put the casualty toll at two civilians killed and three injured, adding that medial teams could not rescue them until late in the day because of fear of a second bombardment.

The majority of sources attributed the incident to Turkish forces, with Rudaw News pointing out that it was unknown whether the bombing was carried out by warplanes or drones.

The incident occured around midday.

The victims were named as:

Aziz Muhammad Rasool عزيز محمد رسول
Age unknown killed
Muhamad Kadir
Age unknown injured
Kwexa Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Zana Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Saeed Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Salih Kadir
Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Alleged strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)
  • Location of alleged Turkish drone strikes on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by @cptiraq)
  • One of the victims of the alleged Turkish strikes near Zarun village on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by @cptiraq)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI024a IRI002

Incident date

July 10, 2019

Location

ديري, Dere, Erbil, Iraq

Geolocation

37.098683, 43.520804 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One to two civilians, including an 18-year-old girl, were killed and up to four others injured in alleged Turkish or Iranian artillery strikes in the Bradost region of Iraqi Kurdistan on July 10th, 2019 according to local media reports.

Al-Monitor reported that Iranian artillery shelled the Sidakan border area in Erbil province on July 10th killing a civilian and wounding two others.

ANF said both Iran and Turkey carried out strikes in the area that resulted in the deaths of two civilians and injured four others.

Ihsan Chalabi, mayor of Sidakan town, told Al-Monitor: “On [July 10] at 12:10 p.m. local time, on grounds of targeting the Iranian opposition groups in the region, Iranian artillery shelled areas of Barbazin and Dere, and the villages of Dustanan, Zhuzhila and Talan. Unfortunately, a Kurdish girl named Zaitun Qadir, 18 years old, was martyred, and two of her brothers — Ali, 14 years, and Sirwan, aged 23, were severely injured.”

“The civilians were engaged with agricultural work in Dere village when the Islamic Republic of Iran’s artillery hit them. Consequently, all orchards and wild pastures burned and local citizens evacuated the area. We call on both Iran to halt shelling and the Iranian parties to not launch attacks on Iran from our area, for the sake of protecting civilian lives and their properties.”

Mr Chalabi said that Iran has haphazardly shelled the area from time to time, he insisted there were no clear headquarters and bases of Iranian opposition parties in the area.

The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) on Wednesday in a statement condemned the bombardment and said it “will not allow its border to be used for attacking and disrupting the security of neighbor countries.”

ANF reported that at 9 am the following day Iran and Turkey continued to bombard the Balakati and Bradost regions throughout the day with howitzers, mortars and katusha rockets aided by Iranian reconnaissance planes.

It was reported that whilst the villagers tried to extinguish the fires caused by the bombardments, hundreds of hectares of land was burnt.

EKurd Daily also reported that a girl was killed and her two brothers injured. According to the source, the Iranian army also shelled the villages of Kudo, Alana, and Gundzhor in Haji Omaran of Iraqi Kurdistan.

The incident occured at 12:10:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

18 years old female killed
14 years old male Brother of Zaitun Qadir injured
23 years old male Brother of Zaitun Qadir injured

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Dere (ديري), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.098683, 43.520804. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attackers
    Iranian Military, Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Iranian army shells Bradost sub-district in Iraqi Kurdistan, July 10, 2019. Photo: Screengrab/Rudaw TV
  • A picture showing what is said to be Iranian shelling of Iraqi Kurdistan, seen in an image uploaded July 11, 2019. - Twitter/@PDKIenglish

Iranian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iranian Military
  • Iranian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attackers
    Iranian Military, Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI097

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

مخيم مخمور, Makhmur Camp, Erbil Governorate , Kurdistan, Iraq

Airwars assessment

On October 7th, 2023, a civilian was killed and at least three civilians—a woman and two boys— were injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on the Makhmour Camp in the Erbil Governorate of the Iraqi Kurdistan region.

The woman, who remains unnamed, was reported to be 72-years-old (born in 1951), and appears to have received an injury to her arm or shoulder; images from sources corroborate this. One of the boys was reported to be 15 (born in 2008); images included show him with an oxygen mask and IV. The other boy, who appears to be younger, was pictured receiving medical care to his leg. Rudaw Media Network reported that one other civilian was killed, but this was not corroborated elsewhere, and no identifying details of this victim were made public. Those injured were housed in the second section of the camp.

The strike occurred at 7:05 pm, according to Rudaw, and hit the camp mosque during the evening prayer. Rashad Kalali, the deputy official of Kurdish political party Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, was reported by Rudaw as saying that there were rumors that PKK militants were inside the camp, which resulted in its targeting. These rumors, Kalali stressed, were not accurate.

The camp, which locals call the Martyr Rustam Cudi Camp, houses between 10,000 to 12,000 people, primarily Kurds displaced from neighboring Turkey.

The incident occured at 19:05:00 local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Religious Institution
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: ANF
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Religious Institution
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI078

Incident date

May 21, 2022

Location

اأغجلر, Aghjalar, Sulaimani, Iraq

Geolocation

35.817025, 44.698458 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Street level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least two civilians were killed and at least one other civilian was injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on the road near the village of Tutaqal in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022.

Rudaw News reported that two alleged Turkish drones struck a vehicle traveling in the subdistrict of Aghjalar killing five passengers, including at least two members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). Rudaw News quoted the mayor of Aghjalar, Hemin Bahjat, who said “targeted a PKK base and a Toyota Hilux vehicle which carried four passengers who were all killed. According to initial reports, two of the passengers were locals while two others were PKK fighters.” The mayor later added that another person was killed in the attack and that “we could not confirm that there were PKK fighters inside the car, because all the five persons were burnt up”.

Various sources specifically identified the incident as occurring in Tutaqal village, Kurdistan24 adding that it is located “at the foothills of Khal Khalan”. Rudaw News also quoted a resident of Tutaqal village, Halo Zahir, who told Rudaw’s Rawchi Hassan that the vehicle belonged to the PKK. Images posted by Rudaw News show extensive damage to the pickup truck allegedly hit by Turkish drone strikes.

A citizen of the village of Tutaqal told Rudaw News that one of the people killed was named Aram Kaka Khan, who was from the people of Tutaqal, and the second citizen was called Ismael, who was from the village of (Jalamrda) in the borders of Ağcılar district.”

Segirt News reported that the civilians were killed when the came to provide assistance to the PKK fighters who were wounded in the initial bombing, and then all five were killed in the subsequent bombing.

A tweet from @cptiraq laid out the series of events that occurred: “On May 21st , the Turkish war planes bombed Tutaqal village of Aghjalar town at 5:15 a.m. At 9:00 a.m, the mukhtar of Tutaqal, Aram Haji Kaka Khan, and his brother-in-law Ismaeil Ibrahim, went to the area that was bombed earlier that morning. They found three injured PKK guerilla members at the bombing site. Aram tried to drive the injured people to the Aghjalar hospital. But the Turkish drones bombed his vehicle at 9:35 a.m., killing him, his brother-in-law, and the three guerilla members.”

Adil Majeed, relative of the victims, told The New Arab “Early today the Turkish drones were initially targeting some PKK fighters who were based in a rural jungle from Tutaqal village, then the drones were observing all cars in the area. It seems some of the PKK fighters were wounded and they sought help from civilian cars in a nearby road, consequently the drones attacked the pick-up car, and killed two of my cousins who were from working as farmers.” Majeed added that his two cousins were survivors of the 1988 Anfal genocide.

Head of Aghjalar district administration, Hemin Bahjat, told BasNews that “initial reports indicate that at least three of the killed were members of the PKK” and that there were “unconfirmed reports of destruction of a PKK military base near Dutaqal village of Aghjalar, in the vicinity of Chamchamal.” ANF quoted Roj News Agency, which reported that a civilian car was struck on the road between the villages of Tutaqal and Galmurd, resulting in the death of five civilians and another wounded.

A security source in Chamchamal confirmed to Hawar News that the bombing of the village led to the death of “5 citizens and the injury of another”. The source added that the bodies had been transferred to forensic medicine and their identifies had not been identified yet. Segirt quoted a forensic source in Chamchamal who told AFP “two bodies from the people of the Chamchamal area arrived at the city hospital, and then were transferred to the forensic medicine office in Sulaymaniyah.”

According to Rudaw, the official Turkish state news agency Anadolu Agency reported that one of the people killed was a HPG commander named Mehmet Dooganan, also known as ‘Dilxaz Gabar’.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the drone strikes to Turkey. Kurdistan24 quoted a local sources that said that “Turkish drones are still flying over the area, which has also prevented Kurdish security forces from entering the area.”

The incident occured at approximately 9:00 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Aram Kaka Khan
Age unknown male killed
Ismaeil Ibrahim
Age unknown male killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention a vehicle struck on the road between the villages of Tutaqal (توتاقلي) and Galmurd (جلمورد). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for the Tutaqal-Galmurd road are: 35.817025, 44.698458.

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Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 5
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2–3

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (11) [ collapse]

  • Map showing the location where the drone strikes occurred, published by Rudaw News
  • Destruction to a pickup truck caused by alleged Turkish drone strikes in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • Destruction to a pickup truck caused by alleged Turkish drone strikes in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • Destruction to a pickup truck caused by alleged Turkish drone strikes in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • Destruction to a pickup truck caused by alleged Turkish drone strikes in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • Destruction to a pickup truck caused by alleged Turkish drone strikes in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • Smoke from the car struck by a drone in Aghjalar on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)
  • Two of the victims killed in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Chamchamal on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @RebwarAhmad88)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 5
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2–3

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI090

Incident date

January 13, 2023

Location

قرية خليفان, Khalifan village, Erbil, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Two children were injured when Turkish forces allegedly shot them in the village of Khalifan on January 13, 2022.

Alyaum TV reported that two children were injured while grazing cattle in the “Khalifan” area of the “Sidkan” district when Turkish forces shot them. Hawar News (quoting Roj News Agency) added that the children were shot with live bullets and Ronahi TV added that the children were taken to the hospital.

Kurdistan24 provided the names of the children as Lazim Murad Hamadamin and Bahzad Awdi Yusif, referring to them as “shepherds.” Ehsan Chalabi, Mayor of Sidekan, told Kurdistan24 that the two injured civilians were in stable condition.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the shooting to the Turkish armed forces.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Image of two children injured when Turkish forces allegedly shot them in Khalifan village on January 13, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • Two children being treated for their injuries after Turkish forces shot them on January 13, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI036

Incident date

May 30, 2020

Location

درلوك, Deralok, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.056989, 43.652121 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A father and son were killed and another civilian was injured after an alleged Turkish airstrike near the town of Deraluk, Amedi district, on May 30th, 2020, according to local media reports.

The victims were Jalal Nuradin, 60, and his son Ahmed Nuradin, 32, reported K24, Christian Peacemaker Teams and Ahval.

Khalil Nerway, a relative of the victims, said an additional person was injured in the strike. “We have not yet seen the wounded, but we are told that his health is stable”, Mr. Nerway told Rudaw. Jalal, a retired Peshmerga, and his son were farming ancestral land “to make ends meet for their families”, according to the source. Neither of the bodies had been returned to the family at the time of reporting due to the difficulties in accessing the site of the bombing according to Mr. Nerway.

K24, Christian Peacemaker Teams and Ahval reported that the strike took place in the village of Hetuta.

Rudaw quoted unnamed officials as saying the strike targeted “suspected Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) positions in the Deralok sub-district of Amedi, close to the border with Turkey”. The attack took place at 09:30 am, according to Rudaw reporter Nasir Ali.

On May 30th 2020, the official Twitter account of the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Turkey Tweeted: “Two PKK terrorists, who were identified by means of reconnaissance and surveillance in the Avasin region of northern Iraq, were neutralized by an air operation. Our operations will continue until the last terrorist is neutralized.”

Mohammed Salim Nerweyi, head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) in Deralok, told Rudaw that the deceased were civilians.

“No politician has even come to talk to us and offer condolences” Ahmad Nuradeen Muhiyadeen, Jalal’s brother, told The Guardian on April 4th, 2021.

Adam Gnych, who reported on the incident, provided Airwars with a transcript of an interview with Ahmed Nuradeen Muhiyadeen, Jalal’s brother:

“When we left for the trip there were four of us – me, Jalal, Ahmed and one of our neighbours. In the evening we went and stayed in the valley (the Rashava valley). Before dawn we set off, on the other side of the mountain we split the group, Jelal, Ahmed and our neighbour went one way, I went another way. I collected some mushrooms and some grasses; in the evening I came back home to Deraluk. The others stayed there for three days. On the fourth day, when they intended to come back to Deraluk, they were targeted. My neighbour told me that he found a beehive, he told Jalal and Ahmad to wait for him and drink some tea, on his way to the beehives he heard two bombings. When he returned to the place he saw that Jalal and Ahmed had been killed along with their horses. The area is very far away and surrounded by mountains so it’s hard to get a signal (telephone)… the incident took place at 8:30 am at 10 am we were contacted and told that both of them had been killed…. Jalal was a peshmerga before he retired. He couldn’t afford to sustain his family, our economic situation was very hard. Ahmed was jobless so they were obliged to risk their lives by going to the mountains to collect grasses and mushrooms to sell in the local bazaar.”

According to Mr Muhiyadeen, Ahmad had studied until the 6th grade, at which point he was forced to leave school due to the family’s economic situation. “He was so smart and so clever, he knew as much as a teacher. He was always reading the Quran and he liked playing football with his friends… I want this conflict to stop, neither the PKK nor Turkey have any reason to be here, they are just here to ruin our lives, we hope this war stops so that no more civilians will become victims like my brother and nephew.”

According to the family, Jalal was a father of eight (six sons and two daughters), Ahmed had two wives and three children (two sons one daughter).

The incident occured at 08:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

60 years old male Father of Ahmed Nuradin killed
32 years old male Son of Jalal Nuradin killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Deraluk (درلوك), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.056989, 43.652121. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • An image of Jalal and Ahmed Nuradin, who were killed in an alleged Turkish airstrike while they were farming their ancestral land on May 30th 2020. (Uploaded by K24)
  • The graves of Ahmed and Jalal Nuradin, who were killed in an alleged Turkish airstrike near the town of Deraluk on May 30th, 2020. (Uploaded by Christian Peacemaker Teams)
  • An image that accompanied a Rudaw article about the strike. The image ran with the caption: “Deraluk’s Linkiyan mountains, where Saturday’s airstrike took place” (Uploaded by Rudaw TV)
  • A graphic showing the location of an alleged Turkish strike that killed Ahmed and Jalal Nuradin on May 30th, 2020. (Uploaded by The Guardian)
  • A map that accompanied a Rudaw article about the strike on May 30th, 2020, which killed Ahmed and Jalal Nuradin. (Uploaded by Rudaw)
  • An image that accompanied an article about the death of Jalal and Ahmed Nuradin who died in an alleged Turkish airstrike near the town of Deraluk on May 30th 2020. (Uploaded by K24)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Media
from belligerent (1) [ collapse]

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI098

Incident date

October 13, 2023

Location

مخيم مخمور, Makhmur camp, Erbil Governorate , Kurdistan, Iraq

Airwars assessment

A woman was injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike hit a home in the Makhmur camp at approximately 9:25AM on October 13th, 2023.

The woman, 50-year-old Aisha Muhammad Ahmed, was a resident of the camp, which houses between 10,000 to 12,000 displaced Kurds. Her injuries, many of which look to be on her face and head, appeared to be severe. According to the co-chair of the camp’s People’s Council, Youssef Kara, the strike his the house of Rojhat Saleh.

A source told Shafaq News Agency that “The bombing was carried out by a Turkish drone and targeted a location inside the camp where supporters of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party live. The bombing site is close to the site that was bombed last week, and the damage is not yet known.”

The incident occured at 09:25:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Aisha Muhammad Ahmed عائشة محمد أحمد
50 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv
  • Source: هامسا الكردية Hamsa Kurdish
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: هامسا الكردية Hamsa Kurdish
  • Source: ANF

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI079

Incident date

May 21, 2022

Location

مەخموور, Makhmur, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

35.75382, 43.605244 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed and seven others were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur refugee camp on May 21, 2022. In addition, one to two alleged members of the PKK were killed in the same incident.

Camp director Nechirvan Mahmoud told AFP that a suspected Turkish drone struck a vehicle in Makhmur refugee camp, killing a resident.

According to @SweeneySteve, at least seven people were injured in the strikes on Makhmour refugee camp. @dersi4m reported that a young man named Haci Mirza Ali who was injured in the same strikes died from his injuries the following day.

BasNews reported that according to a Turkish security source, the person killed was a senior commander of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) named Mehmet Erdogan, codenamed Ahmet Rubar. “The source added that Rubar had directed and overseen the PKK operations in the northern areas of Makhmur, Sulaymaniyah, and Kirkuk since 2021. He used a fake ID card under the name Haji Mirza Ali, the source revealed.” Overall, BasNews identified “several people” as being killed and injured.

A tweet from @nicolas62574020 added that Turkey’s national intelligence organization accused Erdogan of “attempting to overthrow the constitutional order and violating Turkey’s territorial integrity” after joining the PKK in 1990. @SardarSattar added that “several PKK members” were killed in a PKK vehicle.

In contrast to reporting that those killed were militants, Media News reported that the vehicle struck belonged to the civilian and none of the sources specifically refer to Haci Mirza Ali as being a member of the PKK.

The New Arab pointed out that Makhmur refugee camp hosts more than 12,000 Kurdish refugees and that the camp is being sponsored by the United Nations.

The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), one of the two major political parties in the KRI, released a statement condemning the drone strike: “We call on the Iraqi government to fulfil its constitutional and national obligation to protect Iraqi soil and air space, including the KRI. The Iraqi government should approach the Turkish government about these violations through diplomatic channels. The KRI administration should summon Turkey’s ambassador and communicate to him its discontent with these attacks. There can be no excuse for border violations of this nature, resulting in civilian deaths and injuries.”

All of the sources that report on the incident attributed the drone strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured at approximately 12:00 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Haci Mirza Ali
Adult male killed

Geolocation notes (3) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention a vehicle being struck in Makhmur (مەخموور) refugee camp. Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed down the exact location of the strike to these coordinates: 35.75382, 43.605244.

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  • Imagery:
    Medya News

  • Imagery:
    Medya News

  • Imagery:
    Medya News

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1–2

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • Mehmet Erdogan, who was killed in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by BasNews)
  • Mehmet Erdogan, who was killed in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. Turkey has accused Erdogan of being a member of the PKK. (Image posted by @nicolas62574020)
  • Truck hit by alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @nicolas62574020)
  • Truck hit by alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @nicolas62574020)
  • Residents of Makhmur camp surround the truck hit by alleged Turkish drone strikes on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @dersi4m)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1–2

Sources (14) [ collapse]