Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TI007

Incident date

July 29, 2017

Location

قنديل, افشين, الزاب, Zakho district, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.146111, 42.673611 Note: The accuracy of this location is to District level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local Kurdish media said that four civilians were injured by alleged Turkish artillery shelling in Zakho at the Iraqi-Turkish border.

Asda News reported that “the shelling led to the injury of four civilians, who were taken to the hospital for treatment, noting that the health of the four injured people is stable.”

Rudaw added that “the injured have since been discharged from hospital,” Rudaw’s Yousif Musa reported.

The shelling happened at 6:00 Friday evening in the Psaxa area, Batifa sub-district.

The four young people, two of them professional players of the Zakho football club, went out on a picnic on Friday. They were in the same area where militants of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) are also present.

The incident occured at 18:00:00 local time.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the district of Zakho district ( قنديل, افشين, الزاب), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.146111, 42.673611. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI099

Incident date

October 17, 2023

Location

قرية كاني كندي , Kani Kindi village, Koya District, Kurdistan, Iraq

Airwars assessment

On Tuesday, October 17th, 2023, one man was killed and up to three other civilians, women, were injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on a car in the Kani Kindi village in the Koya district of Kurdistan, Iraq.

The car was reported to have belonged to citizens of the Makhmour refugee camp; the driver was killed immediately and three others belonging to one family were injured. 27-year-old Dolovan Işlik was driving, and appeared to have been traveling to visit a relative in the town of Rania. It is unclear whether the relative was his sister or sister-in-law; they were apparently visiting to help the relative with their work in fishing or livestock. It should be noted that while most sources referred to the deceased as Dolovan Işlik, Al Araby News, quoting the police director of the town of Koysanjak, referred to him as Delovan Salam Suleiman.

ANF reported that the injured were three women, which Roj News echoed. While Al Araby reported that only one person was injured, all other sources mentioned three wounded.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkish drones.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Dolovan Işlik دلوفان إشليك
27 years old male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Dolovan Işlik, killed by alleged Turkish drone strikes in the village of Kani Kindi on October 17, 2023. (Image posted by Roj News)
    Source: Ronahi.tv
  • Source: Hawar News

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI075

Incident date

December 27–28, 2021

Location

Bankê, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.20788, 42.9688 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one woman was injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Bankê between December 27-28th 2021, according to local reports.

Nalia Media Corporation reported that a woman was badly injured in Turkish air strikes near residents’ homes in the village of Bankê. The injured woman was taken to the hospital in Zakho and the residents of the two surrounding villages were left without electricity.

ANF News also identified one injury, a 42-year-old woman, who was wounded when Turkish shells struck her home. ANF added that the shelling also destroyed large areas of cultivated land and gardens and were fired from a Turkish base in southern Kurdistan.

Christian Peacemaker Teams reported that the shelling went on for several hours.

All other sources that reported on the incident also identified one woman as being injured and attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured after midnight.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Bankê, for which the generic coordinates are: 37.20788, 42.9688. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Alleged Turkish strikes on Bankê on December 27-28, 2021. (Image posted by Mawazin)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI088

Incident date

October 16, 2022

Location

برادوست, Bradost area, Erbil, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian, a woman, was injured by alleged Turkish airstrikes or drone strikes on the Bradost area in northern Erbil province on October 16, 2022.

Kurdistan 24 reported that a 30 year old woman named Sharmin Asad was injured by Turkish airstrike in the Bradost area in northern Erbil province. Ihsan Chalabi, the mayor of Sidakan, told Kurdistan 24 that the injured woman is from Sideman district and she was in the area visiting her relatives. She was transferred to the hospital and is receiving medical treatment, and her condition is stable.

BasNews specified that the drone strikes affected the Robi and Riwall resorts of Sidakan subdistrict, which the injured woman Sharmin was visiting. Rudaw News reported that the woman had been hit by shrapnel from a shell and that he injury was light.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the injury to Turkish forces, referring to both airstrikes or drone strikes.

The incident occured at approximately 12:30 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Sharmin Asad
30 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Alleged Turkish airstrikes on the Bradost area in northern Erbil province on October 16, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI010

Incident date

September 20, 2017

Location

دهوك, Dohuk, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

36.865292, 42.991828 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

The Kurdistan Regional Government said that seven civilians were killed by Turkish airstrikes on Dohuk village.

Skyiraq reported: “The air strikes launched by the Turkish warplanes targeted areas in the province of Dohuk and killed seven civilians.”

The government said in a statement that while the citizens were going to do their work on their farms, the warplanes bombed those areas as they were targeting PKK positions.”

Rwa.adiona published a similar story.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Dohuk (دهوك), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.865292, 42.991828. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI096

Incident date

September 27, 2023

Location

قرية بوگریسکان, Bugriskan village, Sinjar district, Bashdar district , Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

A woman was killed and a man injured by two drone strikes, allegedly conducted by the Turkish military, on the village of Bugriskan, in the Sinjar district on September 27th, 2023. The strikes were also reported to have killed six Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) militants.

Bas News reported that the casualties occurred in “two separate air attacks,” within 10 minutes of each other: the first at 11AM followed by a second at approximately 11:10. The first strike allegedly killed four PKK members, and, due to proximity, also inflicted the first civilian injury of Mirza Ibrahim. The second strike killed two further PKK members, and severely injured 50-year-old Esti Mohammad.

After the first strike injured villager Mirza Ibrahim, and Esti Mohammad, seeing the strike near her home, went to help him. She was severely injured in the second strike; she would later die of her injuries after having been transported to a hospital in Rania. Mirza was also taken to the hospital for recovery.

Esti was the mother of seven children. Born in Zanjilan, she had been a resident of Rania for several years. She had lived in Bugriskan for ten years, and worked breeding livestock. She was engaged in her community, and a committed activist against Turkish strikes in the region.

The incident occured between 11:00 am and 11:10 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Esti Muhammad استي محمد
50 years old female killed
Mirza Ibrahim ميرزا إبراهيم
Adult male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    6

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Source: Roj News

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    6

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI077

Incident date

February 15, 2022

Location

شيلادزي, Shiladze, Duhok, Iraq

Geolocation

37.034762, 43.779316 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one man was killed in alleged Turkish strikes near the town of Shiladze in Amedi district on February 15th 2022, according to local reports.

Hawar News quoted Roj News Agency, which reported that Hussain Haider (Hussein Rikani) was killed in Turkish bombings of the villages in the Shiladze district of Başûr.

North Press Agency reported that Haider, the civilian killed in the airstrikes, was a resident of the Siri complex in Shiladze district and was married and had ten children, according to press reports. Alyaum TV add that was found in the “Neroh and Rikan area” and that he was 50 years old.

The incident occured in the evening.

The victims were named as:

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the area of Shiladze (شيلادزي), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.034762, 43.779316. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Image of Hussain Haider (Hussein Rikani), killed in airstrikes on the Shiladze district of Başûr on February 15, 2022. (Image posted by @sheladze__)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI089

Incident date

December 2, 2022

Location

جبل اسوس شارباجار, Mount Assos, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed and up to five others were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes/drone strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022.

The mayor of Charbajar, Shaho Othman, told Kurdistan 24  that three people were wounded and three civilians were missing following Turkish airstrikes on Mount Assos. Kurdistan 24 later revised their casualty count to one person killed and two others wounded, adding that four people were hunting in the mountain and hiding in the cave of Kelashin when the strikes occurred and that one person is still missing.

Kurdistan Revolution posted on Facebook that a civilian named Aziz Muhammad Rasool who worked as a farmer was killed and two others were injured.

A tweet from @cptiraq reported that six civilians were victims of the bombing, with one civilian killed (Aziz Muhamed) and five others injured (Muhamad Kadir, Kwexa Muhamad, Zana Muhamad, Saeed Muhamad and Salih Kadir).

Roj News Agency, quoting the mayor of Mawat district Kamiran Hassan, reported that a group of civilians were collecting wild herbs in the village of Kalala when Turkish airstrikes hit. Mayor Kamiran Hassan told Rudaw News Network that one civilian was killed and one was injured from the bombing, and that the victims were from the village of Qamish. Medya News put the casualty toll at two civilians killed and three injured, adding that medial teams could not rescue them until late in the day because of fear of a second bombardment.

The majority of sources attributed the incident to Turkish forces, with Rudaw News pointing out that it was unknown whether the bombing was carried out by warplanes or drones.

The incident occured around midday.

The victims were named as:

Aziz Muhammad Rasool عزيز محمد رسول
Age unknown killed
Muhamad Kadir
Age unknown injured
Kwexa Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Zana Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Saeed Muhamad
Age unknown injured
Salih Kadir
Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Alleged strikes on Mount Assos on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan24)
  • Location of alleged Turkish drone strikes on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by @cptiraq)
  • One of the victims of the alleged Turkish strikes near Zarun village on December 2, 2022. (Image posted by @cptiraq)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (10) [ collapse]