US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria

Civilians in the ruins of Mosul city. (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
US-led Coalition
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Weak
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

CS785

Incident date

May 8, 2017

Location

كديران, Kdeiran, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.877429, 38.719676 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that “warplanes believed to belong to the International Coalition bombed places in the Kdieran area which is located in the western countryside of al-Raqqa. There is information about casualties and damage to the property of the citizens.”

Both Qasioun and Sohaib_heskayi reported the Coalition “destroyed the Al-Hamdawi mosque” but didn’t mention civilian casualties.

In January 2019, the Coalition announced that it had classed the event as non credible due to a lack of available evidence of civilian harm: “After a review of available information and strike video it was assessed that there is insufficient evidence to find civilians were harmed in this strike.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient evidence of civilian harm
  • Stated location
    near Kdeiran, Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    100 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SDV749704
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jan 31, 2019
  • May 8, 2017, near Kdeiran, Syria via Airwars report. After a review of available information and strike video it was assessed that there is insufficient evidence to find civilians were harmed in this strike.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS895

Incident date

May 31, 2017

Location

أبو شجرة, Abu Shajara, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Airwars assessment

One woman was injured in a Coalition airstrike on Abu Shajara, according to Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently (RBSS).

Qasioun reported that “Syrian forces took control of the villages of al-Sahl, al-Hawrah, Abu Shajra, al-Barouda, and al-Baraka” and that this “came in the wake of clashes between the two sides, in conjunction with the artillery shelling and missile interception” – but there were no reports of casualties.

No further details are currently available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Fatima Mahmoud Shalash Adult female injured

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Abu Shajara, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Mar 28, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For May 30th-31st, the Coalition reported: “Near Raqqah, four strikes engaged four ISIS tactical units and destroyed a fighting position and a VBIED.” And in addition it was stated that “Near Raqqah, Syria, a strike destroyed an ISIS command and control node.”
For May 31st-June 1st, the Coalition reported: "Near Raqqah, 14 strikes engaged nine ISIS tactical units and destroyed eight fighting positions, two vehicles, two anti-air artillery systems, a front-end loader, and a tactical vehicle."

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

"Wednesday 31 May – Tornados and Typhoons struck two terrorist targets in western Mosul, and one near Raqqa… The RAF is continuing to support Iraqi forces in their effort to liberate western Mosul. While the operating environment in the city is very challenging, particularly given the closely-packed buildings, very narrow streets, and the density of the urban population, our aircrew have continued to deliver precision strikes in close support of Iraqi troops on the ground. Daesh’s current tactics, including the illegal use of civilians as human shields, and fighting from sites such as schools, hospitals, religious sites and civilian neighbourhoods, increases the risk to innocent life. While no military operations come without risk, particularly in dense urban environments and against such inhuman Daesh tactics, the RAF continues to take all steps necessary to minimise civilian casualties. Royal Air Force aircraft have continued to conduct intensive operations against Daesh, particularly in western Mosul and around Raqqa. On Wednesday 31 May, Typhoon FGR4s, armed with Paveway IV guided bombs, demolished a terrorist-held building to the west of Raqqa, whilst mixed formations of Tornado GR4s and Typhoons patrolled over Mosul, where they used two Brimstone missiles to engage Daesh positions which Iraqi security forces had encountered."

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1753

Incident date

May 20, 2018

Location

هجين/الشعفة, Hajin or al Sha'afa, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

34.57888, 40.93441 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A local monitor reported that a number of civilians were injured after the towns of Hajin and al Sha’afa were shelled on May 20th.

According to Sound and Vision, the “continuous bombardment by French artillery aimed at the city of Hajin and the town of al Sha’afa” harmed non-combatant civilians. The report however failed to provide any more details.

Other sources, like the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, also reported “rocket shelling by French and American forces on sites and areas controlled by ISIS”. None of these local reports however made mention of any civilians harmed as a result of these clashes.

Deir Ezzor 24 also reported the death of ISIS fighter Abdul Sattar Fares al-Ani in the bombardment.

The incident was first reported on May 20, 2018 at 7:30 am by .

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the two near villages of Hajin (هجين) and Sha’fa (الشعفة). The coordinates for Hajin (هجين) are: 34.6897222,40.83; the coordinates for Sha’fa (الشعفة) are: 34.57888,40.93441  

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For May 20th, the Coalition reported that: “On May 20 in Syria, Coalition military forces conducted three strikes consisting of three engagements against Daesh targets. Near Abu Kamal, three strikes engaged one Daesh tactical unit, destroyed one Daesh fighting position and one Daesh supply route."

France
  • English
    /
    Original

Between 16th and 22nd May, France reports 34 artillery missions in the Euphrates Valley. French aircraft carried out 12 aerial sorties in support of ground troops but no strikes were conducted.

CHAMMAL SITUATION MILITAIRE DU THEATRE Sur le théâtre irako-syrien, l’activité majeure demeure l’offensive contre les dernières poches de Daech en Syrie. Offensive contre les dernières poches daechies en Syrie En Syrie, les forces démocratiques syriennes, appuyées par la Coalition, ont achevé la conquête de la bande frontalière avec la saisie de Baghouz. Le bilan des deux premières semaines d’offensive est positif dans la mesure où tous les objectifs ont été atteints et que la coordination entre les forces démocratiques syriennes et les forces de sécurité irakiennes s’est bien déroulée. L’objectif consiste maintenant à poursuivre la réduction de ces poches qui sont les dernières emprises territoriales de Daech sur le théâtre. Poursuite des actions de sécurisation en Irak En Irak, la semaine a été relativement calme après les élections parlementaires dont le déroulement s’est effectué sans incident sécuritaire majeur. Les forces de sécurité irakiennes mènent actuellement des opérations de sécurisation dans le nord de Bagdad, dans l’Anbar, en Ninive et dans la région de Tikrit. ACTIVITE DE LA FORCE Poursuite des actions de formation au profit des forces de sécurité irakiennes La Task force Narvik poursuit ses actions de formation au profit des soldats irakiens de l’Iraki Couter Terrorism Service (ICTS). Deux stages sont toujours en cours : un stage de restitution au profit de 460 stagiaires et un nouveau stage d’apprentissage au recueil de renseignements au profit d’une vingtaine de stagiaires. La Task force Monsabert conduit quant à elle deux stages au profit des soldats de la 6e division irakienne : un stage d’apprentissage des techniques de fouille opérationnelle et un stage dédié aux techniques de combat tactique dans un environnement pollué par des engins explosifs improvisés. La Task Force Wagram en appui de l’offensive contre les dernières poches de Daech présentes dans la vallée de l’Euphrate Les artilleurs de la Task Force Wagram demeurent engagés en appui de l’offensive contre les dernières poches de Daech dans la vallée de l’Euphrate. Depuis le lancement de l’offensive le 1er mai, ils ont d’ores et déjà réalisé 84 missions de tirs.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS792

Incident date

May 9, 2017

Location

البوكمال, Abu Kamal, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

34.466049, 40.907593 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “the Coalition carried out airstrikes and targeted an Islamic State headquarters in al-Bokamal city on the border with Iraq. The bombing killed at least three members of the organization and injured about 20 other people, mostly civilians. The bombing was followed by the area being targeted with machine guns, while local sources confirmed that the bombing coincided with preparations in Fayhaa Square in the city for an execution.”

No further details are currently available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    11–20
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For May 8th-9th, the Coalition reported: “Near Abu Kamal, one strike destroyed an ISIS oil rig.”

For May - 9th - 10th, the Coalition reported: "Near Abu Kamal, two strikes [1 British?] engaged an ISIS sniper and destroyed a front-end loader"

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

Tuesday 9 May – A Reaper intervened during a public execution staged by Daesh in Abu Kamal, Syria, killing a Daesh guard and dispersing the crowd gathered to witness the atrocity… The RAF is continuing to support Iraqi forces in their effort to liberate western Mosul. While the operating environment in the city is very challenging, particularly given the closely-packed buildings, very narrow streets, and the density of the urban population, our aircrew have continued to deliver precision strikes in close support of Iraqi troops on the ground. Daesh’s current tactics, including the illegal use of civilians as human shields, and fighting from sites such as schools, hospitals, religious sites and civilian neighbourhoods, increases the risk to innocent life. While no military operations come without risk, particularly in dense urban environments and against such inhuman Daesh tactics, the RAF continues to take all steps necessary to minimise civilian casualties. An RAF Reaper remotely piloted aircraft observed a group of Daesh fighters in Abu Kamal, eastern Syria, mustering a large crowd of civilians in one of the town’s main streets on Tuesday 9 May. When a van then unloaded two shackled prisoners in front of the crowd, it became clear that Daesh were organising a public execution. Given the large number of civilians present, the Reaper’s crew could not target directly the Daesh fighters about to carry out the murders. However, two armed extremists were stationed as sentries on the roof of a building overlooking the scene. A Hellfire missile was fired immediately, and scored a direct hit which not only killed one of the sentries but also brought the execution to an immediate halt, as the Daesh fighters fled the scene, and the crowd of civilians dispersed.’

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    11–20
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1248

Incident date

July 21, 2017

Location

ميادين, Al Mayadin, Saraya government building, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

35.016667, 40.444167 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Local media reported airstrikes on the “Martyrs Affairs Office” – seized by IS- opposite the old Saraya building and “oil burners in Badia Drenge and Tijana” – though no information was given on civilian casualties.

Step News Agency, Jisirtv and DPN reported that these were Coalition strikes. Euphrates Post didn’t identify the warplanes responsible, though did say an unspecified number of civilian casualties had been reported. .

RFS attributed the event to Russia, reporting: “Russian aircraft targeted a house previously seized by the organization [IS] and turned it into the Office of Martyrs’ Affairs” – but it said there was no information on civilian casualties.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Mayadin, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 31, 2018
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 21st-22nd, the Coalition reported: “Near Dayr Az Zawr, two strikes engaged an ISIS tactical unit and destroyed four oil storage tanks and a vehicle.“

France
  • English
    /
    Original

In the last week (20th-27th) France reports carrying out two strikes in Raqqah, destroying two ISIL combat positions. Task Force (TF) Wagram carried out 21 artillery strikes in Mosul. The overall record of air activity since September 19th 2014 amounts to 1,324 strikes, 2,092 targets destroyed and 6,857 sorties.

‘OPÉRATION CHAMMAL SITUATION En Syrie, Dans la ville de Raqqah, Daech continue de perdre du terrain, jour après jour, face aux Forces Démocratiques Syriennes. Les combattants terroristes continuent néanmoins de disposer de solides positions défensives dans le cœur de la ville, à partir desquelles ils mènent des contre-attaques régulières et des actions de harcèlement. En Irak, Les forces de sécurités irakiennes poursuivent leurs opérations de sécurisation de la ville de Mossoul, face à des équipes isolées de combattants qui continuent de mener des actions symboliques de harcèlement. Dans le même temps, Daech consolide ses positions autour de Tal Afar, pour tenter de résister à l’offensive prochaine de la Coalition pour libérer aussi cette ville. Daech poursuit par ailleurs ses actions de diversion et de harcèlement, en se concentrant dans les régions de l’Anbar et d’Hawijah. Certaines actions ont également été menées cette semaine dans l’Ouest de l’Irak, dans la région de Rutbah. ACTIVITÉS DE LA FORCE Cette semaine, les aéronefs ont réalisé 45 sorties aériennes dont 31 de reconnaissance armée et d’appui au sol (CAS), ainsi que 04 missions de recueil de renseignement et 06 de ravitaillement en vol. Un C135-FR récemment déployé a en effet réalisé de nombreuses missions en quelques jours à peine, soutenant ainsi, à son niveau, la bascule des efforts de la Coalition vers les autres bastions de Daech. Deux frappes ont été menées dans le cadre de la bataille de Raqqah, détruisant deux positions de combattants ennemies, au contact des troupes alliées engagées. De ces positions, des tireurs de Daech tenaient sous leur feu les soldats alliés à une centaine de mètres à peine. La Task Force (TF) Wagram a réalisé 21 missions de tir dont 07 de harcèlement et 14 d’éclairement. Ces missions interdisent une offensive de contre des terroristes vers Mossoul. Le bilan global de l’activité aérienne depuis le 19 septembre 2014 s’élève à 1 324 frappes, 2 092 objectifs détruits et 6 857 sorties. Le bilan global de l’activité artillerie atteint 1 331 missions.’

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS761

Incident date

May 1, 2017

Location

الثورة‎, Tabaqah, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.8295049, 38.5360909 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

In a previously unknown allegation, the Coalition denied involvement in an incident that they said was reported on social media. In their July 2017 civilian casualty report, the Coalition wrote: “May 1, 2017, near Tabqah, Syria, via social media report: The report contained insufficient information on the time, location and details to assess its credibility.”

Our researchers were unable to identify any reported event this might relate to.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–1
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Tabqah, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jul 7, 2017
  • The report contained insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For April 30th-May 1st, the Coalition reported: “Near Raqqah, Syria; on April 29, two strikes destroyed an ISIS-held building, an ISIS staging area” and ” Near Tabqah, Syria; on April 28-29, six strikes engaged an ISIS tactical unit; destroyed four vehicles, two VBIEDs, and three fighting positions; damaged three fighting positions and suppressed two ISIS tactical units.”

For May 1st - May 2nd, the Coalition reported: "Near Raqqah; one strike destroyed a fighting position and suppressed a mortar team" and "Near Tabqah; four strikes engaged five ISIS tactical units and destroyed two fighting positions.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–1
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS898

Incident date

June 1, 2017

Location

بقرص, Bokros, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

35.07028, 40.41959 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Town

Airwars assessment

The Coalition reportedly struck an ISIL weapons depot in the Al Ta’as area of Bokros town. Sources said that member of ISIL were killed – however only one report mentioned civilian casualties.

Sharqiya Voice reported that there were aftershocks following an air raid (but didn’t say who carried it out), and an explosion which “shook the area”. It reported an unspecified number of civilian casualties and that ISIL had cordoned off the area, preventing people from accessing it.

According to RFS, “An international air strike on Thursday targeted an arms depot belonging to the Daesh in the town of Bokros, east of Deir Ezzor, killing four members of the organization.”

Shaam News Network reported that “Warplanes of the International coalition launched air strikes targeting an ammunition depot in the town of Bokros in the eastern countryside followed by the sound of explosions.”

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Damage at Bokros following a reported Coalition strike which may have harmed civilians (via Euphrates Post)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Bokros, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Jan 25, 2018
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For May 31st-June 1st, the Coalition reported: “Near Dayr Az Zawr, seven strikes destroyed four ISIS well heads, four ISIS oil tanks, an ISIS oil truck, an ISIS oil storage tank and an ISIS oil storage trailer.“
For June 1st-2nd, the Coalition reported: "Near Dayr Az Zawr, four strikes destroyed six ISIS well heads and five ISIS oil trucks."

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    0
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CI381

Incident date

December 30, 2016

Location

الموصل‎, Mosul, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.34585235, 43.09857692 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

An unnamed doctor at a local medical centre near Mosul told Iraqi Spring Media Centre that his facility had received 200 civilians over the preceding 24 hours, as a result of bombing and mortar shelling.

In related news, Kurdistan’s health minister told reporters that health facilities in the region had so far received 13,000 injured and sick people as a result of the assault on Mosul.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    200
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Mosul, Iraq
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Aug 4, 2017
  • The report contained insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For December 29th-30th the Coalition publicly stated: “Near Mosul four strikes engaged an ISIL tactical unit; destroyed 11 ISIL-held buildings, five supply caches, three tactical vehicles, two mortar systems, two fighting positions, two VBIEDs, a tunnel, an observation post, a research lab, a command and control node, an up-armored VBIED, two barges, and two artillery pieces; suppressed five mortar teams; and damaged 20 supply routes and two repeater towers.”

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    200
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]