Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

CS327 TS005

Incident date

October 4, 2016

Location

الثلثانة, Taltanah, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.44605, 37.34302 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Within 100m (via Coalition) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Up to 19 civilians including 3 children were killed – and as many as 41 people injured – when airstrikes hit the village of Al Thaltanah. Multiple reports initially assigned blame to the Coalition or Turkish forces. However, on December 1st 2016 the Coalition conceded it had injured one civilian in the event.

The Syrian Network and Syria News Desk reported that seven civilians died, and assigned responsibility to the Coalition. Several other reports also blamed the Coalition. The Syrian Observatory reported that “warplanes” targeted the village “inhabited by Kurdish civilians,” leaving 60 civilian casualties, including 13 confirmed civilian deaths.

In a separate report, the Observatory clarified the airstrikes were carried out “likely by Turkish warplanes,” and reported that the death toll rose to 19 civilians, including 3 children, noting “the number of the dead is likely to rise.” ISIL’s news arm Al A’maq News reported that 10 civilians died and several were injured in an “American raid.”

Reflecting the confusion, al Jazeera cited the Observatory and wrote, “it was unclear whether the strike was carried out by the US-led coalition fighting ISIL, or Turkey, which is leading an operation against the group in the area with support from Syrian rebel forces.”

In its December 1st report the Coalition stated: “During a strike targeting ISIL fighters it is assessed that one civilian was inadvertently killed as a result of the blast following the strike.”

This was later amended on April 30th 2017: “Oct. 4, 2016, near Talatanah, Syria: Number 5 on the Dec. 1, 2016, CJTF-OIR press release reported that one civilian was killed during a strike on ISIS fighters. That was incorrect, it was assessed that one civilian was unintentionally injured.”

Halab News identified 11 civilians, 9 of which it named, who it said were victims of “Coalition plane shelling.”

In July 2019 the Coalition provided Airwars with the location for this incident, accurate to within a 100 metre box.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Unidentified from Kleisharo family
Age unknown from Kafr Sgheer village killed
Unidentified from Kleisharo family
Age unknown killed

Family members (3)

Mohammad Yahiya al Ibo
Age unknown male killed
Mahmoud Yahiya al Ibo
Age unknown male killed
Mustapha Yahyia al Ibo
Age unknown male killed

Family members (2)

Rashid Risho
Age unknown male killed
Ahmad Rashid Risho
Age unknown male killed

Family members (3)

Illo al Haj Illo
Age unknown male killed
Yahiya Yusuf Al Hajj Illo
Age unknown male killed
Ibrahim Yahyia al Hajj Illo
Age unknown male killed

The victims were named as:

Mohammad al Qarmatli
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    11 – 19
  • (3 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    41
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • "Satellite images show recent attack resulted from an airstrike, UN says, as battle for Aleppo sees more children killed", November 2016. (via Al-Jazeera)
  • Location of the village where the air strike took place, November 2016. (via Eastern Manbij countryside)

Geolocation notes

Prior to the Coalition releasing the MGRS for this incident, Airwars had geolocated it to the nearest village at 36.4457989, 37.3436021

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Credible / Substantiated
    The investigation assessed that although all feasible precautions were taken and the decision to strike complied with the law of armed conflict, unintended civilian casualties regrettably occurred.
  • Given reason for civilian harm
    Killed by strike blast
    Airwars’ assessment of belligerent’s civilian casualty statement
  • Initial Airwars grading
    Confirmed
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    1
  • Stated location
    near Taltanah, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SCA515347
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Apr 30, 2017
  • Dec 1, 2016
  • Oct. 4, 2016, near Taltanah, Syria: During a strike targeting ISIL fighters it is assessed that one civilian was inadvertently killed as a result of the blast following the strike.

  • Oct. 4, 2016, near Talatanah, Syria: Number 5 on the Dec. 1, 2016, CJTF-OIR press release reported that one civilian was killed during a strike on ISIS fighters. That was incorrect, it was assessed that one civilian was unintentionally injured.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For October 3rd-4th 2016, the Coalition reported no strikes in the near vicinity, though others for Aleppo governorate: ”Near Manbij, one strike destroyed an ISIL machine gun. Near Mar’a, four strikes engaged three ISIL tactical units and destroyed two fighting positions and a command and control node.”

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    11 – 19
  • (3 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    41
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    US-led Coalition
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI006

Incident date

October 3, 2016

Location

فايده, Fadhiliya, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.509167, 43.270278 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local and governmental sources said Turkish artillery had targeted Al Fadhiliyah village in Bashiqa, north of Mosul, resulting in the deaths of two civilian brothers and four injuries. The Coalition later made clear it did not view Turkish actions in Iraq as being a part of the international alliance’s effort to defeat ISIL.

According to Yaqein, “Artillery from Turkish troops stationed in Zlican Camp near Bashiqa, north of Mosul this morning struck Fadliyah village, killing two brothers and injured four people seriously…. The bombing also led to the destruction of eight houses for the citizens of the village.“

The Ankara parliament voted to extend Turkey’s military presence in northern Iraq – despite Iraq making clear it was not welcome. The Coalition’s chief spokesman later told Airwars in a pair of tweets: “I stated all of our coalition forces are in Iraq in coordination with, and with the permission of the government of Iraq. All other nations who wish to come to Iraq to fight terrorism should also have the permission of the government of Iraq.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Ahmad Hamza al-Fadil
Age unknown male killed
Muhammad Hamza al-Fadil
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Fadhiliya (فايده), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.509167, 43.270278. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS325 TS004

Incident date

October 2, 2016

Location

دابق‎, Dabiq, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.539778, 37.269556 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between 5 and 8 civilians were reported killed in a Coalition or unilateral Turkish airstrike at Dabiq.

According to LCCSY, “eight civilians from one family, mostly women and children, were martyred due to International Coalition warplanes shelling  #Dabiq village in the northern countryside.” Shaam News also said eight died – which it claimed included 5 children and 3 women. ISIL’s media arm placed the civilian toll at 5 dead, who it said were all from one family.

Syria News Desk reported that civilian housing was targeted and that the bombing destroyed some homes entirely.

Almost all sources blamed the US-led Coalition. However, according to Jisr TV, “Turkish and Coalition planes intensified their raids on the villages of Dabiq and Turkman yesterday in order to prepare for the rebels to attack the villages. There were a number of martyrs and wounded following the raids in the village of Dabiq in the northern Aleppo countryside. The military operations continue.”

In their May 2020 civilian casualty report, the US-led Coalition assessed reports that they were responsible for civilian harm in this strike as “non-credible”, stating that no Coalition actions were conducted in the geographical area at that time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Adult female killed
Age unknown female killed
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5 – 8
  • (5 children3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Military

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • News bulletin reporting on the alleged Turkish and Coalition airstrikes on Dabiq, Aleppo, 2nd November 2016. (via Jisir TV) Reporter speaks to correspondent Qahtan al Mustapha: "At 1’00” Turkish and coalition planes intensified their raids on on the villages of Dabeq and Turkman yesterday in order to prepare for the rebels to attack the villages. There were a number of martyrs and wounded following the raids in the village of Dabeq in the northern Aleppo countryside. The military operations continue. The coalition is also raiding areas in the village of Bouz Dubba north of Akhtareen in the northern Aleppo countryside. The battles are still raging around the town of Turkman between IS and the rebels."
  • Report by SN4HR titled, "649 individuals killed at the Hands of the International Coalition Forces including 244 children and 132 women the only way to defeat ISIS is to Ally with the whole Syrian people" (via SN4HR)

  • Arabic version of the report by SN4HR titled, "649 individuals killed at the Hands of the International Coalition Forces including 244 children and 132 women the only way to defeat ISIS is to Ally with the whole Syrian people" (via SN4HR)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Dabiq (دابق‎), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.539778, 37.269556. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible / Unsubstantiated
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SCA451452
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 1, 2020
  • Oct. 2, 2016, in Dabiq, Syria via Airwars report. After a review of all available records it was assessed that no Coalition actions were conducted in the geographical area that corresponds to the report of civilian casualties. 3059/CS325 37SCA451452

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For October 1st-2nd 2016 the Coalition reported no strikes at Dabiq itself, though did note for Aleppo governorate that “Near Manbij, five strikes engaged four ISIL tactical units and destroyed three fighting positions and a vehicle.”

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5 – 8
  • (5 children3 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Military

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS300 TS002

Incident date

August 28, 2016

Location

جب الكوسا, Jeb el Kussa, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.688187, 37.996683 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Twenty people were reported killed and 50 injured after clashes at Jeb el Kussa, south of Jarabulus.

According to Al Alam “these people fell during battles between militants and extremist groups backed by Turkey and the so-called “democratic forces of Syria” and armed groups backed by America.

The Syrian Observatory confirmed casualties in the ranks of the local fighters backed by the Turks in the region.” Russia Today, citing the Syrian Foreign Ministy, said those who died were civilians but blamed “air and artillery weapons of the Turkish army in coordination with armed groups.”

Most media blamed Turkey. However local Free Syrian Army factions accused both Turkey and the US-led Coalition of “deliberate raids by warplanes on al Sreirat and Bu’r al Koussa committing brutal massacres against the unarmed civilians of the elders and women and children killed tens of martyrs and the wounded.”

Ara news: “Syrian Kurds have accused Turkish troops of committing a massacre against civilians in the villages of Jeb al-Kousa and Megher-Sresat, south of Jarabulus. According to human rights organisations, at least 20 Arab civilians were killed and 50 injured under Turkish bombardment.

In their May 2020 civilian casualty report, the US-led Coalition assessed reports that they were responsible for civilian harm in this strike as “non-credible”, stating that no Coalition actions were conducted in the geographical area at that time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members

Family members

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    20
  • (2 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    50
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Military

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Jeb el Kussa (جب الكوسا), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.688187, 37.996683. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible / Unsubstantiated
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SDA103607
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 1, 2020
  • Aug. 28, 2016, in Jeb el Kussa, Syria via Airwars report. After a review of all available records it was assessed that no Coalition actions were conducted in the geographical area that corresponds to the report of civilian casualties. 3033/CS300 37SDA103607

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For August 23rd-24th, the Coalition reported that "Near Manbij, four strikes struck three separate ISIL tactical units and destroyed a vehicle.”

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    20
  • (2 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    50
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Military

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS003

Incident date

August 28, 2016

Location

ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﻧﺔ, Al Armana, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.741944, 38.009722 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Fifteen to 24 civilians were reported killed in Turkish airstrikes on the town of Al Armana, as invading Turkish forces were said to have turned their attention to Kurdish YPG fighters. Al Hayat newspaper reported as many as twenty civilians were killed. 

However, Turkey denied it had killed any non-combatants in the action.

According to Reuters “Turkey said 25 Kurdish militants were killed in its air strikes and denied there were civilian casualties.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (13)

Hussam Jamal Othman
Age unknown killed
Jamal Othman
Child killed
Jamal Hisham Othman
Child killed
Jamal Othman
Age unknown killed
Munira Osman
Age unknown killed
Fattah Othman
Age unknown killed
Riza Othman
Age unknown killed
Hassan Mohamed Osman
Age unknown killed
Paper Mohammad Ali Osman
Age unknown killed
ire Ali Osman
Age unknown killed
Hussein Ali Osman
Age unknown killed
Osama Mohammed Ali Othman
Age unknown killed
Ali Osman
Age unknown killed

The victims were named as:

Mohammed Ali Mohamed Youssef
Age unknown killed
Jassem Mohammad Al-Faraj
Age unknown the village of Khirbet, a paramedics killed
Hussein Hammoud
Age unknown the village of Khirbet, a paramedics killed
Mahmoud Alberhaoa Ali
Age unknown the village of elders, a paramedics killed
Jassim Mustafa Jassim
Age unknown killed
Salim Maher Alasmaeil
Age unknown killed
Mustafa Mohammed Jassim
Age unknown killed
Abdul Rahim Mustafa
Age unknown killed
Subhia Hafez
Age unknown killed
Aqeel Abdul Rahim Mustafa
Child male killed
Mona Abdul Rahim Mustafa
Child female killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    15 – 24
  • (4 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    25
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • The aftermath of an alleged Turkish raid on Al Armana, 28th August 2016. (via Free Manbej City)
  • The aftermath of an alleged Turkish raid on Al Armana, 28th August 2016. (via Free Manbej City)
  • The aftermath of an alleged Turkish raid on Al Armana, 28th August 2016. (via Free Manbej City)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Victims in the aftermath of an alleged Turkish raid on Al Armana, 28th August 2016. (via Ajansa Hawra ANHA)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Victims in the aftermath of an alleged Turkish raid on Al Armana, 28th August 2016. (via Haraw News)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Al Armana (ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﻧﺔ), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.741944, 38.009722. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    15 – 24
  • (4 children)
  • Civilians reported injured
    25
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI005

Incident date

July 17, 2016

Location

الفاضلية, Fadhiliya, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.509167, 43.270278 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A local MP complained that a number of civilians had been killed and injured in fresh Turkish shelling of Fadhiliya village.

Salim Juma told NRN News that artillery strikes from a nearby Turkish base at Bashiqa “killed and injured a number of civilians, including women and children.” The MP called on the regional Kurdish government to intervene, saying that eight houses had been destroyed in two days of recent ‘indiscriminate’ shelling.

No additional reports are presently known.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Fadhiliya (الفاضلية), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.509167, 43.270278. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS001

Incident date

March 14, 2016

Location

جكة, Jakka, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.607222, 37.295833 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A single source, the Daesh-linked propaganda outlet Al A’amaq Media, reported an alleged ‘friendly fire’ event in the village of al Jakka: “An American plane carries out a raid by mistake on a position for the armed opposition on the outskirts of the village of Jakka in the northern Aleppo countryside, leading to deaths in their ranks.”

Earlier in the day Al A’amaq had reported a major assault on the Daesh-held location, claiming that “American planes and Turkish artillery are bombing the village of Jakka in the northern Aleppo countryside, while Syrian opposition forces try to storm it.”

No civilian casualties were reported in this instance.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Military, US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Jakka (جكة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.607222, 37.295833. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Military, US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI004

Incident date

February 4, 2016

Location

قرية الفاضلية, Fadhiliya, Kurdistan, Iraq

Geolocation

36.509167, 43.270278 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three civilians were reportedly killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes on Fadhiliya.

According to the Iraqi National News Agency, “the bombardment of Fadhiliya village at the foot of Mount Bachik, resulted in the deaths of three civilians and the wounding of two others.”

There is currently no other known source available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Fadhiliya (قرية الفاضلية), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.509167, 43.270278. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (1) [ collapse]