Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TS443

Incident date

August 1, 2020

Location

عين عيسى, Ain Issa, Raqqa, Syria

Geolocation

36.38743, 38.86302 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local sources reported that three children were injured in alleged Turkish forces and/or Turkey-backed forces artillery strikes on Ain Issa on August 1st, 2020. One of them is in a critical condition.

“The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitored, this evening, artillery shelling carried out by the Turkish forces and the factions loyal to them, targeting the vicinity of Ain Issa city, north of Raqqa, which resulted in the injury of 3 children, with varying wounds.”

ANHA reported that a mortar shell from remnants of shelling on Ain Issa exploded injuring three children who seem to all be from the same family.”A mortar shell exploded this evening from the bombing of mercenary groups in the vicinity of Ain Issa district, with a group of children while they were in the area. As a result, the explosion wounded three children, one of them seriously. They are Hossam Ali aged 12, Mahdi Ali aged 10 and Muhammad Ali aged 11.”

The incident occured at 18:20:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

12 years old male injured
10 years old male injured
11 years old male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected targets
    Assad regime, YPG/SDF

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • Shelling allegedly by Turkish forces on Ain Issa on August 1st led to the injury of three children who were moved to hospital. One of them is in a critical condition. (Via ANHA)
  • Shelling allegedly by Turkish forces on Ain Issa on August 1st led to the injury of three children who were moved to hospital. One of them is in a critical condition. (Via ANHA)
  • Shelling allegedly by Turkish forces on Ain Issa on August 1st led to the injury of three children who were moved to hospital. One of them is in a critical condition. (Via ANHA)
  • One of the three children wounded by alleged shelling by Turkish forces on Ain Issa on August 1st, 2020. (Via ANHA)
  • Images of shelling by Turkish forces on Ain Issa on August 1st, 2020. (via @smmsyria).

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Ain Issa (عين عيسى), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.38743, 38.86302. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected targets
    Assad regime, YPG/SDF

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI054

Incident date

January 22, 2021

Location

العمادية, Amadiya, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.092003, 43.486966 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three civilians were injured when alleged Turkish airstrikes struck an alleged Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) vehicle in Amadiya district in Dohuk governorate in the afternoon of January 22nd, 2021, according to local sources.

Director of Jumanki Aland Amir told the Iraqi News Agency (INA) that “the Turkish airstrikes targeted the outskirts of the village (Kari) of the Jumanki district in Amadiya district of Dohuk governorate,” indicating that “3 civilians were lightly injured.” The strikes reportedly damaged the homes of the wounded.

The director added that PKK sites in the Kashan area of Batifa district in the Zakho district were also bombed by Turkish warplanes.

Aland Amir revealed more details of the strikes to the Esta Media Network, stating that the “Turkish warplanes bombed a vehicle belonging to the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) near Gre village in the sub-district at 02:00 p.m. on Friday.” According to Amir, “three civilians whose house were close to the place of the airstrike were wounded.”

Security sources told 7al that the strikes targeted PKK areas and resulted in the injury of three civilians and damage to residential homes.

@Rawan_12313 posted a video of the strikes with the caption: “Three civilians were injured in Turkish bombing of Amadiya district in Dohuk.”

All sources blamed Turkey for the strikes.

The incident occured at approximately 2:00 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Translation: “Three civilians were injured in Turkish bombing of Amadiyah district in Dohuk” (via @Rawan_12313).

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the vicinity of Amadiya (العمادية), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.092003, 43.486966. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI070

Incident date

September 4, 2021

Location

هرور, Hiror, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.229298, 43.438993 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Up to three civilians, including two women, were reported injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling on Hirrur on September 4th 2021. There were claims that chemical weapons or white phosphorus were used in the attack.

A resident of the village of Hirrur told IQ News, “Turkish artillery bombed our village this evening, as a result of which a woman and her daughter were wounded, and they were taken to the hospital for treatment.”

Christian Peacemaker Teams reported that Haji Abdullah Hiruri, his wife and their daughter were farming when the artillery strikes occurred at 6.30 pm. When they gained consciousness they began vomiting and had severe burns. They were helped by neighbors who took them to Zakho hospital for treatment.

ANF News also reported that three civilians were injured in an artillery strike near their home.

According to Rudaw News, Turkish forces dropped six bombs and they landed nearly a kilometer from Abdullah Hassan’s house. Hassan, his wife Hadiya Mustafa, and their daughter Zhiman were hospitalized two hours after smoke from the bombs reached their house.

“A Turkish bomb brought this to me. Smoke came towards me and I said ‘go inside as this smoke stinks.’ I went into the house,” Mustafa, 66, told Rudaw. Adeeb Mousa, who lives in the same village, said that six bombs landed in the vicinity of the village and one of them “produced a black smoke” that spread to Hassan’s house. The others emitted a yellow smoke. Hassan was discharged from the hospital a day after the attack while his wife and daughter were discharged two days after the attack.

This was not the first time that Haasan and his family have been impacted by the conflict. They narrowly survived an alleged Turkish bombardment in late June when shrapnel hit the front of their house.

ANF News later added that Turkish forces also used chemical weapons during the bombardment. Those affected by the chemicals “had shortness of breath, redness in their eyes and an irregular heartbeat.” A video posted by ANF News claimed to show a chemical weapon attack on Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) tunnels in the Werxelê area.

Dr. Rasul Mohammed, the doctor who provided them with first aid at the nearby Rozana health center, told Rudaw: “They had breathing issues. Their eyes teared up and were painful. Two of them felt nauseous and dizzy. It was strange to me to see that a bombardment could cause these symptoms.” Amir Ali, head of Zakho health directorate’s media office, said that he was in touch with the specialists regarding the incident, but that “there is no equipment to know whether it was 100 percent a poisonous gas or something else.”

In an article published by Roj News on September 9th 2021, Jihad Abdullah, a relative of the three victims, said they were still feeling dizzy and unwell after being discharged from hospital. Mr. Abdullah accused hospital staff of failing to investigate whether his family had been exposed to chemicals gas: “This incident that has befallen us is no less than the incident in Halabja. But unfortunately we have been neglected. We have registered a complaint with the Human Rights Institution. But the hospital does not give us an accurate report until we can use it as evidence. ” After reviewing video footage of an alleged chemical weapons attack in another part of northern Iraq, Gisela Penteker, a director at the International Union of Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), told ANF that the footage warranted further investigation and called on the United Nations to “start an investigation”.

All of the sources attributed the attack to Turkey.

The incident occured at 18:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Abdullah Hassan
76 years old male injured
Hadiya Mustafa
Adult female injured
Zhiman
28 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Causes of injury / death
    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN), Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Image of Hadiya Mustafa being treated at a hospital following an alleged chemical attack on the village of Hirrur on September 4, 2021. (Image posted by Rudaw News)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Hiror (هرور), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.229298, 43.438993. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Causes of injury / death
    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN), Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS495

Incident date

February 28, 2022

Location

قرية التوخار, Al Tafkhar village, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.639318, 37.980547 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was injured in alleged Turkish shelling of the village of Al Tafkhar on February 28, 2022.

Hawar News reported that a civilian was injured by Turkish shelling on the village of Al Tafkhar. The media center of the Manbij Military Council said that the Turkish forces struck at exactly 8:00 this morning the inhabited village of Al Tafkhar, located north of the city of Manbij, with 7 mortar shells, “which led to the injury of a civilian.”

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights added that the shelling resulted in material damage to civilians’ property. A local source told North Press that “the bombing also targeted the house of Kafi Al-Jassem (35 years), a resident of the village, without mentioning additional information.”

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkish forces and North Press Agency identified the shelling as coming from the Turkish base overlooking the village of Al-Tokhar Al-Kabeer and Al-Waqa’a, at the northwestern edge of the village.

The incident occured at 08:00:00 local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention strikes on the village of Al Tafkhar (التوخار), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.639318, 37.980547. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS520

Incident date

June 27, 2022

Location

تل اللبن, Tal Al Laban, Al Hasakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.614291, 40.199682 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One person was reported killed in a Turkish drone strike on Tal al-Laban, Tal Tamr, in the north-west of Al-Hasakah, Syria, on June 27th 2022.  It is unclear whether this was a belligerent or civilian. Despite having limited reports of this attack, some indicate that the person injured was a “citizen” and others mention that he was a member of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that the Turkish drone targeted a military post where Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) Tel Tamr Military Council forces were stationed and that one SDF member was transferred to a field hospital for treatment.

There is no further detail of the person injured at this time and any new information will be updated to this assessment.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Tal Al Laban (تل اللبن), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.614291, 40.199682. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS548

Incident date

August 16, 2022

Location

بينه, Benna, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.465990, 36.993370 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A displaced child was injured in the village of Benna on August 16, 2022.

According to the correspondent for Hawar News Agency, a child displaced from the occupied village of Basel in Afrin was injured by Turkish shelling of the village of Benna in the Sherawa District. The child Ahmed Imad Ibish, 15 years old, sustained injuries to his head and feet.

Airwars did not find any additional information on this incident.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Child injured by alleged Turkish shelling of the village of Benna on August 16, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar news)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Benna (بينة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.465990, 36.993370. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS576

Incident date

December 3, 2022

Location

المجيبرة, Al Mujaibra, Al Hasakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.515970, 40.892380 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Four children were reportedly injured on December 3rd 2022 as a result of an unexploded ordnance, a previous Turkish shell, which exploded in the village of al-Mujaibra in the countryside of the town of Tel Tamr, north of Al-Hasakah, in Syria.  The shell was reported to have hit the village that morning, but did not explode immediately.

The children were identified as Suleiman Nasr Shalo (11 years old), Badran Nasr Shello (15 years old),  Ali Mahmoud Shello (11 years old) and Khaled Mahmoud Shello (13 years old).

Local sources told North Press Agency that the injured children were taken to Tal Tamr Hospital for treatment and that their health conditions were stable.  ANHA English reported that ”

The child Suleiman Nasr Shalo was wounded by shrapnel in his left foot, while the child Ali Mahmoud Shalo was wounded in his left foot and right hand. The nurse in the intensive care unit, Ahmed Farhan, confirmed that their health condition is stable, and they will be discharged today from the hospital.

As for the two children, Khaled Shalo, who was wounded by shrapnel in the head, and the child Badran Shalo, who was wounded with shrapnel in the abdomen, they are subject to 48-hour medical observation”

The father of two of the children, Badran and Suleiman Shalo, said to ANHA English that “the Turkish occupation is constantly targeting the villages of North and East Syria, including the village of Al-Mujibra, and some of the shells fall and do not explode, which poses a threat to the lives of citizens.”

 

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Suleiman Nasr Shalo
11 years old male injured
Badran Nasr Shalo
15 years old male brother of Suleiman injured

The victims were named as:

Ali Mahmoud Shlo
11 years old male injured
Khaled Mahmoud Shlo
13 years old male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Planted explosives and unexploded ordnance (UXO)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Turkish Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • Basnews reported that four children were injured after a previously unexploded Turkish shell exploded on December 3rd 2022 (Image via Basnews)
  • "Four children were injured as a result of a Turkish shell explosion, north of Al-Hasakah" (Image via NPA)
  • "Four children were injured as a result of a Turkish shell explosion, north of Al-Hasakah" (Image via NPA)
  • ANHA English reported that four children were injured after a previously unexploded Turkish shell exploded on December 3rd 2022.
  • "According to the correspondent of Hawar News Agency, four children were injured in the village of Al-Mujibra, northeast of Tal Tamr district of Al-Hasakah canton, when a shell exploded that had fallen earlier on the village but did not explode." (Image via ANF)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Al Mujaibra (المجيبرة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.515970, 40.892380. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Planted explosives and unexploded ordnance (UXO)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Turkish Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS601

Incident date

June 14, 2023

Location

عرب حسن, Arab Hasan, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.649510, 37.848615 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A civilian was killed by alleged Turkish drone strikes on Arab Hasan village on June 14, 2023.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that a person was killed by a Turkish drone strike on a house in Arab Hasan village.

Both @RojAvaTv1 and @NES_RIC_Arabic refer to the person killed as being a civilian. Orient News provided the name of the victim as Abdullah al-Hamada and reported that he was killed while digging tunnels with the SDF. Rasd News added that Abdullah was from the village of Shweha Khaznawi in the countryside of Manbij.

All of the sources that reported on the incident blamed the strikes on a Turkish drone.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Abdullah al-Hamada عبد الله الحماده
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • Funeral for victims of Turkish strikes on Manbij on June 14, 2023. (Image posted by Sheikh Farouk Al-Mashi, the private media office via Facebook)
  • Funeral for victims of Turkish strikes on Manbij on June 14, 2023. (Image posted by Sheikh Farouk Al-Mashi, the private media office via Facebook)
  • Funeral for victims of Turkish strikes on Manbij on June 14, 2023. (Image posted by Sheikh Farouk Al-Mashi, the private media office via Facebook)
  • Funeral for victims of Turkish strikes on Manbij on June 14, 2023. (Image posted by Sheikh Farouk Al-Mashi, the private media office via Facebook)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Arab Hasan (عرب حسن), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.649510, 37.848615. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF

Sources (14) [ collapse]