Civilian Casualties

Civilian Casualties

Incident Code

TS436

Incident date

May 17, 2020

Location

دير غصن, Deir Ghosn, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

37.105027, 41.803837 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

According to the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA), a civilian was killed when allegedly Turkish forces opened fire on farmers in Deir Ghosn in Hasaka, Syria on May 17th, 2020.

SANA said that “local sources told SANA’s reporter in Hasaka that at Sunday afternoon, Turkish occupation forces opened fire at farmers working in their fields in Deir Ghosn near the Turkish borders, killing one of the farmers.”

@NadiaAbidd wrote that “a civilian was shot dead by the #Turkish occupation forces while he was working on his farmland west of Al Malikiyah town in #Hasaka countryside.”

No more details are available at the moment.

The incident occured in the afternoon.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Deir Ghosn (تل تمر), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.105027, 41.803837. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1946

Incident date

May 17, 2020

Location

الزر, Al Zir, Deir Ezzor, Syria

Geolocation

35.12527, 40.42864 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A civilian was killed by a sniper on the rooftop of his house in Al Zer as he was watching Coalition forces entering the village of Al Shouhaibl, Deir Ezzor governorate, on May 17th 2020, according to local sources.

Euphrates Eye wrote that “Muhammad Khleif Al Hamra was killed when he was watching the Coalition forces from the roof of his house as they stormed the house of Muhammad Al Hussein Al Madad in Al Shouhaibl town and arrested several people from Al Madad’s house.” The source added that Al Hamra was killed by a sniper and was “a civilian who does not belong to any faction who is the owner of a food store in the town of Al Zir.”

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that “the raiding forces killed a civilian who was shot while he was on the roof of his house located at the outskirts of the village of Al Zir near Al Shouhaibl, where the young man was watching the operation [in Shouhaibl]. His brother was arrested after that.”

According to the SOHR, the incident occurred during a United States forces operation in coordination with the Syrian Democratic Forces in the village of Al Shouhaib to find two people from the same family, reportedly working in trade. The special task forces of the SDF surrounded two houses and secured the area before the houses were raided and searched. The two wanted individuals were not found, but two of their sons were arrested.

In their monthly civilian casualty reports, the US-led Coalition has indicated that the credibility of this civilian harm allegation is in the process of being assessed.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Muhammad Khleif Al Hamra was killed by alleged US-led Coalition snipers when he watched Coalition forces enter his village Al Shouhaibl from the roof of his house on May 17th 2020 (via Euphrates Post).
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Muhammad Khleif Al Hamra was killed by alleged US-led Coalition snipers when he watched Coalition forces enter his village Al Shouhaibl from the roof of his house on May 17th 2020 (via Euphrates Post).

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention a civilian being struck by gunfire on a rooftop in the village of Al Zir (الزر), while on looking into the adjacent village of Al Shahel (الشحيبل). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Al Zir are: 35.12527, 40.42864.

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Open incident
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None

Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1945

Incident date

May 16, 2020

Location

بالقرب من مسجد أبو بكر الصديق ,البصيره, Vicinity of Abu Bakr Al Siddiq mosuqe, Al Basira , Deir Ezzor, Syria

Geolocation

35.152540, 40.423494 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Nearby landmark

Airwars assessment

The homes of civilians were reportedly raided and bombed by alleged Coalition forces in a possible joint action with the Syrian Democratic Forces in the city of Al Basira, Deir Ezzor governorate, on May 16th, 2020, leading to the death of five possible civilians. Sources additionally reported that two to three men likely linked to ISIS were killed.

Euphrates Eye reported that Coalition forces had targeted three houses of Internally Displaced People (IDP) in Al Basira. The source indicates that five possible civilians were killed in one of the raids: “In Ibrahim Al Baraka’s house, inhabited by displaced people from Albukamal, there were clashes because the displaced people refused to surrender.” Five of the displaced people present were reportedly killed in the house, after which Coalition forces bombed the building. It is not specified whether the victims were civilians or militants.

According to Euphrate Eye, men and women were arrested and interrogated after raids on the house of Hassan (“pharmacist of Albufahd”) and the house of Hammoud Abu Hani, which were both in use by internally displaced people from Albukamal. According to the source, all those arrested were later released.

@DeirEzzor24 wrote that “three persons believed to be linked to ISIS were killed, and a number of others were arrested, by the international Coalition forces, in an airdrop operation in a neighbourhood of the city of Al Basira, east of Deir Ezzor, on Saturday, May 16, 2020. Special forces from SDF participated in the operation.” The source added that the operation lasted for an hour, while the Coalition requested civilians through loudspeakers to remain in their homes.

Other sources also report the victims were “likely” ISIS members. According to Eye On Hasaka, the operation took place in the evening, whereas Step Agency reported the incident occured around dawn.

According to Euphrates Post “the Coalition aircraft targeted with heavy machineguns around the Abu Bakr Al Siddiq mosque in Al Basira after a military convoy of SDF forces arrived in the city from the side of the Al Safa mosque.”

Whereas all sources reported the operation to be a joint action, Step Agency wrote that “it is worth noting that this raid operation did not witness the participation of the “Qasd militia”, unlike the previous times that the American forces raided the areas of Deir Ezzor.” Hence, Airwars graded the strike status of this incident as contested.

In the second of their September 2020 civilian casualty reports, the US-led Coalition assessed reports that they were responsible for civilian harm in this strike as “non-credible”, stating that no Coalition actions were conducted in the geographical area at that time.

The incident occured during the night.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Suspected target
    ISIS
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2–7
  • Belligerents reported injured
    2

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention a residential building being struck in the vicinity of Abu Bakr Al Siddiq mosque (مسجد أبو بكر الصديق), in the village of Al Basira (البصيره). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Abu Bakr Al Siddiq mosque are: 35.152540, 40.423494

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible / Unsubstantiated
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SFU296908
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Sep 9, 2020
  • May 16, 2020, in Al Basira, Syria, via Airwars report. After a review of all available records it was assessed that no Coalition actions were conducted in the geographical area that corresponds to the report of civilian casualties. 3182/CS1945 37SFU296908

Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Suspected target
    ISIS
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2–7
  • Belligerents reported injured
    2

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1943

Incident date

February 12, 2020

Location

خربة عمو, Road between Khirbet Amo and the Allaya neighborhood on the outskirts of Al Qamishli, Al Hasaka, Syria

Geolocation

37.038759, 41.274014 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Exact location (via Airwars)

Airwars assessment

One man was killed and three civilians were wounded in clashes between American troops and Syrian regime forces near the village of Khirbet Ammo, Al Hasaka governorate, on February 12th, 2020, according to local sources. It remains unclear if the killed man was a civilian or a member of an armed group.

Sana reported that “American occupation soldiers fired live bullets and smoke bombs on the locals as a civilian from the village of Khirbet Ammo was martyred while another civilian from Hamou village was injured.” According to Sana, “hundreds of locals of Khirbet Ammo and Hamou villagers gathered near the post to prevent the American occupation vehicles from crossing and to force them to return from where they came.”

Step News Agency gave different accounts of the incident, writing when American troops were approaching a checkpoint of the Syrian regime forces, the regime forces then used young men to throw stones at the four American vehicles.

According to Step’s correspondent, “armed men in the gathering in civilian clothes opened fire in the air, and the American forces retaliated returning fire, killing Faisal Khaled al Muhammad, a resident of Khirbet Ammo village, and wounding another civilian. Whereas some sources reported the killed man was a civilian, other sources, such as the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, wrote it was still unclear if the man was “a civilian or regime-backed militiaman”. According to Step, two members of the Syrian regime forces were also wounded.

Al Khabour reported that a group of youths from the village intercepted the American patrol by throwing stones at them and then “took refuge in the regime’s checkpoint”, adding that American soldiers directly targeted the young men.

Colonel Myles Caggings, spokesman for the international Coalition against ISIS, posted a statement on Twitter (@OIRSpox), stating that “Coalition forces, conducting a patrol near Qamishli, Syria, encountered a checkpoint occupied by Syrian regime forces. After Coalition troops issued a series of warnings and de-escalation attempts, the patrol came under small arms fire from unknown individuals. In self-defence, Coalition troops returned fire. The situation was de-escalated and is under investigation. The Coalition patrol returned to base”.

Shaam News Network reported that Russian military vehicles were also present in the area. Sources gave conflicting reports on the incident occurring either in the morning or in the afternoon.

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1
  • Belligerents reported injured
    2

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Statement by Coalition military spokesman Col. Myles B. Caggings III on Twitter (via @OIRSpox).
  • Faisal Khaled Al Muhamad was reported killed allegedly when American forces opened fire on locals of the villages of Khirbet Ammo and Hamou in eastern Qamishli. (via Eye on Hasaka)

Geolocation notes (6) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention Coalition forces encountering a Syrian regime checkpoint where an exchange of small arms fire took place, during a patrol on the outskirts of Al Qamishli (القامشلي‎). Investigating audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed this location down to a road connecting Khirbet Amo (خربة عمو) and the neighbourhood of Allaya (علايا). The exact coordinates for this incident are: 37.038759, 41.274014

  • Reports of the incident mention Coalition forces encountering a Syrian regime checkpoint where an exchange of small arms fire took place, during a patrol on the outskirts of Al Qamishli (القامشلي‎). Investigating audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed this location down to a road connecting Khirbet Amo (خربة عمو) and the neighbourhood of Allaya (علايا).

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

  • Panoramic stitch of footage from the incident. Satellite imagery available to Airwars does not show building A, which we believe to be a recent construction.

    Imagery:
    Global News

  • Panoramic stitch of footage from the incident. Satellite imagery available to Airwars does not show building A, which we believe to be a recent construction.

    Imagery:
    Global News

  • Panoramic stitch of footage from the incident.

    Imagery:
    Global News

  • Satellite imagery showing the distribution of buildings tagged in the panoramic stitches.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

  • Satellite imagery showing the distribution of buildings tagged in the panoramic stitches.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1
  • Belligerents reported injured
    2

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USSOM267

Incident date

January 16, 2020

Location

Wanlaweyn, Lower Shabelle, Somalia

Geolocation

2.61945, 44.89357 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

Somali officials reported the death of a senior al Shabaab commander during a gun battle at Wanlaweyn. It was not clear whether US forces had also participated in the raid.

According to the Horn Observer, “The special forces known as DANAB raided the house of Mohamed Osman Hussein Buluush, a mlitant bomb expert in the town of Wanlawein 90 south of the capital, where he was killed in a fight, according to the state run Somali National News Agency (SONNA). According to Ismail Abdi Malik, Somali miltary commander this militant is said to have replaced Mohamed Siidow another militant bomb expert who was killed in a strike at Caliyow Barrow village.

Garowe Online reported similarly: “Osman Hussein Bulush, SONNA said, was killed by government forces in Wanlaweyn, following fierce gunfight between the militants and SNA. Bulush replaced Siidow SONNA said: ‘Government forces managed to kill Osman Hussein Bulush, the head of Mutafajiraad after fierce gunfight.'”

The incident occured around midnight.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Known attacker
    somalia_military_forces
  • Suspected attacker
    United States Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Al-Shabaab
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1–3

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Wanlaweyn, for which the coordinates are: 2.61945, 44.89357

somalia_military_forces Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    somalia_military_forces
  • somalia_military_forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

United States Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    United States Armed Forces
  • United States Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Known attacker
    somalia_military_forces
  • Suspected attacker
    United States Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Al-Shabaab
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1–3

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USSOM265

Incident date

January 7, 2020

Location

Lafta Anole neighborhood, Lower Juba, Somalia

Geolocation

0.379318, 42.0136 Note: The accuracy of this location is to District level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

District

Airwars assessment

A Somali special forces military action backed by “international partners” killed 35 al Shabaab fighters in the vicinity of Lafta Anole neighborhood in Lower Juba, according to local and international media reports.

Xinhua carried the most detailed report: “Hassan Mohamad Aden, commander of the Danab Forces in Jubbaland State, said a joint operation was conducted by Somali army and international partners in Lafta Anole neighborhood in Lower Juba. ‘Following a tip of from the residents, our forces launched an attack in the area killing 35 al-Shabab militants including senior members,’ Aden said.

“Residents told Xinhua there was heavy gunfire that caused panic in the area. ‘Al-Shabab extremists in the village were attacked by government forces,’ said Safi Bilan, a resident. ‘There was also airstrike which caused many casualties.'”

Citing a Somali military official, Garowe said that US troops had participated in the attack: “Tuesday’s operation was also backed by international partners among them the elite US troops, who have been active in the fight against Al-Shabaab, the official said.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Known attacker
    somalia_military_forces
  • Suspected attacker
    United States Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Al-Shabaab
  • Belligerents reported killed
    35

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Lafta Anole neighbourhood within the Lower Juba district in Southern Somalia. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

somalia_military_forces Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    somalia_military_forces
  • somalia_military_forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

United States Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    United States Armed Forces
  • United States Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    None known
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Known attacker
    somalia_military_forces
  • Suspected attacker
    United States Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Al-Shabaab
  • Belligerents reported killed
    35

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS404

Incident date

January 1, 2020

Location

تل أبيض, Tal Abyad, Raqqa, Syria

Geolocation

36.691373, 38.949966 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

One civilian, named as Ammar Alhaji, was reportedly shot dead by members of the al Majd Brigade of the Syrian National Army.

According to Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently, the man was “shot dead while he was trying to prevent fighters of Turkish-backed Al-Majd Legion from stealing his car.”.

Euphrates Post reported that the victim was a taxi driver.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights said: “Ammar al Hajji, from Tal Abyad city in the northern suburbs of Raqqa governorate, was killed in a shooting by members of al Majd Brigade of the Syrian National Army in Kendar village in the northern suburbs of Raqqa suburbs, on January 1, 2020.”

The killing led to civilians taking to the streets in protest.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Ammar Al-Haji, reportedly shot by members of al Majd Brigade of the Syrian National Army, Tal Abyad, Jan 1st 2020 (via RBSS)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Ammar Al-Haji, reportedly shot by members of al Majd Brigade of the Syrian National Army, Tal Abyad, Jan 1st 2020 (via RBSS)
  • Protests in Tal Abayd following the death of Ammar Al-Haji, Jan 1st 2020 (via RBSS)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Tal Abyad (تل أبيض), for which the coordinates are: 36.691373, 38.949966

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

YS078

Incident date

December 1, 2019

Location

حي العزيزية, Al Aziziya neighborhood, Hasaka, Syria

Airwars assessment

One civilian was reported executed by YPG in Hai Al Aziziya in Hasakah on December 1st 2019, according to local sources.

It was reported that Abdulwahed Khalil Al Kalash was shot dead when he tried to prevent YPG from demolishing his house that they deemed illegal and without a license.

Minbar Al Hasakah said that the victim is married, has two children and from Al Jbour tribe.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    YPG forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • Abdelwahed Khalil Al Kalash was reported executed by YPG.

YPG forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    YPG forces
  • YPG forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    YPG forces

Sources (11) [ collapse]