Civilian Casualties

Civilian Casualties

Incident Code

ISSY010

Incident date

May 1, 2020

Location

طريق يربط بين حمص وتدمر, Road connecting Homs to Palmyra, Homs, Syria

Geolocation

34.563028, 37.519268 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Street level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Street

Airwars assessment

Up to 10 civilians were wounded and taken to hospitals in Homs, Syria after being hit by shrapnel from an explosion allegedly as a result of Israeli airstrikes on an ammunition warehouse of Hezbollah within the camp of Hassan Bin Al Haitham on the road to Homs – Palmyra, Syria on May 1st, 2020.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said they got information that the explosion “was caused by a new Israeli missile strike, which targeted a warehouse of ammunition and missiles belonging to the Lebanese Hezbollah in the camp of Hassan bin Al-Haytham located on the road of Homs – Palmyra. The sources of the Syrian Observatory confirmed that the camp “is for university training, but the Lebanese Hezbollah took it as headquarters a few years ago.”

However, there were different stories about the explosions that were heard in Homs. In addition to the SOHR’s one, the Syrian regime said the explosion was a result of a human error while moving ammunition there, which led to the explosion and the injury of a number of civilians who were passing at that time.

Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) quoted a regime military source as saying “At 9:25 am on Friday, May 1st, 2020, successive explosions were heard at a military position in the city of Homs, and investigations revealed that these explosions occurred due to human error during the transportation of some ammunition”, the source said .He added that the explosions caused material and human losses due the shrapnel which scattered outside the military position.

But, the governor of Homs Talal Barazi said that  “the sounds heard in Homs were caused by explosions in an ammunition depot as a result of an attack on the site. He stressed that the attack included a military site and its nature was not known yet, which led to explosions. Smoke columns emerged from the site, shells fell in its vicinity, and a number of passing civilians were wounded.”

Baladi News reported that a number of Hezbollah members were killed and injured as a result of the attack. They said that nine militants including officers were killed.

Some of the injured civilians were identified as Muhammad Ahmad Al-Ahmad (amputated right leg), Muhammad Ali Ibrahim (two limbs amputated), Muhammad Yusef Milhem, (right hand and back injuries) and Muhammad Omar Hussein Askari who us in a stable condition.

The incident occured at approximately 9:25 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–10
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    9
  • Belligerents reported injured
    2

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Hassan Bin Al Haitham (الحسن بن الهيثم) camp, allegedly on the road connecting Homs (حمص) to Palmyra (تدمر). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for this road are: 34.563028, 37.519268.

  • Reports of the incident mention the Hassan Bin Al Haitham (الحسن بن الهيثم) camp, allegedly on the road connecting Homs (حمص) to Palmyra (تدمر).

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

Israeli Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Armed Forces
  • Israeli Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–10
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    9
  • Belligerents reported injured
    2

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4166

Incident date

February 4, 2020

Location

سرمين, Sarmin, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

A young man was killed and others were wounded in alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Sarmin, Idlib governorate, on February 4th, 2020, according to SMART News Agency.

SMART reported that “local sources and military observatories said that a civilian was killed and others were wounded as a result of missile strikes by Russian warplanes on the town of Sarmin, east of Idlib.”

Currently, further information is unavailable to Airwars.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1941

Incident date

December 21, 2019

Location

دوار قرموطي, Qarmouti Roundabout, Hassaka, Syria

Geolocation

37.049272, 41.205214 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Exact location (via Airwars)

Airwars assessment

Manar Saqer, female, aged 27, was reported killed on December 21st 2019, after she was run over by a US-led Coalition vehicle (truck) near Qarmouti square in Qamishli, Syria, according to local sources.

Manar was reported hit while she was returning back from her work around 17:30 local time. Another source believed the victim killed in the accident was a child.

Qamishli for Everyone reported: “Manar Saqer, a 27-year-old girl, was run over by a loader last night [DEc 21st] at about half past five on the Amouda road near Qarmouti roundabout next to the auto oil store during her return from work. This resulted in the amputation of her legs in hospital, where she later passed away”.

In the third of their September 2020 civilian casualty reports, the US-led Coalition assessed reports that they were responsible for civilian harm in this event as “non-credible”, stating that the allegation “refers to a vehicular accident, not a Coalition force engagement”.

The incident occured at approximately 5:30 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Qarmouti Roundabout (دوار قرموطي), sometimes called Osman Sabri roundabout, on the road that connects the city of Al Qamishli (القامشلي) to the town of Amuda (عامودا‎) towards the west. The exact coordinates for the roundabout are: 37.049272, 41.205214.

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible / Unsubstantiated
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Other
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SFB960026
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Sep 14, 2020
  • Dec. 21, 2019, Al Hassaka, Syria, via Airwars report. This allegation refers to a vehicular accident, not a Coalition force engagement. 3216/CS1941 37SFB960026

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R3953

Incident date

November 23, 2019

Location

قرية الصافي, al-Safi village, Manbij, Aleppo, Syria

Airwars assessment

Three women from the same family and a child were reported killed, and a man injured when their vehicle was hit by a Russian armored military vehicle in Al Safi village in Manbej, Aleppo governorate in Syria, on November 23rd 2019 according to local sources.

According to the Step News Agency, “A Russian armoured military vehicle collided with a civilian car near the city of Manbij, east of Aleppo, killing 3 women and a girl and seriously injuring another civilian.”

Local sources said the women are from ‘Alkolal’ family, originally from Al Hodhod village north of Manbej, and that they were going to pay condolences in a neighboring village when the incident happened. Local sources said that the Russian vehicle continued and didn’t stop after the incident what caused outrage among civilians.

Jorf said that the driver of the civilian vehicle was injured, along with his son.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • The remains of a civilian car following an alleged collision with a Russian military vehicle in al-Safi village, Manbij, Nov 23rd (via Step)
  • The remains of a civilian car following an alleged collision with a Russian military vehicle in al-Safi village, Manbij, Nov 23rd (via Step)
  • The civilian vehicle after collision with the Russian armored vehicle (via Shaam)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS371

Incident date

October 26, 2019

Location

مقطرة, Meqtera, Raqqa, Syria

Geolocation

36.607122, 38.738136 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

One civilian, Semîra Ana, suffered a heart attack due to fear brought on by Turkish attacks in Meqtera, Tal Abyad.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Semîra Ana Adult female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Meqtara (مقطرة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.607122, 38.738136. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS3703

Incident date

May 21–22, 2019

Location

معرة النعمان , Ma'arat al Nu'man, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

In a major civilian casualty incident, between nine and 12 civilians including a child died and up to 50 more were wounded in alleged Russian or Assad regime airstrikes on a popular market in Maarat al Numan, according to sources on the ground. Eight of those killed were identified, and the ninth one was identified as a ‘young man from Hama.’

Orient News said the raids targeted Al Korniche street in Ma’arat Al Nu’man.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights was among a number of sources blaming Russia. It put the death toll at 12 with 18 more wounded, adding that the death count was likely to rise due to the severity of injuries.

The lowest death count was given at seven civilians with 40 more wounded by Orient News, who joined multiple other reports in attributing blame to the regime.  Later, @Halid_Kutayni65 Tweeted that 50 people were wounded.

According to the Syrian Network for Human Rights, ” at least nine civilians, including a child, were killed as Syrian regime fixed- wing warplanes fired two missiles on local market in the main square known as al Masqed al Kabir square in the middle of Ma’aret al Numan city in Idlib governorate southern suburbs, on May 22, 2019.” SN4HR added that two civilians were also killed “near al Kabir Mosque in the middle of Ma’aret al Numan.

Geiroon quoted Ghayath al-Daher, a media activist in Ma’arat al-Nu’man: “The L39 warplanes targeted the densely populated Corniche Street in the city of Ma’arat al-Nu’man with several air strikes with high-explosive rockets, killing 11 Civilians in an initial toll. Most bodies were turned to pieces – and 20 other were wounded, many extremely seriously. There was extensive destruction to residential buildings and shops.”

Ariha Today said that vacuum rockets were used in the attack.

Shahba Press noted that the raids happened “after midnight.”

The incident occured during the night.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    9 – 12
  • (1 child8 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    15–50
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (46) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (37) [ collapse]

  • The aftermath of airstrikes on Maarat al Numan, May 21st-22nd.
  • The aftermath of alleged regime airstrikes on Maarat al Numan, May 21st-22nd.
  • Footage of the aftermath of alleged regime airstrikes on Maarat al Numan, May 21st-22nd.
  • Translation: "#Russian air raids on #Marat_Numan city in the southern countryside of #Idlib There are 11 dead"
  • The White Helmets attend the scene of strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22nd (via White Helmets)
  • The White Helmets attend the scene of strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22nd (via White Helmets)
  • The White Helmets attend the scene of strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22nd (via White Helmets)
  • The White Helmets attend the scene of strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22nd (via White Helmets)
  • The White Helmets attend the scene following strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22 (via White Helmets)
  • The White Helmets attend the scene following strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22 (via White Helmets)
  • The White Helmets attend the scene following strikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22 (via White Helmets)
  • Destruction following the strikes on a popular market in Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21-22 2019.
  • The aftermath of an alleged regime strike on the market in Ma'arat Al Nu'man, May 21st (via SN4HR)
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Aftermath of alleged Syrian regime airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (via IdlibPlus).
  • Destruction caused by airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (Mohammed Ghorab via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (Mohammed Ghorab via MMC)
  • Destruction caused by airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man on May 21st, 2019. (Mohammed Ghorab via MMC)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A body of a civilian killed in alleged airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man can be seen on the ground on May 21st, 2019. (SNHR via MMC)
  • Airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man popular market on May 21st 2019 killed and injured civilians and led to huge destruction. (via Shaba press).
  • Airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man popular market on May 21st 2019 killed and injured civilians and led to huge destruction. (via Shaba press).
  • Airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man popular market on May 21st 2019 killed and injured civilians and led to huge destruction. (via Shaba press).
  • Airstrikes on Ma'arat Al Nu'man popular market on May 21st 2019 killed and injured civilians and led to huge destruction. (via Shaba press).
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Graphic content on the alleged Russian airstrikes n Ma'arat Al Nu'man
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • Alleged Russian airstrikes killed civilians and led to severe damage in Ma'arat Al Nu'amn on May 21st, 2019. (Almaaralover via MMC).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    9 – 12
  • (1 child8 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    15–50
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (46) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USSOM135-C

Incident date

July 22–27, 2018

Location

Marka, Lower Shabelle, Somalia

Geolocation

1.716269, 44.769753 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

A strike reportedly hit a village outside Marka, a city around 60 miles south of Mogadishu, according to a field investigation by a reporter for The Nation. There were no reports of immediate civilian harm, though a man reportedly died of a heart attack following the violence.

Airwars has placed this event in a date range from July 22nd-27th 2019, reflecting limits to current reporting.

Khadija Hassan Ali, a mother of three, spoke to the reporter Amanda Sperber: “Ali said that her husband, Abdullahi Sheikh Hassan, died in late July from what she believes was a heart attack after night-time strikes hit her village amid fighting between Al Shabab and government-led militias. She is certain of the timing because, in Somali culture, a wife formally mourns for four months and 10 days after the death of her husband, so she had the dates in mind when I talked with her in late November.”

The only strike that US Africa Command claim to have conducted in late July was around 50 kilometres north of Kismayo on July 23rd – which Airwars has recorded separately. However as Sperber notes, Kismayo is over 400km away from Marka.

According to the article, an international human rights organisation additionally leaked a document to the reporter that indicated a strike occurred on July 25th in Qalimow, but this is about 95 miles away from Ali’s home. This event also has its own entry.

The US was thought to be the only country conducting airstrikes in this region of Somalia at the time. Sperber suggests that the strike may not match AFRICOM’s records because it could potentially be a CIA strike.

The incident occured during the night.

  • Abdullahi Sheikh Hassan Age unknown male Died of a heart attack following reported "night time strikes hit [the] village amid fighting between al Shabaab and government-led militias." killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    United States Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention that the strike took place in a strike outside of the city Marka. Due to limited information and satellite imagery available to Airwars, we were unable to locate the precise location of the strike. The coordinates for the city of Marka are: 1.716269, 44.769753.

United States Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    United States Armed Forces
  • United States Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    United States Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS3341

Incident date

March 26, 2018

Location

القادرية, Al Qadriya, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

35.898908, 36.309807 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A 12-year-old girl reportedly died due to a heart attack as she escaped her school in the village of Al Qadriya when the area was targeted by alleged Russian or Syrian regime warplanes.

@mohanadalshekh reported that Lujain Rashid (12) from Al Qadriya village in Jisr Al-Shughour countryside died “as a result of the stopping of the heart muscle as she escaped from school due to the attack of a warplane on the villages of Jisr Al Shughour.”

Smart News Agency reported that activists from the village of Al Qadriya stated that the “military aircraft, likely to be Russian, launched a raid on residential neighbourhoods in the city of Jisr Al Shughour”, and that fear made her heart stop as she fled the school. Human Voice reported the warplanes were Syrian regime aircraft.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Lujain Rasheed 12 years old female from the village of Al Qadriya, died due to a heart attack when she heard the sound of warplanes killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Lujain Rashid (12) died of a heart attack when she heard the sound of warplanes near her village Al Qadriya on March 26th, 2018 (via @mnafsyria).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]