Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TS464

Incident date

January 23, 2021

Location

تل رفعت, Tal Rifa'at, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.472576, 37.096272 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Up to five civilians including a mother and her two children were reported killed, and eleven others injured as a result of a alleged Turkish shelling, or pro-Turkey militants on Tal Rifat town in Aleppo’s northern countryside, Syria on January 23rd, 2021.

The shelling also reportedly caused material damage to the locals houses, the private and public properties and the infrastructure.

Ridaw said “Five-year-old Yasser Sakran and twelve-year-old Ebid al-Mohsen Sakran were both killed. The third person who died, Nazliye Mohammed Mustafa, was originally from Afrin, according to Hawar News Agency, an outlet affiliated with the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).” ANHA reported that the woman is the mother of the two children.

The initial reports spoke about three victims, but then a forth civilian, Saad al-Din al-Qais aged 31, died of his injuries raising death toll.

North Press Agency (NPA) said that the injured civilians were transferred to Afrin Hospital, some of them in critical condition. However, the Rojava Information Centre reported 11 wounded civilians as a result of the attack.

Thousands of IDPs from Tal Rafa’at, Afrin and Alshahba joined the funeral of the victims.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (5)

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (2 children1 woman1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    7–11
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (24) [ collapse]

  • Funeral of four or five civilians killed by alleged Turkey shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021 (via @BehnamZarei21)
  • Funeral of four or five civilians killed by alleged Turkey shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021 (via @BehnamZarei21)
  • Funeral of four or five civilians killed by alleged Turkey shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021 (via @BehnamZarei21)
  • Funeral of four or five civilians killed by alleged Turkey shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021 (via @BehnamZarei21)
  • Funeral of four or five civilians killed by alleged Turkey shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021 (via NPA)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the mother and two children killed in alleged Turkish shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the mother and two children killed in alleged Turkish shelling on Tal Rifa'at on January 23rd, 2021. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)
  • Images of the funeral of four or five civilians killed by Turkish shelling in Tal Rifa'at on Jan 23rd, attended by thousands of IDPs. (via SOHR)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Tal Rifa’at (تل رفعت), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.472576, 37.096272. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (2 children1 woman1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    7–11
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI069

Incident date

September 2, 2021

Location

بارة, Bara, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.37571, 41.48531 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least three people were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Bara village on September 2, 2021.

Security sources told Shafaq News Agency that “Turkish aircraft bombed the headquarters of the Asayish Yazidkhan forces, west of Mount Sinjar” and that the targeted location was close to a site of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). However, another security source told Shafaq News agency that three civilians were seriously injured in the attack.

Alyaum TV quoted a local source as saying that Turkish warplanes bombed different areas in Sinjar district, injuring three people.

BasNews also reported that Turkish warplanes targeted a facility and vehicle belonging to the PKK-affiliated armed groups but did not know the number of injuries that resulted.

Several local media sites also told Xeber24 that a Turkish drone bombed one of the points of the Asayish Ezidkhan in the village of Bariya, affiliated to the city of Şengal but as a result of the intensity of the bombing and the flight of Turkish aircraft, they were unable to know the extent of human losses and material damage.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Bara (بارة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.37571, 41.48531. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS494

Incident date

February 27, 2022

Location

أم الخير, Umm Al Khair, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.654235, 40.372868 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian, a woman, was injured in alleged Turkish bombardment of the village of Umm Al 36.654235&lon=40.372868Khair in the countryside of Tal Tamr district on February 27, 2022.

According to Hawar News, a woman was injured as a result of Turkish forces bombing of the countryside of Tal Tamr district. Turkish forces bombed the Assyrian villages of Tel Shanan, Umm al-Khair and Dashisha in the countryside of Tal Tamr, resulting in the injury of Marwa Muhammad Khalif (30 years), from the village of Umm al-Khair. The bombing also resulted in severe material damage to the property of the people of the villages.

A medical source at the Lycrane Hospital in Tal Tamr told North-Press, “The woman was wounded by several shrapnel and was taken to a hospital in Hasaka for an urgent operation.”

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkish forces.

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Umm Al Khair (أم الخير), allegedly located west of Tal Tamr (تل تمر) town. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Tal Tamr are: 36.654235, 40.372868.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI084

Incident date

June 17, 2022

Location

كيسته, Kesta, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.256848, 43.160734 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Two women were injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling and/or heavy machine gun fire on Kesta village in Kani Massi district on June 17, 2022

Shafaq News reported that Turkish forces launched artillery against Kesta Village, north of Duhok, which resulted in the injury of two women.

Omed Kestayi, chieftain (mukhtar) of Kesta village in Amedi town, told Rudaw’s Haydar Doski on Friday that Turkish troops from a nearby military base shelled inside the village earlier in the day, injuring two women, who were hospitalized. The shelling was done with DShk, a Soviet heavy machine gun, for about half an hour. ANF specified that the injured women were taken to Batifa Hospital.

Omed Kestayi also provided the names of the victims: Kazen (25 years old) and Sally (40 years old), one of them was hit in the head and the other in the hand.

The majority of sources attributed the bombardment/shooting to Turkish forces, while only Zagros News did not identify who was responsible.

The incident occured at approximately 5:30 pm local time.

  • Kazen 25 years old female injured
  • Sally 40 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Causes of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • One of the women injured when Turkish artillery attacked Kesta Village, north of Duhok which resulted in the injury of two women. (Image posted by Shafaq News)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Kesta (كيسته), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.256848, 43.160734. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Causes of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS547

Incident date

August 16, 2022

Location

زركان, Zarkan, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.846389, 40.326944 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A child was injured in alleged Turkish shelling of the Zarkan sub-district on August 16, 2022.

Hawar News Agency reported that in the Zarkan sub-district, 11 year old Tamim Faisal Hamad was wounded by Turkish shelling on the district’s center. There was no other information available about victims of the shelling.

North Press Agency cited a military source who said that three Turkish shells hit a village in Zarkan.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the district of Zarkan (زركان), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.846389, 40.326944. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS574

Incident date

November 23, 2022

Location

دوار القرموطي, Al-Qarmouti square. al-Gharbi neighborhood,.Qamishli., Hasakeh, Syria

Airwars assessment

On November 23th, 2022, between one to two civilians were reportedly killed and another one injured by a Turkish drone targeting a truck at Al-Qarmouti roundabout (also referred to as “Al-Hilalia roundabout”) in Qamishli city in the evening. According to local sources, the truck was completely destroyed by the strike.

Sources identified the civilian injured as the Mayor of Himo village, Hassan Majdin, 45 years old. He was taken to a hospital in Qamishli for treatment. A medical source said that his injuries were minor, while another source claimed he was “seriously wounded”.

Local sources reported conflicted information regarding the number of casualties. Sources either claimed that the strike wounded or killed SDF leader “Rizan Kalo” who was inside the vehicle when the attack was conducted. SOHR claimed that the driver of the truck, whose identity was not disclosed, was killed, while “Rizan Kahlo” and another person was injured in the bombing. One local source quoting Russian-owned media Sputnik mentionned that “Rizan Kalo” was killed along with “two of his companions”, without precising if those were also SDF militants.  Al-Araby Al-Jadeed correspondent claimed that the attack killed two people, without further precisions, and injured two others, the wounded being identified as Hassan Majdin and Rizan Kalo.

 

 

The incident occured in the evening.

  • Hassan Majdin 45 years old male Mayor of Himo village injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    No
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1
  • Belligerents reported injured
    1

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • On November 23th 2022, in Qamishli city, a reported Turkish drone strike hit and destroyed a vehicle. Photo: SOHR
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    On November 23rd 2022 in Qamishli city, one civilian was injured and between one to two others killed following a reported Turkish drone strike in Qamishli city. Photo: Qamishli now
  • SDF leader "Rizan Kalo" reportedly injured in a Turkish drone strike targeting a truck in Qamishli city on November 23rd 2022. Photo: صفحة كوردستان الكبرى G K P
  • On November 23rd 2022, an alleged Turkish drone strike hit a truck in Al-Qarmouti roundabout in Qamishli city. Photo: NPA
  • SDF leader "Rizan Kalo's family denied news that "Rizan Kalo" died following a reported Turkish strike on a vehicle on November 23rd 2022. Photo: وكالة روج نيوز المستقلة للأخبار

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    No
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1
  • Belligerents reported injured
    1

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS147

Incident date

February 2, 2018

Location

خلاقة, Khalalka, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.694266, 36.80596 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local sources in Syria reported that “the civilian citizen Shaaban Khalil, 24, from the village of Khalalka, was injured by the Turkish bombardment of the village in the countryside of Afrin.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Shaaban Khalil Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Translation: "Afrin - 24-year-old Shaaban Khalil was injured as a result of the shelling of his village by the Turkish occupation army in the area of Bilbala."
  • Translation: "The civilian citizen Shaaban Khalil, 24, from the village of Khalalka, was injured by the Turkish bombardment of the village in the countryside of Afrin."

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Khalalka, Afrin (خلاقة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.694266, 36.80596. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS211

Incident date

February 17, 2018

Location

راجو, عفرين, Rajo, Afrin, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.67296, 36.666364 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

In a private report to Airwars, the Kurdish Red Crescent reported the injury of one civilian in an alleged Turkish shelling of Rajo.

There are no other details at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Salah Hussein 45 years old male head injury injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Rajo, Afrin (راجو, عفرين), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.67296, 36.666364. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (1) [ collapse]