Civilian Casualties

Civilian Casualties

Belligerent
Country
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

R4362

Incident date

Location

تديل, Tadel, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.165535, 36.886978 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was injured in alleged Russian or regime shelling of Tadel on August 1, 2021.

According to @Ahmad_1alshble, “a civilian was injured by shelling by Assad’s gangs that targeted residential houses and agricultural lands in the town of Tadel”.

A tweet from @rdwanalshhwan identified the civilian injured as a “young man”.

Syria TV reported that the injured civilian was taken to a medical point in the area to be treated for his injuries.

Sources were conflicted as to who was responsible for the strikes, with @anasanas84 attributing the strikes to Russia and the regime while @Ahmad_1alshble blamed the regime in contrast to @Jv5As identifying Russia as responsible.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Syrian Regime

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • White Helmets sort through rubble following strikes on Tadel on August 1, 2021. (Image posted by @Ahmad_1alshble)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Tadel (تديل), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.165535, 36.886978. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Syrian Regime

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK190

Incident date

Location

Куп'янський район, Kupianskyi District, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

49.83513, 37.54015 Note: The accuracy of this location is to District level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One civilian was killed when reported Russian shells hit the Kupianskyi district of Kharkiv on May 10th 2022.  There is no further information at this time.

This assessment has reference to ACLED Code UKR57559.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Kupianskyi District (Куп’янський район), for which the generic coordinates are: 49.83513, 37.54015. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

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Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4456

Incident date

Location

الباره, Al Bara, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

A woman was injured in an alleged missile strike by Russian or Syrian regime forces in the Al Bara district in Jabal Al Zawiya in southern Idlib on August 6th, 2022.

The woman’s injuries were not specified though @RadioAlKul tweeted that she was “slightly injured” whereas all other sources reported that she was injured without further elaboration. The Syrian Civilian Defence also posted that a fire broke out in a civilian household as a result of the strike but did not specify whether it was the woman’s house.

@​​AlkneterOthman and @ZaitunAgency reported that the artillery shells were launched by “pro-Assad forces” and the Syrian Civilian Defence noted that Russia and the Assad regime were responsible for the strike.

The incident took place at some point during the day as the photographic evidence showed that it was daylight outside. It occurred in Al Bara in the countryside in southern Idlib.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (6) [ collapse]

  • One woman was injured in a contested Russian and Syrian regime artillery strike on August 6th 2022 in Al Bara (Image via SCD / Facebook)
  • One woman was injured in a contested Russian and Syrian regime artillery strike on August 6th 2022 in Al Bara (Image via SCD / Facebook)
  • One woman was injured in a contested Russian and Syrian regime artillery strike on August 6th 2022 in Al Bara (Image via SCD / Facebook)
  • One woman was injured in a contested Russian and Syrian regime artillery strike on August 6th 2022 in Al Bara (Image via SCD / Facebook)
  • Syrian regime or Russian missile attack in Al Bara on August 6th 2022 reportedly left one woman injured (Image via @anasanas82 / Twitter)
  • One woman was allegedly injured after a Russian or Syrian regime strike on August 6th 2022 in Al Bara (Image via @ezaldeen_98 / Twitter)

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

YS133

Incident date

Location

الحولنجي جنوب جرابلس, Al Huwlanji south of Jarablus, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.651944, 37.909722 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One child, Abdul Razzaq Muhammad, aged 9, was injured on May 29th 2022 when the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) were reported to target a civilian car with a guided missile, in the Al-Halwanji area, south of the city of Jarabulus, Syria, according to local sources.

Abdul Rassaq Muhammad was taken to hospital in Jarabulus.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (1)

Abdul Rassaq Muhammad
9 years old male

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    YPG

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • One child was injured when a reported Syrian Democratic Forces missile hit a civilian car on May 29th 2022 near Jarabulus, Syria (Image via Syran Civil Defense / Facebook)
  • One child was injured when a reported Syrian Democratic Forces missile hit a civilian car on May 29th 2022 near Jarabulus, Syria (Image via @free_sy-news / Twitter)
  • One child was injured when a reported Syrian Democratic Forces missile hit a civilian car on May 29th 2022 near Jarabulus, Syria (Image via @Sharqya_reporte / Twitter)
  • A car was targeted reportedly by SDF outside of Jarabulus on May 29th 2022, injuring one child (Image via @77Mikiy / Twitter)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the outskirts of the village of Al Huwlanji (الحلوانجي), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.651944, 37.909722. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

YPG Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    YPG
  • YPG position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    YPG

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS4509

Incident date

Location

كنصفرة, Kansafra, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Between one and three civilians were injured in alleged Russian or regime artillery strikes on the town of Kansafra on July 7, 2020.

A tweet from @BelalBayoush90 reported that three civilians were injured by heavy artillery and rocket launcher attacks on the town of Kansafra, attributing the attack to the regime while @thawrat111 identified two civilians as being injured and attributed the injuries to Russia. @RadioAlKul provided the lowest casualty estimate, reporting that one civilian was injured.

Other sources that reported on the incident only refer to “several” civilians injured or aggregate their casualty tolls with other villages nearby.

Sources were conflicted as to whether Russia or the regime were responsible for the attack.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USYEM001-B

Incident date

November 3, 2002

Location

على الطريق السريع 160كم شرق صنعاء ، عناقة, On highway 160km east of Sana'a, Annaqaah, Marib, Yemen

Geolocation

15.538461, 45.687604 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Province/governorate level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

In the first known US targeted assassination outside of a conventional battlefield and using a drone, a CIA Predator launched from Djibouti struck a car in Annaqaah, Marib governorate, on the evening of November 3rd 2002, killing six Al Qaeda suspects. A seventh individual escaped alive, and was later cleared of involvement in an October 2000 terrorist attack on the USS Cole – the stated reason for the drone attack. No civilian harm was reported.

The dead included Al Qaeda leader Qa’id Salim Sinan al Harithi, also known as Abu Mi (one of the alleged masterminds behind the USS Cole attack) and Abu Ahmad al Hijazi, a naturalised US citizen also known as Kemal or Kamal Darwish. Darwish, a US-born Yemeni, was suspected of being the recruiter of a terror support cell that had recently been rounded up in Buffalo, New York state.

The other four killed allegedly belonged to the Aden-Abyan Islamic Army, and were identified as Salih Hussain Ali al Nunu or Zono (aka Abu Humam); Awsan Ahmad al Tarihi (aka Abu al Jarrah); Munir Ahmad Abdallah al Sauda (Abu Ubaidah); and Adil Nasir al Sauda (Abu Usamah, initially identified as al-Qia’gaa). All six names were released by the Yemen government three weeks after the attack. A seventh man survived the attack with injuries, and was later named as Abdul Rauf Nassib.

The strike reportedly targeted one of two SUVs as they travelled along a highway towards Marib city, 100 miles (or 160 kilometres) east of Yemeni capital Sana’a. The drone was one of the first reportedly launched from Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti, the main base of US drone operations in the area.

The Hellfire missile, launched from the Predator drone, obliterated the vehicle and burned most of those inside. A US official told the Washington Post that considerable damage was caused by an “unexplained secondary explosion”, possibly indicating that “the occupants were carrying arms, explosives or extra gasoline”.

A tribesman told the Associated Press that he had seen Al-Harithi’s body in the destroyed car. “I know him like I know myself. That was him.” Al-Harethi reportedly fought alongside Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan, serving as his bodyguard, before becoming a key AQAP “operative” in Yemen.

At the time, the Associated Press reported that Al Harithi had been hiding from US forces in Husn al-Jalal, Marib, between August and November 2001, where he lived with Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal, another suspect in the USS Cole bombing. Both had reportedly escaped from a Yemeni special forces raid on the area in December 2001.

Multiple US agencies and representatives reportedly coordinated with the Yemeni government to locate Al-Harithi. US Ambassador Edmund Hull paid local tribal figures for information on Al Harithi’s whereabouts, according to Christian Science Monitor. Yemeni officials were reportedly displeased with this US “freelancing” in rural areas, but felt there was little that could be done to prevent it.

Nonetheless, US sources told the Washington Post that the strike was carried out with the “cooperation and approval” of the Yemeni government. Yemeni officials told reporters that their own agents were cooperating with the US to find Al-Harithi. According to an article in The New Yorker, “Manhunt”, a US-Yemeni “joint intelligence team, working out of a situation room in Yemen – a Yemeni official would say only that the site was not visible from the air – had been tracing al-Harethi’s satellite telephone calls for weeks”. Al Harithi was reportedly found with five mobile phones on his body, likely an attempt to evade telecommunications tracking efforts.

According to the Los Angeles Times, the CIA learnt prior to the strike that Harithi was about to drive across the country, affording an opportunity to conduct a strike without civilians in the area. Additionally, it was learnt, reportedly from a Yemeni ground agent, that the men in the group had taken one car, while the women had all taken a second car. “If the women hadn’t gotten into another car, we wouldn’t have fired,” one official later said.

“Our special-ops had the compound under surveillance,” recalled General Michael DeLong, then deputy commander of US Central Command, in an article by The Nation. “They were ‘preparing to storm in when Ali exited with five of his associates. They got into SUVs and took off'”.

As reported by The Atlantic and others, Al Harithi’s location was confirmed by the NSA. Surveiling a phone call on a number linked to Al Harithi, an analyst reportedly heard his voice giving directions to the driver of the car. Though only a six-second conversation, this was sufficient to identify the target prior to the strike.

Though the CIA reportedly conducted the strike, there did appear to be some level of coordination between the CIA and US Central Command. Speaking with PBS Frontline, General DeLong said: ‘George Tenet [director CIA] calls me one morning and said, “We’ve got our target.”  I said, “OK, we’re good. I’m going down to the UAV room.” [in Tampa, Florida]. I’m sitting back like this, looking at the wall and talking to George Tenet. And he goes, “You going to make the call?” And I said, “I’ll make the call.” He says, “This SUV over here is the one that has Ali in it.” I said, “OK, fine.” You know, “Shoot him.” They lined it up and shot it. It’s a pretty good-size explosive. In an SUV, you can imagine a big explosion. So we knew everybody in the vehicle was dead.’

A US official, however, later told the New Yorker that intelligence “mistakes” had twice almost led to civilians being harmed. “In one case, the joint-intelligence center found a group of Bedouins whose armed pickup trucks—pickups are the main mode of travel in the desert—included at least one vehicle that was mounted with a heavy machine gun. The Americans were about to hit the truck with a Predator, the Yemeni official said, “but we had someone tracking it, too. He was asked by phone, ‘Who are those people?’ He said, ‘Bedouins. Not Al Qaeda.’”

US officials told CNN that the CIA had been unaware that US citizen Kemal Darwish was in the car at the time of the strike. A US official later labelled Darwish’s death as “collateral damage”, according to ABC News – he “was just in the wrong place at the wrong time”. Darwish was born in Buffalo, N.Y. in 1973; he returned to Lackawanna, N.Y., his hometown, in 1998.  While there, he reportedly began to recruit young men to Al-Qaida.

In a 2010 Washington Post article, however, Dana Priest noted that the CIA did, in fact, know that Darwish was in the targeted vehicle. “My recollection is that Harithi was the primary target and their attitude was, that he was such a big deal and it was such a difficult thing to arrange that whoever else was there with him was a legitimate target too,” Priest told Airwars Director Chris Woods, published in Sudden Justice.

US officials did not initially publicly comment on the strike. Unofficially, US officials told press agencies that it had been conducted by a CIA drone. At a campaign rally in Arkansas, CNN reported, President Bush stated that the US was pursuing “international killers”. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, similarly, did not respond directly to questions about the attack, and said that “it would be a very good thing if he were out of business”.

On March 5th 2002, however, US Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz told CNN’s Maria Ressa, in an on-air interview, that the strike was “a very successful tactical operation”.  He continued: “…we’ve just got to keep the pressure on everywhere we’re able to, and we’ve got to deny the sanctuaries everywhere we’re able to, and we’ve got to put pressure on every government that is giving these people support to get out of that business”.

Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz’s comment on the strike reportedly infuriated the Yemeni government by violating a secrecy agreement between the two states. “This is why is it so difficult to make deals with the United States,” Brig. Gen. Yahya M. Al Mutawakel, the deputy secretary general for the ruling People’s Congress party in Yemen, told Christian Science Monitor. “This is why we are reluctant to work closely with them. They don’t consider the internal circumstances in Yemen. In security matters, you don’t want to alert the enemy.” President Saleh responded by banning US Predator drones from operating in Yemen.

General DeLong later told The Nation that “We didn’t want publicity. If questions did arise, the official Yemeni version would be that an SUV carrying civilians accidentally hit a land mine in the desert and exploded. There was to be no mention of terrorists, and no mention of missiles fired”.

Following the strike, a statement from Yemeni President Saleh was read on national television, calling on AQAP members to come forward and avoid what happened to Al-Harithi. A later Yemeni government statement on November 19th 2002 confirmed US-Yemeni “security cooperation” in the conducting of the strike, and named those killed.

According to an article in the New York Times, “Threats and Responses”, the strike was conducted under “broad authority” granted to the CIA by President Bush, meaning that the President was not required to specifically approve the November 3rd strike. Senior officials, furthermore, justified the strike as reflecting “the broader definition of the battlefield on which the campaign against Islamic terrorism would be conducted”. According to the report, the CIA “did not consult law enforcement officials” prior to the strike.

Legal questions surrounding the strike led the UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions to register their concern that the strike set “an alarming precedent… for extrajudicial execution”. Opposition groups in Yemen also voiced their disapproval of the strike, indicating that the US had violated Yemeni territorial sovereignty. A Yemeni official told the New Yorker that “there was no thought of blockading the highway and attempting to capture al-Harethi and his passengers, because he had evaded earlier attempts and because ‘it was suspected that they were going to a target'”.

Immediately following the strike, Yemeni officials removed the targeted vehicle. According to the New Yorker, the bodies were transported “to a military hospital in Sana’a… where American officials collected DNA samples for processing at a military laboratory in the United States”.

The sole survivor of the strike, Abdul Rauf Nassib, was arrested in February 2004, only to be acquitted by Yemen’s Special Penal Court of charges regarding his involvement in the USS Cole bombing. In Sudden Justice, Airwars Director Chris Woods wrote that, “despite his acquittal, Yemen continued to hold Nassib under US pressure for two additional years. By the time he was re-apprehended in 2012 he had allegedly risen to become a local commander with Al Qaeda”.

Following this event, the US would not conduct another known strike against AQAP in Yemen until 2009, seven years later.

Due to the nature of both CIA and US military involvement in Yemen, and the lack of official acknowledgement by the CIA for their involvement, Airwars grades this event as “declared” due to the comments made by US government sources to media, in lieu of public reporting on CIA actions.

The incident occured in the evening.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    No
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Known attacker
    US Forces
  • Known target
    Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
  • Belligerents reported killed
    6
  • Belligerents reported injured
    1

Sources (43) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • The BBC posted this unattributed image in November 2002, which it said showed the site of the explosion in a tribal stronghold. (BBC, November 5th 2002)
  • The BBC posted this unattributed image in November 2002. The caption reads 'The wrecked jeep was taken away for inspection.' (BBC, November 5th 2002)
  • Kemal Derwish, an American citizen, was one of those killed in the strike (BBC, November 5th 2002)
  • Qaed Salim Sinan Al Harithi was one of those killed in the strike (BBC, November 5th 2002)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention that the vehicle was travelling on a highway in the Marib province, and was struck at around 160km east of the capital of Yemen, Sana’a. The coordinates given are of the highway running through Marib province at 160km east of Sana’a. Due to the limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

US Forces Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US Forces
  • US Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US Forces

“It’s a very successful tactical operation, and one hopes each time you get a success like that, not only to have gotten rid of somebody dangerous but to have imposed changes in their tactics and operations and procedures" - Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    No
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Known attacker
    US Forces
  • Known target
    Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
  • Belligerents reported killed
    6
  • Belligerents reported injured
    1

Sources (43) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USSOM001-C

Incident date

January 7, 2007

Location

Ras Kamboni (possibly vicinity of Lag Badana Bushbush National Park), Lower Juba, Somalia

Geolocation

-1.649594, 41.563289 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Up to eight civilians were reportedly killed as the US carried out an airstrike against al Qaeda leaders in Ras Kamboni, Lower Juba, international and local sources reported.

Shortly after Ethiopian forces had invaded Somalia in late December 2006, the US carried out its first known combat operation within Somalia since the September 11 2001 attacks. Specifically, a JSOC AC-130 gunship attacked a suspected al Qaeda convoy under cover of darkness, after tracking it with a Predator drone. According to the Washington Post, the strike was launched from a US military base in Djibouti and based on both CIA intelligence and on information provided by Ethiopian and Kenyan forces operating in the border area.

Somali government spokesperson Abdul Rashid Hidig told the New York Times that two civilians were killed, although an Islamist spokesperson said “many” nomadic tribesmen died, including many children. US Ambassador to Kenya Michael Rannenberger denied any civilian casualties in an interview with the BBC. Pentagon spokesperson Bryan Whitman told CBS News the strike was based on intelligence “that led us to believe we had principal al Qaeda leaders in an area where we could identify them and take action against them.” But another US official told the Washington Post: “Frankly, I don’t think we know who we killed.”

Up to a dozen militants were among those reportedly killed. US officials, speaking anonymously, named various al Qaeda members as potential targets including Aden Hashi Eyro or AyroFazul Abdullah Mohammed, and Sudanese explosives expert Abu Talha al Sudani (aka Tariq Abdullah). Somali officials instead said that 50 people died in the attacks – “mostly” Al Qaeda fighters.

A team of Ethiopian military personnel with one US Special Forces operative landed at the scene within hours and confirmed eight dead and three injured, “all of whom were described as being armed”, the New York Times reported the following month.  Ayro’s bloodied passport was found, leading them to believe he had been wounded or killed, the report added – although Ayro was later targeted in another action  (SOM008.) Fazul Abdullah Mohammed was also reportedly the target of SOM002 and SOM005.

A later report in the Daily Mail claimed four British citizens were killed in the attack. Five days after the incident, a number of individuals surrendered to Kenyan authorities, including a number of Swedish citizens; Fazul’s wife Mariam Ali Mohammed; and eight children. They were deported to Mogadishu and then seized by the Ethiopian intelligence service, who transported them to Addis Ababa where they were held for ten weeks. Finally, the Los Angeles Times reported that the raid killed between eight to 10 alleged al Qaeda affiliates.

According to several reports and Pentagon spokesperson Bryan Whitman, the targets were those believed to be responsible for the 1998 US embassy bombings, which killed 225 people. Al Sudani was also reportedly “al Qaeda’s leader in East Africa” and was involved in the 2002 Paradise Hotel bombing in Kenya that killed 13 people.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 8
  • (2–5 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Known attacker
    US Forces
  • Known target
    Al Qaeda in East Africa
  • Belligerents reported killed
    8–45
  • Belligerents reported injured
    3

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention that the strike targeted a convoy of which some vehicles were stuck in the mud, near the port city of Ras Kamboni. The convoy was supposedly seeking deeper cover in the bush near the Kenyan border. One source noted that the strike took place on a remote island off of Ras Kamboni. Given the targets were in land vehicles, it seems unlikely they would have been on an island. However, the shape of the peninsula to the South of Ras Kamboni does look similar to an island, and may have been described as such. The information stating the vehicles got stuck in the mud whilst seeking shelter in bush areas could suggest the forest area to the West / South West of Ras Kamboni. This is also close to the Kenyan border, which is corroborated by information within the source documentation. The coordinates for this area are: -1.649594, 41.563289.

  • The forest area just south of the port town Ras Kamboni, near the Kenyan border (marked in yellow)

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

US Forces Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US Forces
  • US Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US Forces

"WASHINGTON, Jan. 9, 2007 – A U.S. Air Force AC-130 gunship attack in Somalia on Jan. 7 targeted senior terrorist leaders, a senior Pentagon official confirmed today.
Pentagon spokesman Bryan Whitman told reporters the attack targeted "what we believe to be principal al Qaeda leadership" operating in the southern part of Somalia."

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 8
  • (2–5 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Known attacker
    US Forces
  • Known target
    Al Qaeda in East Africa
  • Belligerents reported killed
    8–45
  • Belligerents reported injured
    3

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Incident Code

USSOM002-C

Incident date

January 8–9, 2007

Location

Hayo, Lower Juba, Somalia

Geolocation

0.433798, 41.816058 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

According to international and local reports, up to 31 civilians, including at least one child, were killed as the town of Hayi or Xayo was subjected to either US or Ethiopian-waged airstrikes.

Heavy civilian casualties were reported in airstrikes on Hayi near Afmadow, 250km northwest of Ras Kamboni, and other parts of southern Somalia, in confusing reports which may conflate activity by US and other forces.

An elder told Reuters that 22 to 27 people had been killed, while a Somali politician told CBS News that 31 civilians “including a newlywed couple” had been killed by two helicopters in Hayi, 30 miles from Afmadow. “The U.S. military is ready to carry out more strikes, CBS News national security correspondent David Martin reports. But whether it does will depend on getting good intelligence on the whereabouts of any al Qaeda operatives left alive. A Somali lawmaker said 31 civilians, including a newlywed couple, died in Tuesday’s assault by two helicopters near Afmadow, a town in a forested area close to the Kenyan border. The report could not be independently verified.  A Somali Defense Ministry official described the helicopters as American, but witnesses told The Associated Press they could not make out identification markings on the craft. Washington officials had no comment on the helicopter strike.”

Mohamed Mahmud Burale told AP that at least four civilians were killed on Monday evening [January 8th] in Hayi, including his four-year-old son.

AP China Daily cited a US military official who said that “Tuesday’s strike was probably carried out by Ethiopia since the aircraft were identified as Russian-made Hind helicopter gunships like those used by the Ethiopian military.”

Ethiopia denied any responsibility, according to China Daily. The Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi said Ethiopia and the US have been cooperating on intelligence, and that most of the information has come from the Americans. He also said the Ethiopians did not provide any intelligence that led to Monday’s airstrike.”

However, AP China Daily also referred to Abdirizak Hassan, the Somali president’s chief of staff, who said at least three US airstrikes had been launched since Monday  January 8th. Reports described al Qaeda operatives as the targets of the US strikes.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Son of Mohamed Mahmud Burale
4 years old male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4 – 31
  • (1 child1 woman1 man)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US Forces, Ethiopian Military Forces
  • Suspected target
    Al Qaeda in East Africa

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Xayo (or Hayo), for which the coordinates are: -0.433798, 41.816058. Due to limited information and satellite imagery availble to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

US Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US Forces
  • US Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Ethiopian Military Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Ethiopian Military Forces
  • Ethiopian Military Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Counter-Terrorism Action (Ground)
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4 – 31
  • (1 child1 woman1 man)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US Forces, Ethiopian Military Forces
  • Suspected target
    Al Qaeda in East Africa

Sources (5) [ collapse]