Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident date

June 17, 2022

Incident Code

TI083

LOCATION

كلار, Kalar, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Four people were killed and one was injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on the town of Kalar on June 17, 2022. Conflicting reporting was given as to whether all of those killed and injured were members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) or whether at least one of the people killed, Hussein Shibli, was

Summary

First published
June 17, 2022
Last updated
August 17, 2022
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Belligerents reported killed
5
Belligerents reported injured
1
View Incident

Incident date

June 17, 2022

Incident Code

TI084

LOCATION

كيسته, Kesta, Duhok, Iraq

Two women were injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling and/or heavy machine gun fire on Kesta village in Kani Massi district on June 17, 2022 Shafaq News reported that Turkish forces launched artillery against Kesta Village, north of Duhok, which resulted in the injury of two women. Omed Kestayi, chieftain (mukhtar) of Kesta village in

Summary

First published
June 17, 2022
Last updated
July 28, 2022
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Artillery, Ground operation
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
2
Causes of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
2 named
View Incident

Incident date

July 17, 2022

Incident Code

TI085

LOCATION

بوابة الشام, Bab Al Sham, Nineveh, Iraq

At least five people were alleged killed and two others wounded in a drone strike in western Mosul on July 17, 2022. One woman and three men were reported killed in the attack, in a drone that state security services claimed to belong to Turkish forces. Sources were conflicted as to whether or not those

Summary

First published
July 17, 2022
Last updated
July 20, 2022
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
5
(1 woman)
Civilians reported injured
2
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Named victims
1 named
Belligerents reported killed
0–5
Belligerents reported injured
0–2
View Incident

Incident date

July 20, 2022

Incident Code

TI086

LOCATION

برخ, Parkh, Duhok, Iraq

Between eight and 10 civilians, including three children, were killed and up to 45 others, including four women and two children, were injured in alleged Turkish bombing of the village of Parkh on July 20, 2022. According to BasNews, five tourists were killed and 15 others were injured by Turkish shelling of a summer resort

Summary

First published
July 20, 2022
Last updated
August 2, 2022
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike and/or Artillery
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
8 – 10
(3 children4 men)
Civilians reported injured
20–45
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
16 named, 3 families identified
View Incident

Incident date

August 29, 2022

Incident Code

TI087

LOCATION

مخيم مخمور, Makhmour camp, Erbil, Iraq

At least one civilian was killed and up to four others were injured, including women and children, when a Turkish airplane or drone launched strikes on a home in Makhmour camp on August 29, 2022. Some local sources indicate that a member of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) was also killed in the incident. Hawar

Summary

First published
August 29, 2022
Last updated
October 4, 2022
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
Civilians reported injured
4
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Named victims
1 named
Geolocation
Neighbourhood/area
Belligerents reported killed
1
View Incident

Incident date

October 16, 2022

Incident Code

TI088

LOCATION

برادوست, Bradost area, Erbil, Iraq

At least one civilian, a woman, was injured by alleged Turkish airstrikes or drone strikes on the Bradost area in northern Erbil province on October 16, 2022. Kurdistan 24 reported that a 30 year old woman named Sharmin Asad was injured by Turkish airstrike in the Bradost area in northern Erbil province. Ihsan Chalabi, the

Summary

First published
October 16, 2022
Last updated
October 18, 2022
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
1
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

December 2, 2022

Incident Code

TI089

LOCATION

جبل اسوس شارباجار, Mount Assos, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

At least one civilian was killed and up to five others were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes/drone strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022. The mayor of Charbajar, Shaho Othman, told Kurdistan 24  that three people were wounded and three civilians were missing following Turkish airstrikes on Mount Assos. Kurdistan 24 later revised their casualty

Summary

First published
December 2, 2022
Last updated
January 17, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike
Civilian infrastructure
Agriculture
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1 – 2
Civilians reported injured
1–5
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
6 named
View Incident

Incident date

January 13, 2023

Incident Code

TI090

LOCATION

قرية خليفان, Khalifan village, Erbil, Iraq

Two children were injured when Turkish forces allegedly shot them in the village of Khalifan on January 13, 2022. Alyaum TV reported that two children were injured while grazing cattle in the “Khalifan” area of the “Sidkan” district when Turkish forces shot them. Hawar News (quoting Roj News Agency) added that the children were shot

Summary

First published
January 13, 2023
Last updated
January 17, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Ground operation
Civilian infrastructure
Agriculture
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
2
Cause of injury / death
Small arms and light weapons
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

April 15, 2023

Incident Code

TI091

LOCATION

بنجوين, Kani Miran, Saliawah and Waryawh, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Two civilians were killed and two others were injured by alleged Turkish drone strikes on the villages of Kani Miran, Saliawah and Waryawh in Sulaymaniyah on April 15, 2023. The head of the local government in the province of Sulaymaniyah, Haval Abu Bakr, was quoted by a Facebook post from Adil Hamood as announcing that

Summary

First published
April 15, 2023
Last updated
May 12, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
Civilians reported injured
2
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

August 6, 2023

Incident Code

TI092

LOCATION

قرية جنارتوي, Gnartuy Village, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

On August 6th, 2023, an alleged Turkish drone strike hit Gnartuy village in Suliemaniah province, Iraq; according to Shafaq News, the strike killed one civilian and injured another, while Alaraby and Roj News reported that the strike injured two civilians. Alaraby reported that one civilian was from Halabja and that another held Syrian Kurdish nationality, although

Summary

First published
August 6, 2023
Last updated
September 1, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
Civilians reported injured
1–2
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

August 6, 2023

Incident Code

TI093

LOCATION

جمانكي, Jamanki area, Duhok, Iraq

On August 6th, 2023, an alleged Turkish airstrike or drone strike in Jamanki, Dohuk governorate struck a car and killed a civilian named Alain Ismail and seriously injured a civilian named Hashem Shaker. According to Altaakhi and Kurdistan 24 reports, Alain Ismail had been married five months before he tragically passed away. Further information about

Summary

First published
August 6, 2023
Last updated
September 1, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 man)
Civilians reported injured
1
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
2 named
View Incident

Incident date

August 11, 2023

Incident Code

TI094

LOCATION

بنجوين, Penjwin district, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

On August 11, 2023, three civilians, including at least one woman (who may have been under 18), were reportedly killed after being struck by a Turkish drone in the Penjwin district of Sulaymaniyah governorate. According to media coverage of this event, the victims were killed while driving towards the Iranian border. In its coverage of this

Summary

First published
August 11, 2023
Last updated
September 1, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3
(1 child1 woman1 man)
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
3 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

August 24, 2023

Incident Code

TI095

LOCATION

قرية ميرغمير, village of Mergmir, Erbil, Iraq

On the 24th of August 2023, a drone strike is believed to have killed either four civilians or four PKK fighters, two of them in medical roles, in the village of Merg Mir in the Bradost region in Erbil Governorate. According to several news sources, including Roj News, Hawar News Agency and Kurdistan 24, the

Summary

First published
August 24, 2023
Last updated
September 11, 2023
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian infrastructure
Agriculture
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0 – 4
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Belligerents reported killed
0–4
View Incident

Incident date

September 27, 2023

Incident Code

TI096

LOCATION

قرية بوگریسکان, Bugriskan village, Sinjar district, Bashdar district , Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

A woman was killed and a man injured by two drone strikes, allegedly conducted by the Turkish military, on the village of Bugriskan, in the Sinjar district on September 27th, 2023. The strikes were also reported to have killed six Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) militants. Bas News reported that the casualties occurred in “two separate

Summary

First published
September 27, 2023
Last updated
March 1, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 woman)
Civilians reported injured
1
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Impact
Food
Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Named victims
2 named
Belligerents reported killed
6
View Incident

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Incident Code

TI097

LOCATION

مخيم مخمور, Makhmur Camp, Erbil Governorate , Kurdistan, Iraq

On October 7th, 2023, a civilian was killed and at least three civilians—a woman and two boys— were injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on the Makhmour Camp in the Erbil Governorate of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. The woman, who remains unnamed, was reported to be 72-years-old (born in 1951), and appears to have

Summary

First published
October 7, 2023
Last updated
March 1, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian infrastructure
IDP or refugee camp, Religious Institution
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
Civilians reported injured
3
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 13, 2023

Incident Code

TI098

LOCATION

مخيم مخمور, Makhmur camp, Erbil Governorate , Kurdistan, Iraq

A woman was injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike hit a home in the Makhmur camp at approximately 9:25AM on October 13th, 2023. The woman, 50-year-old Aisha Muhammad Ahmed, was a resident of the camp, which houses between 10,000 to 12,000 displaced Kurds. Her injuries, many of which look to be on her face

Summary

First published
October 13, 2023
Last updated
March 1, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian infrastructure
IDP or refugee camp
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
Unknown
Civilians reported injured
1
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 17, 2023

Incident Code

TI099

LOCATION

قرية كاني كندي , Kani Kindi village, Koya District, Kurdistan, Iraq

On Tuesday, October 17th, 2023, one man was killed and up to three other civilians, women, were injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in the Kani Kindi village in the Koya district of Kurdistan, Iraq. The car was reported to have belonged to citizens of the Makhmour refugee camp; the driver

Summary

First published
October 17, 2023
Last updated
February 20, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 man)
Civilians reported injured
1–3
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

December 5, 2023

Incident Code

TI100

LOCATION

بامرني, Bamerni, Amedi District, Duhok, Iraq

At around 7AM on Tuesday, December 5th, 2023, a man was killed and up to three others injured after an alleged Turkish bombardment in the Bamerni subdistrict of Amedi, in Dohuk Governorate. Gulan Media named the deceased as 44-year-old Ali Jamil Kalash, the father of four children. Kalash was near his home when he died:

Summary

First published
December 5, 2023
Last updated
March 1, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike
Civilian infrastructure
Agriculture, Water station
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0 – 1
(0–1 men)
Civilians reported injured
1–3
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Impact
Food
Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Named victims
2 named
Belligerents reported killed
0–1
View Incident

Incident date

December 28, 2023

Incident Code

TI101

LOCATION

قرية كاركي, Karki, Sinjar District, Nineveh, Iraq

Between 6 and 8 PM on Thursday, December 28th, 2023, at least five people were killed and two others injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on the village of Karki in the Sinjar district of Mosul province. The civilian status of five of the men killed is contested within the sources. Those killed were

Summary

First published
December 28, 2023
Last updated
February 22, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Airstrike, Drone Strike
Civilian infrastructure
Water station
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3 – 8
(0–5 men)
Civilians reported injured
2
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Impact
Food
Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Belligerents reported killed
0–5
View Incident