Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents

Incident Code

TS539

Incident date

August 6, 2022

Location

الصناعة, Al-Sina'a neighborhood in Qamishli, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

37.056502, 41.246509 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Up to four civilians, including two children, were killed and at least two others were injured in an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in the Al Sina’a neighborhood of Qamishli on August 6, 2022.

Hawar News reported that a car exploded in Al-Sinaa neighborhood in Qamishli after being stuck by a Turkish drone near the “Hasko Gas Station”. One of the civilians killed is the child Ahmed Ali Hassan, 16 years old, while the civilian Ali Hassan was injured, and he was transferred to Al-Rahma Hospital in Qamishli city to receive treatment.

Qamishlo Event shared on Facebook names of two other civilian victims killed: Ahmed Ali Shebi and Ahnk Akram Shebi. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) identified the two children killed, Ahmed and Ahnk Shebi, as being brothers while ENKS stated that they were cousins, working in the industrial zone.

Ezdina’s correspondent reported that three of the victims were identified as the child Ahmed Ali Shebi and Ahnak Akram Shaibi who is in his twenties, and they are relatives from the al-Antariya neighborhood in the center of Qamishli. The correspondent also identified Al-Madani Ali Hassan, the father of the child Ahmed Hassan, as being wounded, in addition to another person seriously injured and others that suffering minor injuries.

ENKS added the name Mazloum Asaad as another person killed in the strikes. A Facebook post from Tigris – the Syrian island specified that Mazloum was from Amuda and was in the military police.

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also identified a car explosion in Al-Sina’a Al-Qadima (old industrial) area at Kaziyah Hasko, resulting in the death of one person and the injury of at least three others. SOHR later revised their toll to four people killed, including two children and two unidentified people believed to belong to the SDF. However, other local sources, including Ezdina, referred to all three people killed as civilians.

According to a Facebook post by Ehmed şihab, four people were killed, including two children, and two civilians were injured and were in critical condition. ENKS also identified four “citizens” as being killed and that vehicle struck was a H100 car, causing material damage to the shops near the place of the explosion.

The Democratic Union Party (PYD) released a statement regarding the attack, saying “On August 6, 2022, a drone of the Turkish occupation state targeted a car in the Sinaa neighborhood, resulting in 4 people being martyred, 2 of whom were children, and the injury of some others…The flying of planes of the Turkish occupation army in the airspace of Syria violates international agreements.” The majority of other sources also attributed the incident to Turkish drones.

The incident occured at 18:21:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

  • Ahmed Ali Shebi Child male from Al-Antariya neighborhood killed
  • Ahnk Akram Shebi Adult male in his 20s, from Al-Antariya neighborhood killed

Family members (2)

  • Ahmed Ali Hassan 16 years old killed
  • Al-Madani Ali Hassan Father of Ali injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (2 children1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–2

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (14) [ collapse]

  • People gather around the site of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
  • Blood from victims of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
  • Blood from victims of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
  • Blood from victims of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
  • People gather around the site of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
  • People gather around the site of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
  • Explosion caused by an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Step Agency)
  • Damage caused by an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Hotnews24 via Facebook)
  • People gather around the site of an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Ezdina)
  • Mazloum Asaad, identified as being in the military police, was killed by an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in Qamishli on August 6, 2022. (Image posted by Tigris - the Syrian island)
  • Ahnak Akram Hassan, allegedly killed by Turkish drone on August 6th 2022 (Image via @Tactica1Arms / Twitter)
  • People hold photos of the two children who were killed in an alleged Turkish drone strike on August 6th 2022 (Image via @EverydaySyria / Twitter)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the neighbourhood of Al-Sina’a (الصناعة), within the city of Qamishli (القامشلي), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.056502, 41.246509. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

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Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (2 children1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–2

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS107

Incident date

January 22, 2018

Location

راس العين, Kotana, Afrin, Hassaka, Syria

Geolocation

36.843889, 40.072222 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

The Smart News Agency reported that “three wounded civilians arrived at Rouge Hospital in the city of Ras al-Ain (about 70 km northwest of the city of Hassaka), including a woman and a 14-year-old boy who were injured by the Turkish army targeting the grain silos area in the city of Ras al-Ain with two mortars.”

However, according to Baladi, the dead and wounded were Kurdish fighters. It said that “the Turkish army shelled the Kurdish units of the Democratic Union Party (PDD) in al-Qamishli, Hasaka province”, resulting in “dead and wounded in the ranks of Kurdish units”.

Al Hassaka Youth Union also reported dead Kurdish fighters, putting the number at seven, as did the source Al Khabour.

According to the Facebook page Olive Branch, there were “dead and wounded”, but the source didn’t specify whether these were civilians.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS139

Incident date

January 29, 2018

Location

راحو, Rajo, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.67296, 36.666364 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

The Kurdish Red Crescent reported that two named civilians were injured in the Rajo area.

Younews reported that Turkish helicopters had targeted Rajo, while according to maf news there were “intensive Turkish air raids”. However, neither source mentioned civilian casualties.

There are no other details at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Rwayda Aybsh 23 years old female injured
  • Kameran Khalo 28 years old male injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Footage of alleged Turkish helicopters targeting Raju area northwest of Afrin, 29th January 2018. (via Younews)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS170

Incident date

February 9, 2018

Location

كوتانة، عفرين, Kotana, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.463611, 38.481944 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Claudia Al Minah reported that Turkey “attacked Kotana village in the Bilbilê area, Syria, last night, injuring seriously 3 inhabitants, damaging houses and the school.”

Photographic evidence shows the extensive material damage to the vicinity.

Electricity was also cut off in the village.

There are no other details at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • The aftermath of alleged Turkish airstrikes on Kotana, Afrin, 9th February 2018. (via Afrin Now)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS202

Incident date

February 16, 2018

Location

ارندة, عفرين, Aranda, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.496944, 36.598333 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local media reported that six civilians were injured following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas”.

According to Nuce 24, the Turkish military occupation army targeted the village of Aranda, in the area of Shih, with an artillery shell poisoned by chemical gas (it is not yet known what the gas was). A doctor noted that the injured were suffering from nausea, burning in the eyes, itching in the body and vomiting.

Multiple sources named six injured victims.

According to Nuce, the clothes of victims had been sent for analysis to determine what chemical agents were involved.

Afrin Now reported a statement from the management of Afrin Hospital. The second page is from the chemistry lab and reads: The central chemistry lab in Afreen carried out tests of earth samples presented by you on 16/2/2018 from the village of Arnada in Sheikh al Hadid area [the location of the raid]. The results were that the earth samples contain high levels of chlorine. Other samples from around the village were tested and did not contain any chlorine 18/2/2018.

Rojava and IC Afrinresistance citing the Efrîn Health Council and the Official Press Conference on the attack also confirmed the presence of chlorine.

The Kurdish Red Crescent reported that the six injured experienced several symptoms suspected of as symptoms of chemical gas, such as respiratory issues – cough – eczema – skin irritation, narrowing pupil. The medics also suffered from skin itching and teary eyes.

It was later reported that analysis had shown traces of chlorine. According to Xeber 24: In a statement issued by the Health Council in Afrin province on 18 February 2018, the Afrin Hospital proved that the Turkish army used chlorine gas in the village of Aranda in the province of Shih. The Board indicated that they had based their report on samples that had been detected in the hospital’s laboratories.

Reuters later carried a denial by an unnamed Turkish military source: These are baseless accusations. Turkey never used chemical weapons. We take utmost care about civilians in Operation Olive Branch. According to Reuters, the source also described the accusations of wounding six civilians through a suspected gas attack as black propaganda.

In a report by Reuters, Turkey denied using chemical weapons. Reuters reported: Turkey never used chemical weapons in its operations in Syria, and takes the utmost care of civilians, a Turkish diplomatic source said, after Syrian Kurdish forces and a monitoring group accused it of carrying out a gas attack in Syria’s Afrin region.

These are baseless accusations. Turkey never used chemical weapons. We take utmost care about civilians in Operation Olive Branch, the source said.

The source also described the accusations of wounding six civilians through a suspected gas attack as black propaganda.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (23) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (24) [ collapse]

  • A video reveals a victim being treated at the medical centre following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Nuce24 )
  • A video reveals a victim being treated at the medical centre following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Nuce24 )
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Rumaf)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Rumaf)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas”, Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Rumaf)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Nuce24)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Nuce24)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Afrin Now)
  • A picture shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Afrin Now)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Kurdish Red Crescent)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Kurdish Red Crescent)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas”Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Kurdish Red Crescent)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Kurdish Red Crescent)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Kurdish Red Crescent)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. (Source: Kurdish Red Crescent)
  • A video reveals a major press conference by Efrîns health council concerning the Chemical Attack on the Efrîn ( Source: @AzadiRojava)
  • A video reveals the interview on the TV channel as Joan Mohammed, Director of Afrin Hospital explained the attack by toxic chemicals (Source: Syria alikhbaroya news)
  • An image shows a number of victims who suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. ( Source: Kurdistan24)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. ( Source: Kurdistan24)
  • An image shows a victim suffocated following an alleged Turkish attack with missiles/artillery shells containing “toxic gas” Aranda, Afrin 16th February 2018. ( Source: Kurdistan24)
  • Interview.
  • Video report from hospital showing the effects of chemical weapons. (via Mekut)
  • Statement from the management of Afrin Hospital to the world's public opinion and international organisations regarding the cases that were taken to a hospital from the village of Aranda and confirmed that the Turkish occupation used chemical gases.
  • From chemistry lab. The central chemistry lab in Afreen carried out tests of earth samples presented by you on 16/2/2018 from the village of Arnada in Sheikh al Hadid area [the location of the raid] The results were that the earth samples contain high levels of chlorine Other samples from around the village were tested and did not contain any chlorine 18/2/2018

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (23) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS266

Incident date

March 12, 2018

Location

جرزيلة, village of Girzele, Shirwa district, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.479979, 36.884711 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

In a similar reporting of TS265, a number of sources reported that a 45-year-old male wounded followed an alleged Turkish air or artillery strike on the village of Girzele.

Afrin Now and ANHA said the victim suffered a leg wound.

According to Sana, Turkish forces and their mercenaries shelled the area of Sharan and the villages of Basutah, Karzayleh and Zerba around it with planes, artillery and various missiles, causing the injury of four civilians and the destruction of a number of houses and property.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Wounded victims being treated in a medical facility in the aftermath of an alleged Turkish airstrike on village of Zerba, Shirwra district, Afrin,, 12th March 2018 (via ANHA)
  • Wounded victims being treated in a medical facility in the aftermath of an alleged Turkish airstrike on village of Zerba, Shirwra district, Afrin,, 12th March 2018 (via ANHA)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Wounded victims being treated in a medical facility in the aftermath of an alleged Turkish airstrike on village of Zerba, Shirwra district, Afrin,, 12th March 2018 (via ANHA)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI007

Incident date

July 29, 2017

Location

قنديل, افشين, الزاب, Zakho district, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.146111, 42.673611 Note: The accuracy of this location is to District level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local Kurdish media said that four civilians were injured by alleged Turkish artillery shelling in Zakho at the Iraqi-Turkish border.

Asda News reported that “the shelling led to the injury of four civilians, who were taken to the hospital for treatment, noting that the health of the four injured people is stable.”

Rudaw added that “the injured have since been discharged from hospital,” Rudaw’s Yousif Musa reported.

The shelling happened at 6:00 Friday evening in the Psaxa area, Batifa sub-district.

The four young people, two of them professional players of the Zakho football club, went out on a picnic on Friday. They were in the same area where militants of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) are also present.

The incident occured at 18:00:00 local time.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS309

Incident date

October 11, 2019

Location

القامشلي, Qamishli, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.889165, 38.353649 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Several civilians were reported  killed, and three others injured in an alleged Turkish forces artillery strike on Qamishli city, October 11th, 2019 according to local media sources.

 

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1–2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • A wounded civilian following an alleged Turkish strike on Qamishli, Oct 11th (via Hawar news)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Qamishli (كوباني), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.889165, 38.353649. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1–2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (11) [ collapse]