Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

TI014

Incident date

March 25, 2018

Location

شيلاديزي, Shiladeza, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.037778, 43.780833 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

According to local sources, one civilian was killed and one or two more were injured in an alleged Turkish airstrike on the Shiladeza area, north of Duhok province in Iraqi Kurdistan.

One local source told Roj News Agency that the raids began in the afternoon, striking the village of Hillah, “in the area between Rikani and Niroh”. The report detailed that the airstrikes had killed one civilian and seriously injured a 35-year-old civilian, who was taken to a hospital.

Ashin Berwari, the head of the Shiladeza district, told Shafaaq that the bombardment had “caused at least two civilian casualties”. He added that the Turkish authorities are continuously shelling the villages in this area.

Ramam Ibrahim posted that the strike had seriously wounded one civilian and added that it had destroyed the farms in the area.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Nihad Mahmood 35 years old male injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • The alleged Turkish airstrikes caused one victim and several injured when it targeted Shiladeza area in Dohuk (via Fazel Hawramy twitter)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI012

Incident date

March 22, 2018

Location

Villages in Choman district, Erbil, Iraq

Geolocation

36.637318, 44.890048 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Four civilians died and 10 more were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes on villages in the Choman area of Iraqi Kurdistan, local sources reported. According to IC Afrin Resistance, the “Turkish army’s attacks and #TurkishWarCrimes are spreading: Yesterday night at 1:05 am Turkish air-forces bombarded villages in the district Qesre of Erbil (South #Kurdistan / Iraq). 4 civilians were killed due to the air-strikes.”

Hana Comani put the death toll at four with 10 more wounded. While most sources state that all four who died in the strike were civilians, a report by PDK-S detailed that the young men who perished were “Three Peshmerga and one lawyer”.

ANA reported: “Turkish military aircraft launched at 01:00 in the middle of last night raids on the villages of “Wassan, Sargan, and Mawa” near the town of Qusra in the district of Juman in the province of Holler. According to information received from the area, four civilians were killed during a ceremony in Nowruz.”

Additionally, a report by TRT said that “nine terrorists who were ready to attack a military base were eliminated in the ongoing airstrikes against PKK terrorist camps in northern Iraq.” It is unclear whether this is the same raid though the date and location match.

On April 27, 2020, the Christian Peacemaker Teams Iraqi Kurdistan (CPTIK) published an article interviewing the family members of four victims who were killed in the alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Sarkan. The victims were identified as Bezhan Mustafa, Mohammad Ismail, Darbaz Mohammad and Sherko Mahmud, all aged between 20 and 30 years old. According to CPTIK, two of the victims were cousins. Two of them graduated from law college and the other two were Peshmerga.

The men went to their summer house, where they, according to neighbours, “made a fire, grilled meat on the hot coals, and sang joyous songs”. The strike on Sarkan reportedly occured around 1:15 AM. A village elder told CPTIK: “When I arrived, I saw pieces of their burned bodies spread around, mixed with shreds of blankets and fragments of the house. I could not even recognize the bodies. I then collected the remnants and put them in the back of the pickup truck.”

Bezhan’s father told CPTIK that the men “were in no way connected to the PKK”.

The incident occured at 1:15 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    10
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • A victim of Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via Haval sedo)
  • A victim of Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via Haval sedo)
  • A victim of Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via PDK)
  • A victim of Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via PDK)
  • A victim of Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via PDK)
  • A victim of Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via PDK)
  • Victims of the Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via Kamal Chomani)
  • Victims of the Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via Kamal Chomani)
  • Victims of the Turkish airstrikes on villages in Choman area, east of Irbil, 22nd March 2018. (via Turkey Untold)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    10
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI011

Incident date

November 13, 2017

Location

سيدكان, Barmiza village, Sidkan, Erbil, Iraq

Geolocation

36.801389, 44.665 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

One civilian was killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes on Barmiza village, Sidkan area, on November 13th, 2017, according to local sources.

A local Kurdish outlet, Yaqein Agency, reported the day of the incident that one civilian was killed by alleged Turkish airstrikes on Sidkan, north of Erbil.

In January 2019, Christian Peacemaker Teams Iraqi Kurdistan published an article on the victim of the airstrike, Himda’at Othman Darwish. CPTIK reported that Othman was “in his early twenties, the oldest son of Othman Darwish and Jawhar Abdullah and with a wife and infant son of his own” and that “he worked hard to support his family by trading between the two parts of Kurdistan.”

His relatives told CPTIK that Othman returning home to his family’s village of Barmiza, a forty minutes drive from the Turkish border, adding that the road he used was used regularly by villages to access their farm lands. His father stated that at the time of the airstrikes, there were other cars on the road and that it is unclear why his son’s car was targeted in the “daylight afternoon hours” of November 13th.

 

The incident occured in the afternoon.

  • Himda’at Othman Adult male oldest son of Othman Darwish and Jawhar Abdullah killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Himda'at Othman Darwish, victim of alleged Turkish airstrikes on his car near Barzima village on November 13th, 2017, pictured with this son (via CPTIK).
  • The car of victim Himda'at Othman Darwish after alleged Turkish airstrikes near Barzima village on November 13th, 2017 (via CPTIK).

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI009

Incident date

September 20, 2017

Location

شمال العراق, North of Iraq, Iraq

Geolocation

36.915000, 44.041944 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Province/governorate level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Province/governorate

Airwars assessment

Local media reported that the Turkish air force had bombed sites belonging to the Kurdistan Workers’ Party in north Iraq – though there was no information available on civilian harm as a result of these actions.

RT reported that “the Turkish army said on Thursday that the shelling hit targets in the mountainous regions of Zab, Afashin and Baysan in northern Iraq, close to the border with Turkey. The army gave no further details on the timing of the strike or targets, but confirmed that all the aircraft had returned safely.”

According to Alrafdain, “The Turkish Air Force announced that the Turkish planes bombed the camps of the Workers ‘Party militia. This resulted in the destruction of weapons and ammunition stores as part of the Turkish forces’ campaign in south and south-eastern Turkey and northern Iraq.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI010

Incident date

September 20, 2017

Location

دهوك, Dohuk, Kurdistan, Iraq

Geolocation

36.865292, 42.991828 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

The Kurdistan Regional Government said that seven civilians were killed by Turkish airstrikes on Dohuk village.

Skyiraq reported: “The air strikes launched by the Turkish warplanes targeted areas in the province of Dohuk and killed seven civilians.”

The government said in a statement that while the citizens were going to do their work on their farms, the warplanes bombed those areas as they were targeting PKK positions.”

Rwa.adiona published a similar story.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI008

Incident date

September 4, 2017

Location

نهيل , Nahil area of Al-Amadiya, Dahook, Iraq

Geolocation

37.092003, 43.486966 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

A single source, Iraqi Spring Media, reported an alleged bombing by “the Turkish air force” of the Nahil area of the Al-Amadiyah district, north of Dohuk – though the source said that there was no information on civilian harm.

No further details are currently available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI007

Incident date

July 29, 2017

Location

قنديل, افشين, الزاب, Zakho district, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.146111, 42.673611 Note: The accuracy of this location is to District level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

District

Airwars assessment

Local Kurdish media said that four civilians were injured by alleged Turkish artillery shelling in Zakho at the Iraqi-Turkish border.

Asda News reported that “the shelling led to the injury of four civilians, who were taken to the hospital for treatment, noting that the health of the four injured people is stable.”

Rudaw added that “the injured have since been discharged from hospital,” Rudaw’s Yousif Musa reported.

The shelling happened at 6:00 Friday evening in the Psaxa area, Batifa sub-district.

The four young people, two of them professional players of the Zakho football club, went out on a picnic on Friday. They were in the same area where militants of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) are also present.

The incident occured at 6:00 pm local time.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI006

Incident date

October 3, 2016

Location

فايده, Fadhiliya, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.509167, 43.270278 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Local and governmental sources said Turkish artillery had targeted Al Fadhiliyah village in Bashiqa, north of Mosul, resulting in the deaths of two civilian brothers and four injuries. The Coalition later made clear it did not view Turkish actions in Iraq as being a part of the international alliance’s effort to defeat ISIL.

According to Yaqein, “Artillery from Turkish troops stationed in Zlican Camp near Bashiqa, north of Mosul this morning struck Fadliyah village, killing two brothers and injured four people seriously…. The bombing also led to the destruction of eight houses for the citizens of the village.“

The Ankara parliament voted to extend Turkey’s military presence in northern Iraq – despite Iraq making clear it was not welcome. The Coalition’s chief spokesman later told Airwars in a pair of tweets: “I stated all of our coalition forces are in Iraq in coordination with, and with the permission of the government of Iraq. All other nations who wish to come to Iraq to fight terrorism should also have the permission of the government of Iraq.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

  • Ahmad Hamza al-Fadil Age unknown male killed
  • Muhammad Hamza al-Fadil Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (5) [ collapse]