Tens of thousands of US bombs and missiles helped drive Islamic State from Raqqa. But now the dead are being forgotten.
Turkish and Russian military actions in Syria led to significant civilian casualties – while claims against the Coalition remained at a low level
New Airwars monitoring project tracks civilian harm from Turkish military actions – as well as reported casualties from Kurdish counterfire
Civilian deaths from Coalition actions were up by more than 200% in 2017, as the war against ISIS pushed deep into cities
Despite a significant decline in Coalition actions against ISIS, reported civilian harm continued into 2018.
With ISIS mostly defeated, Airwars tracked a major fall in reported Coalition civilian casualties in November. Russia remains a problem.
On average one Coalition bomb, missile or artillery shell struck Raqqa every eight minutes in August – with local monitors reporting a devastating toll on civilians
Despite a significant fall in reported Coalition casualty events in Iraq, the fierce battle for control of Raqqa meant August was the third deadliest month for non-combatants.