Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TI089

Incident date

December 2, 2022

Location

جبل اسوس شارباجار, Mount Assos, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed and up to five others were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes/drone strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022.

The mayor of Charbajar, Shaho Othman, told Kurdistan 24  that three people were wounded and three civilians were missing following Turkish airstrikes on Mount Assos. Kurdistan 24 later revised their casualty count to one person killed and two others wounded, adding that four people were hunting in the mountain and hiding in the cave of Kelashin when the strikes occurred and that one person is still missing.

Kurdistan Revolution posted on Facebook that a civilian named Aziz Muhammad Rasool who worked as a farmer was killed and two others were injured.

A tweet from @cptiraq reported that six civilians were victims of the bombing, with one civilian killed (Aziz Muhamed) and five others injured (Muhamad Kadir, Kwexa Muhamad, Zana Muhamad, Saeed Muhamad and Salih Kadir).

Roj News Agency, quoting the mayor of Mawat district Kamiran Hassan, reported that a group of civilians were collecting wild herbs in the village of Kalala when Turkish airstrikes hit. Mayor Kamiran Hassan told Rudaw News Network that one civilian was killed and one was injured from the bombing, and that the victims were from the village of Qamish. Medya News put the casualty toll at two civilians killed and three injured, adding that medial teams could not rescue them until late in the day because of fear of a second bombardment.

The majority of sources attributed the incident to Turkish forces, with Rudaw News pointing out that it was unknown whether the bombing was carried out by warplanes or drones.

The incident occured around midday.

The victims were named as:

Aziz Muhammad Rasool عزيز محمد رسول
Age unknown killed
Muhamad Kadir
Age unknown injured
Kwexa Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Zana Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Saeed Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Salih Kadir
Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Alleged strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)
  • Location of alleged Turkish drone strikes on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by @cptiraq)
  • One of the victims of the alleged Turkish strikes near Zarun village on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by @cptiraq)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI041

Incident date

June 25, 2020

Location

كونه ماسي , Kunamasi, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Geolocation

35.796455, 45.415773 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Additional Geolocations

35.796413, 45.412799 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

§§Five or six civilians were allegedly injured by a Turkish airstrike on Kunamasi.

Rebaz Majeed tweeted: “The Turkish drones hit a vehicle half an hour ago, belonging to PKK members, in Slemani Province’s Kuna Masi. They also hit a mini market belonging to a local family. 2 are dead and more than 5 are injured and there are children among them.”

Adem Uzun wrote: “2 killed and 6 wounded (2 women, 2 children and 2 men, all members of the same family).”

One of the injured, Payman Thalib Thaher, a mother of two, had one leg amputated while the other was broken.

Rudaw also reported six injured and one man killed of which the outlet could not say if he was a civilian or combatant.

Hana Çômanî said: “People who have been killed ,injured today in #kunamasi they weren’t #PKK they were civilians(3children 8 their mother ,also a woman who was working on her farm)”

Yousif al-Hashimi described the man killed as “armed”. Barzan Saqiq said at least four PKK fighters were killed in the event.

KirkukNow and Hedwih Kuijpers said it was drone strike.

The incident occured at approximately 5:40 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Adult female Her leg was amputated injured

Geolocation notes (3) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention strikes on a vehicle and a mini market in the village of Kunamasi (كونه ماسي). Analyzing audio-visual material from sources, we were able to narrow down the location to the following coordinates: 35.796455, 45.415773 (the mini market) and 35.796413, 45.412799 (the vehicle).

{"type":"FeatureCollection","features":[{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"Mini Market","label-type":"black-white"},"geometry":{"type":"Point","coordinates":[45.413155,35.796455]}},{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"Vehicle","label-type":"black-white"},"geometry":{"type":"Point","coordinates":[45.412799,35.796413]}},{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"B","label-type":"white-red","stroke":"#ff0000","stroke-width":1,"stroke-opacity":1,"fill-opacity":0},"geometry":{"type":"Polygon","coordinates":[[[45.41337534785271,35.79674048848223],[45.41362076997757,35.79674048848223],[45.41362076997757,35.79697327005894],[45.41337534785271,35.79697327005894],[45.41337534785271,35.79674048848223]]]}},{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"A","label-type":"white-red","stroke":"#ff0000","stroke-width":1,"stroke-opacity":1,"fill-opacity":0},"geometry":{"type":"Polygon","coordinates":[[[45.41288316249847,35.79648268752892],[45.412983745336525,35.79648268752892],[45.412983745336525,35.79687210805564],[45.41288316249847,35.79687210805564],[45.41288316249847,35.79648268752892]]]}},{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"C","label-type":"white-red","stroke":"#ff0000","stroke-width":1,"stroke-opacity":1,"fill-opacity":0},"geometry":{"type":"Polygon","coordinates":[[[45.41390910744667,35.79681989535841],[45.414253771305084,35.79681989535841],[45.414253771305084,35.79699720083658],[45.41390910744667,35.79699720083658],[45.41390910744667,35.79681989535841]]]}}]}
  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    Kurdistan24

  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    Kurdistan24

  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    @Arahemn1

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (28) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (6) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Child allegedly injured by Turkish airstrike on Kunamasi on June 25th, 2020 (via Adem Uzun)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (28) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI070

Incident date

September 4, 2021

Location

هرور, Hiror, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.229298, 43.438993 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Up to three civilians, including two women, were reported injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling on Hirrur on September 4th 2021. There were claims that chemical weapons or white phosphorus were used in the attack.

A resident of the village of Hirrur told IQ News, “Turkish artillery bombed our village this evening, as a result of which a woman and her daughter were wounded, and they were taken to the hospital for treatment.”

Christian Peacemaker Teams reported that Haji Abdullah Hiruri, his wife and their daughter were farming when the artillery strikes occurred at 6.30 pm. When they gained consciousness they began vomiting and had severe burns. They were helped by neighbors who took them to Zakho hospital for treatment.

ANF News also reported that three civilians were injured in an artillery strike near their home.

According to Rudaw News, Turkish forces dropped six bombs and they landed nearly a kilometer from Abdullah Hassan’s house. Hassan, his wife Hadiya Mustafa, and their daughter Zhiman were hospitalized two hours after smoke from the bombs reached their house.

“A Turkish bomb brought this to me. Smoke came towards me and I said ‘go inside as this smoke stinks.’ I went into the house,” Mustafa, 66, told Rudaw. Adeeb Mousa, who lives in the same village, said that six bombs landed in the vicinity of the village and one of them “produced a black smoke” that spread to Hassan’s house. The others emitted a yellow smoke. Hassan was discharged from the hospital a day after the attack while his wife and daughter were discharged two days after the attack.

This was not the first time that Haasan and his family have been impacted by the conflict. They narrowly survived an alleged Turkish bombardment in late June when shrapnel hit the front of their house.

ANF News later added that Turkish forces also used chemical weapons during the bombardment. Those affected by the chemicals “had shortness of breath, redness in their eyes and an irregular heartbeat.” A video posted by ANF News claimed to show a chemical weapon attack on Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) tunnels in the Werxelê area.

Dr. Rasul Mohammed, the doctor who provided them with first aid at the nearby Rozana health center, told Rudaw: “They had breathing issues. Their eyes teared up and were painful. Two of them felt nauseous and dizzy. It was strange to me to see that a bombardment could cause these symptoms.” Amir Ali, head of Zakho health directorate’s media office, said that he was in touch with the specialists regarding the incident, but that “there is no equipment to know whether it was 100 percent a poisonous gas or something else.”

In an article published by Roj News on September 9th 2021, Jihad Abdullah, a relative of the three victims, said they were still feeling dizzy and unwell after being discharged from hospital. Mr. Abdullah accused hospital staff of failing to investigate whether his family had been exposed to chemicals gas: “This incident that has befallen us is no less than the incident in Halabja. But unfortunately we have been neglected. We have registered a complaint with the Human Rights Institution. But the hospital does not give us an accurate report until we can use it as evidence. ” After reviewing video footage of an alleged chemical weapons attack in another part of northern Iraq, Gisela Penteker, a director at the International Union of Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), told ANF that the footage warranted further investigation and called on the United Nations to “start an investigation”.

All of the sources attributed the attack to Turkey.

The incident occured at 18:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Abdullah Hassan
76 years old male injured
Hadiya Mustafa
Adult female injured
Zhiman
28 years old female injured

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Hiror (هرور), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.229298, 43.438993. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Causes of injury / death
    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN), Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Image of Hadiya Mustafa being treated at a hospital following an alleged chemical attack on the village of Hirrur on September 4, 2021. (Image posted by Rudaw News)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Causes of injury / death
    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN), Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI097

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

مخيم مخمور, Makhmur Camp, Erbil Governorate , Kurdistan, Iraq

Airwars assessment

On October 7th, 2023, a civilian was killed and at least three civilians—a woman and two boys— were injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on the Makhmour Camp in the Erbil Governorate of the Iraqi Kurdistan region.

The woman, who remains unnamed, was reported to be 72-years-old (born in 1951), and appears to have received an injury to her arm or shoulder; images from sources corroborate this. One of the boys was reported to be 15 (born in 2008); images included show him with an oxygen mask and IV. The other boy, who appears to be younger, was pictured receiving medical care to his leg. Rudaw Media Network reported that one other civilian was killed, but this was not corroborated elsewhere, and no identifying details of this victim were made public. Those injured were housed in the second section of the camp.

The strike occurred at 7:05 pm, according to Rudaw, and hit the camp mosque during the evening prayer. Rashad Kalali, the deputy official of Kurdish political party Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, was reported by Rudaw as saying that there were rumors that PKK militants were inside the camp, which resulted in its targeting. These rumors, Kalali stressed, were not accurate.

The camp, which locals call the Martyr Rustam Cudi Camp, houses between 10,000 to 12,000 people, primarily Kurds displaced from neighboring Turkey.

The incident occured at 19:05:00 local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Religious Institution
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: ANF
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ronahi.tv

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Religious Institution
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI025

Incident date

July 18, 2019

Location

سبيتدار, Spindar, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.035278, 43.571111 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between three and five civilians were reported injured when Turkish airstrikes struck the village of Spindar in the evening of July 18th.

Bas News reported that Turkish warplanes shelled several positions in the village Spindar with rockets, while “chasing a car for the militants of the Kurdistan Workers, where the gunmen hid in the village”. The source added that the strikes injured a number of citizens and that the villagers detained the three PKK militants who were hiding in the village.

According to local source @VagerSaadulah however, the airstrike wounded the three PKK fighters who were in the car when it was struck and an additional three civilians on the side road. One civilian was a German citizen, according to the source.

Rudaw said five civilians were injured, five of them children.

The incident occured in the evening.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Spindar (سبيندار) for which the generic coordinates are: 37.035278, 43.571111. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3–5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Belligerents reported injured
    3

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Car allegedly hit by a Turkish airstrike on Spindar village in Dohuk on July 18th (via Roj News).
  • Car allegedly hit by a Turkish airstrike on Spindar village in Dohuk on July 18th (via Roj News).

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3–5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Belligerents reported injured
    3

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI052

Incident date

December 7, 2020

Location

رشاوه, Vicinity of Reshava, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.09909, 43.64744 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three civilians were killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes on the town of Deraluk, Dohuk governorate, on December 7th, 2020, according to local sources. The bodies of the three men were found on December 12th.

On December 12th, Roj News reported: “On December 7th, three civilians from the Derelok district of Amed were bombed by Turkish planes while they were on their fields in the village of Zêwê. No news had been received from them since that day. The bodies of all three citizens were found today.”

Rudaw reported that the relatives Muhsin Speri (64), Hassan Sadiq (56) and Safar Sini (54) from the Nêrwehi tribe went camping on Mount Matin when their families lost contact with the men. According to the source, all three men were retired Peshmerga from Deraluk’s Amedi sub-district.

Sleman Speri, Muhsin’s brother, told Rudaw: “When he didn’t call after four days, we knew something was wrong… A few days ago we got news that Turkey had bombed the mountain.” The family then set out to search for the missing men.

Rudaw posted a video of the retrieving of the bodies of the victims. Arsala Mohammed, a relative of the victims, stated: “When we found the bodies, all three were badly mutilated. It was very, very bad. It was hard for us to come back here. The path was rocky and narrow. It took us half an hour to get the bodies down from the mountain.

The Turkish Ministry of Defence did confirm to have “neutralised” five PKK members in airstrikes on Gara Mountain, west of Deraluk, around the same time that the three men were killed, reported Rudaw.

Duhok province governor Ali Tatar responded to the incident, telling Kurdistan24: “Unfortunately, the PKK presence inside Kurdistan Region’s territories and the armed clashes with the Turkish army has become a cause of great destruction for the people living in those areas. (..) When people are trying to visit their lands and homes, you see them killed and injured by airstrikes, and these acts are inhumane.”

Adam Gnych, who reported on the incident, provided Airwars with excerpts from an interview with Baxtiyar Speri, Muhsin Speri’s son: “It was December 2nd, my father went to the mountains to look for wild bees, which he does seasonally to buy bread for the family. The economic crisis and corona have made it very hard for our family, so he had to go more often. He left on December 2nd, we found his corpse on December 12. For eight days no one informed us about what happened to them.”

Baxtiyar talked about finding the mens’ bodies: “When we found the bodies, Hassan and Safar were both close to where the rocket hit it, and my father was about 50 to 100 meters away from them. It was clear that he had been injured and had crawled in order to look for help…. They were hit by drones, and the rocket was mostly shrapnel… Safar’s body was cut to half, and Hassan lost a leg and an arm, but my father’s body was intact”.

According to the victims son the incident happened “far from the closest road, around three to four hours walking distance.”

Baxtyar said “This area has turned into to a military zone, we are losing our loved ones in the crossfire. We have to sneak into our own lands because the PKK doesn’t let us even light a fire, and the Turkish planes are dropping bombs every day…It doesn’t matter how much we cry for the Kurdish government, and even the government in Baghdad wouldn’t be able to do anything. Even the Turks can’t control the area and the PKK is using the Doski, Rekan and Nerwayi lands as they wish. Our lands would never be free from bloodshed.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

64 years old male killed
54 years old male killed
56 years old male killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the valley in the vicinity of Reshava (رشاوه) village. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Reshava are: 37.09909, 43.64744.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (3 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • Baxtyar Speri greets mourners on the second day of his father’s funeral in the town of Deraluk, December 2020. Muhsin Speri, 64 was killed alongside Hassan Sadiq and Safar Sini whilst the men were on a foraging trip north of the town. (Image courtesy of The Guardian)
  • Muhsin Haci, Sefer Selim and Hesen Sadiq were killed in alleged Turkish strikes on Deraluk, Iraqi Kurdistan, on December 7th, 2020 (via Roj News).
  • Civilians at the site in the aftermath of alleged Turkish airstrikes on the town of Deraluk, Iraqi Kurdistan, on December 7th, 2020 (via @BaxtiyarGoran).
  • The aftermath of alleged Turkish airstrikes on the town of Deraluk, Iraqi Kurdistan, on December 7th, 2020 (via @BaxtiyarGoran).
  • Sefer Selim (54) was killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes on Deraluk on December 7th, 2020 (via @DefteraRes).
  • Hasan Sadiq (56) was killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes on Deraluk on December 7th, 2020 (via @DefteraRes).
  • Muhsin Haci (64) was killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes on Deraluk on December 7th, 2020 (via @DefteraRes).

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (3 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI079

Incident date

May 21, 2022

Location

مەخموور, Makhmur, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

35.75382, 43.605244 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed and seven others were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur refugee camp on May 21, 2022. In addition, one to two alleged members of the PKK were killed in the same incident.

Camp director Nechirvan Mahmoud told AFP that a suspected Turkish drone struck a vehicle in Makhmur refugee camp, killing a resident.

According to @SweeneySteve, at least seven people were injured in the strikes on Makhmour refugee camp. @dersi4m reported that a young man named Haci Mirza Ali who was injured in the same strikes died from his injuries the following day.

BasNews reported that according to a Turkish security source, the person killed was a senior commander of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) named Mehmet Erdogan, codenamed Ahmet Rubar. “The source added that Rubar had directed and overseen the PKK operations in the northern areas of Makhmur, Sulaymaniyah, and Kirkuk since 2021. He used a fake ID card under the name Haji Mirza Ali, the source revealed.” Overall, BasNews identified “several people” as being killed and injured.

A tweet from @nicolas62574020 added that Turkey’s national intelligence organization accused Erdogan of “attempting to overthrow the constitutional order and violating Turkey’s territorial integrity” after joining the PKK in 1990. @SardarSattar added that “several PKK members” were killed in a PKK vehicle.

In contrast to reporting that those killed were militants, Media News reported that the vehicle struck belonged to the civilian and none of the sources specifically refer to Haci Mirza Ali as being a member of the PKK.

The New Arab pointed out that Makhmur refugee camp hosts more than 12,000 Kurdish refugees and that the camp is being sponsored by the United Nations.

The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), one of the two major political parties in the KRI, released a statement condemning the drone strike: “We call on the Iraqi government to fulfil its constitutional and national obligation to protect Iraqi soil and air space, including the KRI. The Iraqi government should approach the Turkish government about these violations through diplomatic channels. The KRI administration should summon Turkey’s ambassador and communicate to him its discontent with these attacks. There can be no excuse for border violations of this nature, resulting in civilian deaths and injuries.”

All of the sources that report on the incident attributed the drone strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured at approximately 12:00 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Haci Mirza Ali
Adult male killed

Geolocation notes (3) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention a vehicle being struck in Makhmur (مەخموور) refugee camp. Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed down the exact location of the strike to these coordinates: 35.75382, 43.605244.

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  • Imagery:
    Medya News

  • Imagery:
    Medya News

  • Imagery:
    Medya News

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1–2

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • Mehmet Erdogan, who was killed in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by BasNews)
  • Mehmet Erdogan, who was killed in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. Turkey has accused Erdogan of being a member of the PKK. (Image posted by @nicolas62574020)
  • Truck hit by alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @nicolas62574020)
  • Truck hit by alleged Turkish drone strikes on Makhmur camp on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @nicolas62574020)
  • Residents of Makhmur camp surround the truck hit by alleged Turkish drone strikes on May 21, 2022. (Image posted by @dersi4m)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    7
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    1–2

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI031

Incident date

November 19, 2019

Location

خانصور, Khanasor, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.47777, 41.61138 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local sources reported that a Turkish drone attacked areas in Shingal region in Iraq on November 19th, 2019 causing deaths and injuries among civilians and YPG fighters.

@murad_ismael reported “Another Turkish airstrike today [Nov 19th] on town of Khanesor. Reportedly there are civilian victims which are yet to be confirmed.”

@ameddicleT added that “Turkish armed unmanned aerial vehicles bombed Khanasor town at noon”.

There is obvious ambiguity as to what the airstrike targeted and who got killed and injured. Some sources reported that the airstrike targeted the house of Elias Dero Hasan Dero, who is “member of the Democratic Party of #Ezidis in #Shingal and has no connection with the #PKK or #YPG.” according to Ezidipress. The same source also said that “close to Dero’s house is a base of the YPG, which was obviously the target of the #Turkish air strike.”

@fekerhoor said that the airstrike targeted “a Kia car carrying six Syrian fighters and Turks, while they were leaving the headquarters of YPG {Sinjar Protection Units}, in the Kansour district of Sinjar, west of Mosul, the Nineveh center.”

NRT said that five YPG fighters were injured in this incident. @xalfxalt tweeted that there have been casualties and deaths as a result of this attack, and so reported Kirkuknow saying that resulted in deaths and injuries among civilians. Dwarozh said the attack killed five people and injured one person without specifying whether they were civilians or not. From their side, Xinhua said that the attack “left 20 militiamen killed and wounded, the Iraqi military said.”

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (1)

Name unknown

Family members

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Khanasor (خانصور), for which the generic coordinates are:36.47777, 41.61138. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (25) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (16) [ collapse]

  • "Turkish warplanes bomb the Yazidi town of Khanasor in Sinjar." (via @Ezidi2).
  • "Turkish warplanes bomb the Yazidi town of Khanasor in Sinjar." (via @Ezidi2).
  • Elias Dero, a politician whose house was a target of the Turkish airstrike on Khanasor, Iraq on November 19th, 2019 (via Ezidipress)
  • Location of the Turkish airstrike on Khanasor (via Khanasor)
  • Targets of the Turkish airstrike in Khanasor, Iraq (via NRT).
  • Aftermath of the Turkish airstrike in Khanasor, Iraq (via NRT).
  • A car burned down due to Turkish airstrikes in Khana Sor, in the Sinune sub-district of Shingal Nov.19.2019. (via: Kirkuk Now)
  • Aftermath of the Turkish airstrike on Khansour in Iraq on Nove 19th, 2019 (via @anmab1121)
  • "Security sources in Sinjar district: Turkish warplanes bombed a headquarters of the Yazidi Sinjar Protection Units in the Khansour complex." (via @AdnanAwadh)
  • "Security sources in Sinjar district: Turkish warplanes bombed a headquarters of the Yazidi Sinjar Protection Units in the Khansour complex." (via @AdnanAwadh)
  • "Turkish air strikes on a headquarters of the Shankal resistance units in the Khansour compound, northwest of Sinjar district." (via@aamerbabeer)
  • "Turkish air strikes on a headquarters of the Shankal resistance units in the Khansour compound, northwest of Sinjar district." (via@aamerbabeer)
  • "Turkish planes bombed the site Pkk targeting the house (Elias Deru) in the Khansour complex of Sunoon district, I hope without human losses .. 19/11/2019." (via @khalidqa20011).
  • Alleged Turkish airstrike hit the house of Ezidi politician Elias Dero in the city #Khanasor, Nov 19th, 2019 (via @Welatpa00428651)
  • Car hit by a Turkish airstrike on in Iraq on Nov 19th, 2019 (via Sotkurdistan).

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (25) [ collapse]