Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Contested
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

TS050

Incident date

January 14, 2017

Location

بزاعة , Beza’a city, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.3829071, 37.56666 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

One woman died and one man was injured in shelling on Beza’a city, Syria, according to local media.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “a woman was killed and her husband was wounded in Turkish artillery and rocket shelling on areas in Bzaah town near al-Bab city”.

Al Bab24 reported the death of “the wife of Ahmad Salah Kassem, the daughter of Mr. Haseeb” in “artillery shelling” – though it didn’t name the culprit.

There are no other details at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • the wife of Ahmad Salah Kassem Adult female the daughter of Mr. Haseeb killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Facebook post naming the victim of an alleged Turkish airstrike, 13th January 2017. (via Al bab 24 facebook)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS090

Incident date

August 21, 2017

Location

تل رفعت, Tal Ref’at, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.473056, 37.094444 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

One civilian died and four more were wounded in alleged Turkish shelling of the town of Tal Ref’at, according to local media – though one report also said that the Syrian Free Army also targeted Kurdish units in the town.

Rumaf named Alia Omar Sheikh and Othman Zakaria Mustafa as killed. However, a later report by Rumaf said that Othman Zakaria Mustafa was a member of “the Asayish forces”, the Kurdish security forces. It published images showing the funeral procession.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “Turkish forces shelled areas in Tal Rifat town in the northern countryside of Aleppo, which is controlled by the Syria Democratic Forces. This resulted in the injury of four people”.

SDF press also pointed towards Turkey, reporting that “the Turkish occupation army and its mercenaries stationed in the towns of Mara and Kalgberin shelled the Tel Rifaat area with shells and heavy weapons. The shelling resulted in injuries among civilians, who were taken to a hospital.”

However, Ahmad al Farouh, pro-revolution activist from Mare’e, Aleppo, said that the Syrian Free Army targeted Kurdish units in the town with “artillery and mortars” – but made no mention of civilian harm.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Alia Omar Sheikh Adult female killed
  • Othman Zakaria Mustafa Adult male combatant killed
  • Depo Mohammed Champion Age unknown injured
  • Abdul Basit Ali Sakran Age unknown injured
  • Abdo Sukran Age unknown injured
  • Mohammed Hassan Dibo Age unknown injured
  • Mahmoud Hassan Dibo Age unknown injured
  • Ghazi Rahal (refugee in the city of Tel Rifaat) Age unknown injured
  • Louay Aboush (refugee) Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Free Syrian Army

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • An injured man recives medical treatment following an alleged Turkish or FSA airstrike. (via SDF)
  • Aftermath of an alleged Turkish or FSA airstrike. (via SDF)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)
  • Funeral procession of the victim. (via Rumaf)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Free Syrian Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Free Syrian Army
  • Free Syrian Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Free Syrian Army

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1739a TS282a

Incident date

March 18, 2018

Location

تل حميس, Tal Hamees, South of al Qamishli, Al Hassaka, Syria

Geolocation

36.754529, 41.398836 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Multiple sources reported that Turkey carried out airstrikes on SDF positions in Tal Hamees, South of al Qamishli. However, other outlets also stated that this was not the case and that the US-led Coalition conducted strikes on homes which reportedly held family members of ISIS. However, no casualty estimates were given.

The Shaam News Network, citing activists, said that Turkish aircraft targeted the positions of the Syrian Democratic Forces in the area of Tal Hamis and at the Umm al-Russ station southeast of the city of Qamishli.

Syria al hadath added: Turkish planes targeted locations of the Kurdish units at the Umm al-Rouss station in the west of Tal Hamis, in the north-eastern countryside of Al-Hasakah.

Al Hasaka Youth Union Facebook page posted: Turkish aircraft target the positions of the militia PYD in the area Tel_hamis southeast of  Qamishli but later corrected themselves, stating that it was, in fact, a Coalition airstrike. The source also ambivalently reported that the strike targeted homes of Iraqi refugees with the claims that IS elements were present there.

Shaam Network also reported it as a Turkish airstrike while Baladi News blamed the Coalition. The source added that homes were targeted because there were claims that there were ISIS militants present.

Baladi said: Local sources from the region said that an aerial landing of the International Coalition, carried out by a helicopter accompanied by two other aircraft, on the area of agricultural projects, pointing out that it targeted two homes inhabited by two Iraqi families, who fled earlier to the region.

According to the sources, the operation was carried out at 2 am, followed by loudspeaker calls, saying that they were soldiers from the International Coalition, followed by intermittent firing.

Some sources said that a Turkish air strike targeted the area near the town of Tal Hamis – but these reports could not be verified.

According to Jisr TV, in the north-east of Hasaka, Coalition forces arrested a number of Iraqi refugees in the countryside of Tel Hamis, after the implementation of an aerial landing in the region.

Asia News provided some more detail, adding that three US helicopters carried out an aerial landing targeting a house between the villages of Kalou and al-Jaysi, 2 km south of Tal Hamis district in the south-eastern suburb of Qamishli.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

There were no reported strikes conducted in Syria or Iraq on March 18, 2018.

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

Sunday 18 March – a Reaper killed two terrorists on a motorcycle in eastern Syria…On Sunday 18 March, a Reaper tracked a pair of terrorists on a motorcycle south-east of As Shadadi in eastern Syria. It became clear that they were operating as a mobile checkpoint in an attempt to exert control over the local area. The Reaper’s crew waited until the motorcycle was in open country, and despite its high speed, achieved a direct hit with a Hellfire which killed both of the Daesh extremists.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS223

Incident date

February 23, 2018

Location

كوتانة، عفرين, Kotana, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.463611, 38.481944 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Two to four civilian boys were wounded in an alleged Turkish artillery shelling of Kotana, Syria, local media said.

According to the source IC Afrin Resistance, “the Turkish army shelled the village Kotana / Bilbile district. Two boys have been injured. Both were brought to a health center in Meydanke district.”

The boys – Ali Muhammad Hassan (16 years old) and Rashid Mustafa Rasho (15 years old) – were also named by a number of other sources.

However, these boys were also named as injured in event TS224 at Qastal Jando, Afrin

Afrin Now also reported “civilian casualties as a result of the Turkish bombardment of the village of Kutana in the area of Bulbul in the countryside of Afrin.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Elî Hesen Age unknown injured
  • Reşîd Age unknown injured
  • Ali Muhammad Hassan 16 years old male injured
  • Rashid Mustafa Rasho 15 years old male injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • An injured civilian gets treated in a medical facility following an alleged Turkish airstrike on Kotana, Afrin, 23rd February 2018. (via Kurdhr)
  • An injured civilian gets treated in a medical facility following an alleged Turkish airstrike on Kotana, Afrin, 23rd February 2018. (via Afrin Now)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An injured civilian gets treated in a medical facility following an alleged Turkish airstrike on Kotana, Afrin, 23rd February 2018. (via Kurdhr)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An injured civilian gets treated in a medical facility following an alleged Turkish airstrike on Kotana, Afrin, 23rd February 2018. (via Afrin Now)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An injured civilian gets treated in a medical facility following an alleged Turkish airstrike on Kotana, Afrin, 23rd February 2018. (via Hawar)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS385 R3919A

Incident date

November 8, 2019

Location

سرمساخ, Sermisax, Al Hasakah, Syria

Geolocation

37.138889, 41.977500 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

One civilian was reported killed and between five and ten others wounded allegedly when Turkish or Russian forces opened fire on protesters in Sermisax, in Qamishli – Syria on November 8th, 2019, according to local sources.

ANHA reported that Serkheboon Ali was killed, and the following civilians were among the injured: Bahoz Çelo,  Fehed Mûsa, Sûhêl Ebdellah, and Eyîşa Omer û Alaa Omer.

The Kurdish Red Crescent report on the casualties caused by the Turkish operation between October 9th and November 14th mentioned that Serkheboon Ali was killed as a Turkish Tank ran over his body.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–10
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (6) [ collapse]

  • Serxwebûn Ali was killed in Derik on 8 Nov 2019 after allegedly Turkish/Russian convoy opened fire on protesters (via ANHA)
  • Civilians injured in Derik on 8 Nov 2019 after allegedly Turkish/Russian convoy opened fire on protesters (via ANHA)
  • Civilians injured in Derik on 8 Nov 2019 after allegedly Turkish/Russian convoy opened fire on protesters (via ANHA)
  • Civilians injured in Derik on 8 Nov 2019 after allegedly Turkish/Russian convoy opened fire on protesters (via ANHA)
  • Civilians injured in Derik on 8 Nov 2019 after allegedly Turkish/Russian convoy opened fire on protesters (via ANHA)
  • KRC list of civilians killed and injured between 09 October and 14 November 2019.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Sermisax (سرمساخ), for which the coordinates are: 37.138889, 41.977500. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–10
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS224

Incident date

February 23, 2018

Location

قسطل جاندو, Qastal Jando, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.630278, 37.017222 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Local media named two boys as wounded in an alleged Turkish shelling of Qastal Jando, Syria. However, these two boys were also named as wounded in event 107 at Kotana.

There is, therefore, currently confusion over the location in which the boys were wounded.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Ali Muhammad Hassan 16 years old injured
  • Rashid Mustafa Rasho 15 years old injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Rashid Mustafa, injured in an alleged Turkish airstrike on Qastal Jando, 23rd February 2018. (via Rumaf)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS392 R3929C

Incident date

November 12, 2019

Location

جمحران و كوربينكار, Jen Harran and Kurbinkar, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.825556, 38.388056 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Between one and four civilians were reported killed and up to eight others injured when a joint Turkish and Russian patrol allegedly opened fire on protesters in Jen Harran village, southern Kobani, Aleppo in Syria on November 12th, 2019, according to local sources.

The sources also reported that the Turkish forces targeted journalists from Jin TV and Ronahi TV and consequently injuring the female journalist Zozan Remedan Berkel who was reporting for Jin TV, Welat Şhêkho a reporter for Ronaha TV and journalist Dliyar Jeziri.

NPA mentioned that “Turkish patrol opens fire at local civilians protesting against them in the village of Jen-Harran, southern Kobani, some civilians heavily wounded.” and ANF said that “Attack on Kobane people injures 8, including 2 journalists.”

Also @baxtiyarumut reported that “At least one woman was shot dead by Turkish troops in Kobani.”

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 4
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–8
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (12) [ collapse]

  • KRC list of civilians killed and injured between 09 October and 14 November 2019.

  • "Occupying Turkish soldiers, the Russian military policemen opened fire on the people who reacted to them in the patrol: the invaders attack according to the first information, there are martyrs and wounded." (via @y_ozgurpolitika).
  • Turkish Patrol opened fire on protesters in Kobane on November 12th 2019 (via ANF)
  • Reporter of Ronahi TV was reported injured in Kobane on November 12th 2019 (via @PYD_Rojava)
  • Zozan Remezan Berkel, reporter of the all-female TV station Jin TV was reported injured in Kobane on November 12th 2019 (via @dersi4m and ANHA)
  • Civilians were injured when they were attacked by Turkish/Russian troops as they protested against them in Kobane, Aleppo on November 12th, 2019 (via @dersi4m)
  • A civilian showing bullets used in the attack on protesters by the Turkish/Russian troops in Kobane, Aleppo on November 12th, 2019 (via @dersi4m)
  • A civilians showing munitions used in the attack on protesters by the Turkish/Russian troops in Kobane, Aleppo on November 12th, 2019 (via @dersi4m)

Geolocation notes

Reports on the incident mention the villages of Jen Harran (جمحران) for which the coordinates are: 36.825556, 38.388056; and the village of Kurbinkar (كوربينكار) for which the coordinates are:  36.824722, 38.378611. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 4
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–8
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS395 R3945B

Incident date

November 18, 2019

Location

تيري, Tayri, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.841111, 38.469167 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

At least one woman was injured during protests against a joint Turkish-Russian patrol in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019, according to local sources.

ANF reported that “the people protested against the patrol by throwing stones. A young woman was hit by a vehicle of the military convoy and was badly injured on her foot. She was then taken to the hospital of Kobanê. The injured woman explained that the vehicle had deliberately hit her”.

North Press Agency reported that the incident occurred in the village of Terri and that the military patrol hit two civilians and resulted in the crash of a car.

The incident occured during the day.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (8) [ collapse]

  • A van damaged after allegedly being attacked as civilians protested against Turkish and Russian military patrols in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via ANF).
  • A woman allegedly deliberately hit by a military vehicle, badly injured on her foot and taken to hospital of Kobane on November 18th, 2019 (via ANF).
  • A van damaged after allegedly being attacked as civilians protested against Turkish and Russian military patrols in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via NPA).
  • Images of attacks on civilians who protested against Turkish and Russian military patrols in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via NPA).
  • Civilians protested against Turkish and Russian military patrols in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via NPA).
  • Image showing the Turkish Patrol convoy in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via @VDCNS).
  • A car damaged after being attacked by a joint Turkish and Russian military convoy in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via @VDCNS).
  • Image showing Turkish and Russian military patrols attacking protesters in the eastern countryside of Kobanî, Aleppo governorate, on November 18th, 2019 (via @NPA).

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Tayri (تيري), for which the coordinates are: 36.841111, 38.469167. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Armed Forces, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]