Iraqi forces supported by the international Coalition have driven so-called Islamic State from the nation’s cities and towns. The cost in lives has been significant.
Civilians paid a heavy price in the final days of battle for Raqqa – with thousands of Coalition munitions raining down on the city.
Despite a significant fall in reported Coalition casualty events in Iraq, the fierce battle for control of Raqqa meant August was the third deadliest month for non-combatants.
Lt Gen Stephen Townsend, former commander of the US-led Coalition, takes issue with Airwars assessments of Raqqa civilian casualties
The Coalition’s top commander has repeatedly questioned whether large numbers of civilians are dying, even as international investigations are released.
Coalition munition use – and civilian deaths – each drop by one third at Raqqa, as SDF campaign to capture city slows
Coalition declares as ‘credible’ two Belgian civilian casualty events – yet secrecy continues
Coalition commander plays down high civilian toll in Syria, despite findings of monitors and investigators