Turkey has conducted hundreds of unilateral air and artillery strikes in both Syria and Iraq – as well as a small number of actions as part of the US-led Coalition against so-called Islamic State. From July 2015 in Iraq, occasional unilateral Turkish airstrikes began targeting Kurdish militants in northern Kurdistan. Thirteen months later, the first claimed civilian casualties from Turkish actions were reported at Jeb el-Kussa, Syria. The focus of Ankara’s recent campaign has been twofold. In late 2016 it began an intense unilateral air and ground assault to dislodge ISIS from Al Bab and other areas of Aleppo governorate, during the later stages of Syria’s civil war. Kurdish-held areas and forces were also targeted, particularly during Turkey’s successful attack (in conjunction with local Syrian ground proxies) on the Afrin enclave in early 2018. Overall more than 1,500 civilians have been locally allegedly killed in more than 300 problem Turkish air and artillery strikes in both Syria and Iraq, according to Airwars monitoring.