Russia began its military engagement in Syria on September 30th 2015, in a campaign dominated by intense airstrikes. While Moscow initially claimed to be targeting so-called Islamic State, it soon became clear that rebel-held areas of Syria were its main focus. More than 39,000 airstrikes were declared in the first three years of fighting – many of them targeting civilian areas and infrastructure according to observers. While the campaign saw much of Syria return to Assad government control, more than 7,000 non-combatants were also credibly reported killed by Moscow’s actions according to local monitoring – though Russia itself maintained that no civilians had been harmed in its strikes. While we continue to monitor all claims, our comprehensive assessments of Russian civilian harm allegations presently run only to December 2016.