Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TI029

Incident date

September 25, 2019

Location

زيوكة, Zaywakah, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Geolocation

35.91137, 45.41096 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between two and five civilians including two children were wounded in alleged Turkish strikes on Zaywakah village, according to local media.

Basnews reported: “Five civilians, including two children, were injured in Turkish air strikes which have been going on for two days inside the Kurdistan Region”.

ANF said two civilians were wounded.

The Christian Peacemaker Teams in Iraqi Kurdistan (CPTIK) reported in a list shared with Airwars in January 2020 that Dilamn Rasul Awlla and Omer Awlla Hasan, presumably both 25 years old, had been injured in the airstrike, according to the village leader.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Dilamn Rasul Awlla
25 years old male injured
Omer Awlla Hasan
25 years old male injured

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Zaywakah (زيوكة) for which the generic coordinates are: 35.91137, 45.41096. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • The aftermath of an alleged Turkish airstrike on Zaywakah village, Spet 25th 2019 (via Kurdistan 24)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–5
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI058

Incident date

May 25, 2021

Location

ادني, Edny, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.096164, 43.487674 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was injured in alleged Turkish shelling on Edny village in Amedi district (Amadiyah) of Dohuk governorate on May 25, 2021.

According to Rudaw Media Network, “Turkish shelling today resulted in the injury of a young man from the village of “Dishish” with bleeding, and he was taken to Kani Masi Hospital for treatment.” In addition, “the director of Kani Masi district, Serbast Sabri, told Rudaw Media Network that six families were living in the village of “Adni”, but as a result of the intense bombardment, they were forced to evacuate the village and flee to “Gomri” village.”

Rudaw Media Network added that the shelling was part of the Turkish military operation “Lightning Claw – Thunderbolt”, which they cite is due to the presence of Workers’ Party fighters in the region, targeting Mount Kista and the villages of the Kani Masi area with air and artillery bombardments.

Kurdistan24 and Roj News also reported that one civilian was injured in the Turkish bombardment of the Kani Masi area.

Basnews identified the civilian injured as Baawer Ahmed Taher, a young man from the village of Dashishi, who was returning to the village that was evacuated to water an orchard. At the time of reporting, the civilian was “lying in the hospital to receive treatment.”

In a report by Christian Peacemaker Teams, “Bawer was with a group of farmers from Dishishe, all of whom were irrigating their fields when the Turkish military conducted an artillery shelling on the village. Bawer Ahmed, who is 20 years old, was injured from shrapnel that penetrated his leg, which caused severe bleeding. After this attack, all residents of Dishishe fled the village.”

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the shelling to Turkish forces.

The incident occured at 10:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Age unknown male injured

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Edny (ادني), allegedly within the Amedi district (العمادية). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Amedi are: 37.096164, 43.487674.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Caption translation: Turkish shelling today resulted in the injury of a young man from the village of "Dishish" with bleeding, and he was taken to Kani Masi Hospital for treatment. (Image posted by Rudaw Media Network)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI088

Incident date

October 16, 2022

Location

برادوست, Bradost area, Erbil, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian, a woman, was injured by alleged Turkish airstrikes or drone strikes on the Bradost area in northern Erbil province on October 16, 2022.

Kurdistan 24 reported that a 30 year old woman named Sharmin Asad was injured by Turkish airstrike in the Bradost area in northern Erbil province. Ihsan Chalabi, the mayor of Sidakan, told Kurdistan 24 that the injured woman is from Sideman district and she was in the area visiting her relatives. She was transferred to the hospital and is receiving medical treatment, and her condition is stable.

BasNews specified that the drone strikes affected the Robi and Riwall resorts of Sidakan subdistrict, which the injured woman Sharmin was visiting. Rudaw News reported that the woman had been hit by shrapnel from a shell and that he injury was light.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the injury to Turkish forces, referring to both airstrikes or drone strikes.

The incident occured at approximately 12:30 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Sharmin Asad
30 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Alleged Turkish airstrikes on the Bradost area in northern Erbil province on October 16, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI007

Incident date

July 29, 2017

Location

قنديل, افشين, الزاب, Zakho district, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.146111, 42.673611 Note: The accuracy of this location is to District level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local Kurdish media said that four civilians were injured by alleged Turkish artillery shelling in Zakho at the Iraqi-Turkish border.

Asda News reported that “the shelling led to the injury of four civilians, who were taken to the hospital for treatment, noting that the health of the four injured people is stable.”

Rudaw added that “the injured have since been discharged from hospital,” Rudaw’s Yousif Musa reported.

The shelling happened at 6:00 Friday evening in the Psaxa area, Batifa sub-district.

The four young people, two of them professional players of the Zakho football club, went out on a picnic on Friday. They were in the same area where militants of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) are also present.

The incident occured at 18:00:00 local time.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the district of Zakho district ( قنديل, افشين, الزاب), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.146111, 42.673611. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI040

Incident date

June 19, 2020

Location

Barwari, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.221806, 43.232818 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One civilian was allegedly killed by a Turkish airstrike in Barwari.

Barzan Sadiq tweeted: “Another civillian killed in Barwari area, western Duhok by Turkish attacks. So far five civillians killed since Turkey began their military operation against PKK in Kurdistan Region.”

There is currently no further information available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the subdistrict of Barwari, for which the generic coordinates are: 37.221806, 43.232818. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI069

Incident date

September 2, 2021

Location

بارة, Bara, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.37571, 41.48531 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least three people were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on Bara village on September 2, 2021.

Security sources told Shafaq News Agency that “Turkish aircraft bombed the headquarters of the Asayish Yazidkhan forces, west of Mount Sinjar” and that the targeted location was close to a site of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). However, another security source told Shafaq News agency that three civilians were seriously injured in the attack.

Alyaum TV quoted a local source as saying that Turkish warplanes bombed different areas in Sinjar district, injuring three people.

BasNews also reported that Turkish warplanes targeted a facility and vehicle belonging to the PKK-affiliated armed groups but did not know the number of injuries that resulted.

Several local media sites also told Xeber24 that a Turkish drone bombed one of the points of the Asayish Ezidkhan in the village of Bariya, affiliated to the city of Şengal but as a result of the intensity of the bombing and the flight of Turkish aircraft, they were unable to know the extent of human losses and material damage.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Bara (بارة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.37571, 41.48531. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI096

Incident date

September 27, 2023

Location

قرية بوگریسکان, Bugriskan village, Sinjar district, Bashdar district , Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

A woman was killed and a man injured by two drone strikes, allegedly conducted by the Turkish military, on the village of Bugriskan, in the Sinjar district on September 27th, 2023. The strikes were also reported to have killed six Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) militants.

Bas News reported that the casualties occurred in “two separate air attacks,” within 10 minutes of each other: the first at 11AM followed by a second at approximately 11:10. The first strike allegedly killed four PKK members, and, due to proximity, also inflicted the first civilian injury of Mirza Ibrahim. The second strike killed two further PKK members, and severely injured 50-year-old Esti Mohammad.

After the first strike injured villager Mirza Ibrahim, and Esti Mohammad, seeing the strike near her home, went to help him. She was severely injured in the second strike; she would later die of her injuries after having been transported to a hospital in Rania. Mirza was also taken to the hospital for recovery.

Esti was the mother of seven children. Born in Zanjilan, she had been a resident of Rania for several years. She had lived in Bugriskan for ten years, and worked breeding livestock. She was engaged in her community, and a committed activist against Turkish strikes in the region.

The incident occured between 11:00 am and 11:10 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Esti Muhammad استي محمد
50 years old female killed
Mirza Ibrahim ميرزا إبراهيم
Adult male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    6

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Source: Roj News

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    6

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI051

Incident date

November 8, 2020

Location

خلف أو قاسم ملكو, Khalaf or Qassim Malako, Nineveh, Iraq

Geolocation

36.48777, 41.55608 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed in alleged Turkish drone strikes on an alleged PKK vehicle near the town of Khalaf or Qassim Malako, Sinjar district, Nineveh governorate, on November 8th, 2020. Up to five militants were reportedly also killed and at least three others were wounded.

Hawar News reported that “The “Nasr Mobin” forces in Shengal said that the airstrike that targeted Shengal last night resulted in the loss of a civilian who was working in maintaining water wells, in addition to wounding a fighter”, blaming Turkey for the strike.

In another report, Hawar wrote that “the Turkish occupation drones launched a raid this evening at 18:30 in the village of Khalaf in the town of Bari in the district of Shengal, targeting a vehicle belonging to the Nasr Mobin forces and confirmed that it resulted in injuries among those in the car.” Roj News reported that the strike took place at 16:30 PM, while RT quoted sources who said the strike occurred at 20:30 PM.

“A vehicle of the PKK fighters was targeted by a Turkish warplane in Bara area of Sinjar this evening, Peshmerga Commander Qasim Shasho told BasNews that “a number of PKK fighters were either killed or wounded in the airstrike”. At least three of the wounded were taken to a hospital. Shasho reportedly told Shafaq News that he believed a PKK leader was among those killed.

Shafaq reported that “members of the Labor Party had evacuated the bodies that had been charred as a result of the bombing.” RT reported two killed PKK members.

According to Mangish, “a Turkish plane targeted a car carrying a group of the Sinjar Protection Units in the north, which led to the death of five people in it”, adding that one person was transferred to a nearby hospital before dying of his injuries.

Besides Hawar News, other sources did not report civilian harm. Hence, the civilian harm status for this incident is graded as “weak”.

The incident occured between 4:30 pm and 8:30 pm local time.

Geolocation notes

Report of the incident mention a vehicle being struck in either Khalaf (خلف) or Qassim Malako village (قاسم ملكو), in vicinity of the towns of Bari (بارة), Khana Sor (خانة سور), and Sinuni (سنوني). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. However, a potential area called Khalaf Qasim (خلف قاسم) can be found north of these towns, for which the generic coordinates are: 36.48777, 41.55608.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2–5
  • Belligerents reported injured
    3

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (12) [ collapse]

  • People looking at the vehicle that was targeted by alleged Turkish drones near Sinjar on November 8th, 2020 (via Hawar News).
  • Location of alleged Turkish drone strike in Sinjar on November 8th, 2020 (via @serkankilic9931).
  • Footage of alleged Turkish drone strikes on Sinjar on November 8th, 2020 (via @BarzanSadiq).
  • Location of alleged Turkish drone strike in Sinjar on November 8th, 2020 (via @Warrior4War).
  • The targeted vehicle after alleged Turkish drone strike in Sinjar on November 8th, 2020 (via @EzidenWeltweit).
  • People looking at the vehicle that was targeted by alleged Turkish drones near Sinjar on November 8th, 2020 (via @Ezidi2).
  • Translation: “Turkish warplanes bomb the village of Bare #Şengalê bombed” (via @sterknucenews).

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Other
  • Belligerents reported killed
    2–5
  • Belligerents reported injured
    3

Sources (20) [ collapse]