Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TS050

Incident date

January 14, 2017

Location

بزاعة , Beza’a city, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.3829071, 37.56666 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One woman died and one man was injured in shelling on Beza’a city, Syria, according to local media.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “a woman was killed and her husband was wounded in Turkish artillery and rocket shelling on areas in Bzaah town near al-Bab city”.

Al Bab24 reported the death of “the wife of Ahmad Salah Kassem, the daughter of Mr. Haseeb” in “artillery shelling” – though it didn’t name the culprit.

There are no other details at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

the wife of Ahmad Salah Kassem
Adult female the daughter of Mr. Haseeb killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Military, Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Facebook post naming the victim of an alleged Turkish airstrike, 13th January 2017. (via Al bab 24 facebook)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Beza’a city (بزاعة ), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.3829071, 37.56666. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Military, Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS089

Incident date

July 10, 2017

Location

تل رفعت كفر ناصح, The area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, northern Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.4478682, 37.1035767 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Local media reported the death of between two and four civilians and injury of as many as dozens more in an alleged Turkish artillery bombardment in area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, Syria.

According to Rumaf, “four people from one family died and dozens more were injured in the area between Tel Rifaat and Kafr Naaseh due to the violent aggression by the Turkish occupation based in the city of Izzaz and Mara. The shelling has not stopped since yesterday in the middle of the night until now [July 10th].”

A further report by Rumaf included the image of a boy whose leg had been amputated. The source said: “The child (Omar Abdo Sakran) lost his leg as a result of the indiscriminate bombardment byTurkey. At the same time, he lost his father Abdo Sakran and other members of his family were injured. What is very sad is that the child Omar saw his father’s body without his head and didn’t recognise him as his father.”

According to Rok Online, “two civilians were killed and five others wounded on Monday [July 10th] in an artillery bombardment by the Turkish army and the factions of the Euphrates Shield on the Al-Shahba area in the northern countryside of Aleppo. Artillery shelling occurred in Tal Refa’at, Sheikh Issa, Kafr al-Nasab and Harbal in the north of Aleppo. The correspondent added that the injured civilians were taken to the hospital Afrin in the city of Afrin, which coincided with an escalation in shelling of the areas mentioned.”

Sputnik reported that Turkey were using “heavy artillery and rocket-propelled grenades…causing the destruction of a large number of residential buildings and the burning of agricultural crops and land in Tal Refa’at, Shaikh Issa, Harbel, and al shahba dam.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Abdo Sukran Ibn Omar
Adult male killed
Mohammed Issa Ibn Dibu
Adult male killed
Abu Ghraib Al Sukran
Age unknown male injured
Ahmed Al-Sukran
Age unknown male injured
Son of Abdo al-Sukran
10 years old male injured
Ali Badran
Age unknown male injured

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–24
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (8) [ collapse]

  • The child (Omar Abdo Sakran) lost his leg in an alleged Turkish shelling on he area between Tel Rifaat and Kafr Naaseh, July 10th 2017. (via Rumaf)
  • The exact moment an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)
  • The exact moment an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)
  • The exact moment an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)
  • A man injured in an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)
  • A man injured in an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)
  • Civilians injured in an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)
  • A man injured in an allged Turkish airstrike targeted the area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh, 10th July 2017. (via RuMaf facebook)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of The area between Tal Rifa’at and Kafr Nasseh (تل رفعت كفر ناصح), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.4478682, 37.1035767. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–24
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS487 TS078

Incident date

February 12, 2017

Location

الباب, Al-Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.371972, 37.5179666 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A Turkish or Coalition airstrike on al Bab killed up to 15 civilians, according to multiple reports.

The Syrian Network blamed the US-led alliance, reporting that “8 civilians, including a child and 2 women, died in International Coalition warplanes missiles fired on Al Bab city.” Syrian News Desk, Manbij Direct and Al Bab 24 all blamed Turkey.

However Al Bab 24 later reported that “The family of Mohammad Dib Bakkour are well and they are outside the city. We apologise for publishing news of their killing.”

Regardless of this correction, reports from the Violations Documentation Center in Syria and Halab Today Tv identified Turkey as the culprit.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Adult male killed
Adult male killed
Adult female killed
Adult male killed
Adult female killed
Adult male killed
Adult male killed
Ahmad Bathish
Adult male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7 – 12
  • (1 child2 women6 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    11
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Military

Sources (13) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Video, published on March 10th, listing those killed in a previous alleged Turkish shelling on Al Bab: 'Abd al Rahim Bakkour, Mohamamd Dib Bakkour and his wife, Kafaa Najjar, Aliya Bakkour, Mahmoud A’kkam, Mazen A’kkam.'
  • Translation: 15 martyrs in Al-Bab and others wounded due to Turkish warplanes shelling. Abd al Qader Waki the son of Yusuf and his entire family Mazen Akkam -Mahmoud Akkam Mohammad Adib Bakkour and his family Ahmad Hashem and his mother Ibrahim ahmad Juma’a ( two days ago due to artillery shelling) Hussein Jabuli Ahmad Bathish.
  • Ahmad Bathish (via Al-Bab 24)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Al-Bab (الباب), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.371972, 37.5179666. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For February 11th-12th 2017 the Coalition reported: “Near Al Bab, one strike engaged an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed a heavy machine gun.”

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    7 – 12
  • (1 child2 women6 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    11
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    US-led Coalition, Turkish Military

Sources (13) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS513

Incident date

June 2, 2022

Location

دادا عبدال, Dada Abdel, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.8908577, 40.337634 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between one and two civilians, including a child, were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Dada Abdel in Zarkan district on June 2, 2022.

Hawar News reported that two people were injured when Turkish forces bombed the center of Zarghan district, its hospital, and villages, destroying a number of houses.

Xeber24 added that a child was injured in the bombing, providing the child’s name: (Murtaza Al-Mustaif), who was injured in the foot and taken to a hospital in the city of Ad-Darbasiyah. The source also specified that the bombing occurred in the village of Dada Abdel in Zarkan district.

Alarm News identified the injured child as being from the the village of Um Mahramleh and Hawar News reported that the child that was injured, Murtaza, is 14 years old.

All of the sources attributed the strikes to Turkish forces, and Xeber24 added that since the morning of June 1st the Turkish army had launched more than 80 shells at the Zarkan district.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Murtaza Al-Mustaif مرتضى المصطيف
14 years old male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A 14 year old child named Murtaza was injured in alleged Turkish shelling of the Zarghan district on June 2, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A 14 year old child named Murtaza was injured in alleged Turkish shelling of the Zarghan district on June 2, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Dada Abdel (دادا عبدال), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.8908577, 40.337634. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS544

Incident date

August 9, 2022

Location

عامودا, Amuda, Hassakah, Syria

Geolocation

37.09513, 40.93347 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

One civilian was injured in alleged Turkish shelling of a village in Amuda sub-district east of Qamishli city on August 9, 2022.

Hawar News reported that Turkish bombings of multiple villages east of Qamishli city and in Amuda sub-district resulted in the injury of seven civilians, four of whom are children. Hawar also documented the name of the civilian among the total that was injured in the Amuda sub-district: Rodi Sabri. The correspondent for Hawar added that the injured civilian was taken to the district hospital.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated that Turkish forces bombed 24 villages and towns in the area, including villages in the district of Amuda. Local sources reported on civilian casualties in shelling on other villages shelled on the same day.

Kurdistan Rêbaza Barzaniyê Nemir added that the shelling caused an exodus of citizens from the area, displacing hundreds, due to the mortars and heavy machine guns.

Both Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and Hawar News attribute shelling in Amuda to Turkish forces.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Rodi Sabri رودي صبري
30 years old injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Civilians injured by alleged Turkish shelling of multiple villages east of Qamishli city and in Amuda sub-district (TS543 and TS544) on August 9, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention an unnamed village being struck, allegedly within the subdistrict of Amuda (عامودا). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Amuda are: 37.09513, 40.93347.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS576

Incident date

December 3, 2022

Location

المجيبرة, Al Mujaibra, Al Hasakah, Syria

Geolocation

36.515970, 40.892380 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Four children were reportedly injured on December 3rd 2022 as a result of an unexploded ordnance, a previous Turkish shell, which exploded in the village of al-Mujaibra in the countryside of the town of Tel Tamr, north of Al-Hasakah, in Syria.  The shell was reported to have hit the village that morning, but did not explode immediately.

The children were identified as Suleiman Nasr Shalo (11 years old), Badran Nasr Shello (15 years old),  Ali Mahmoud Shello (11 years old) and Khaled Mahmoud Shello (13 years old).

Local sources told North Press Agency that the injured children were taken to Tal Tamr Hospital for treatment and that their health conditions were stable.  ANHA English reported that ”

The child Suleiman Nasr Shalo was wounded by shrapnel in his left foot, while the child Ali Mahmoud Shalo was wounded in his left foot and right hand. The nurse in the intensive care unit, Ahmed Farhan, confirmed that their health condition is stable, and they will be discharged today from the hospital.

As for the two children, Khaled Shalo, who was wounded by shrapnel in the head, and the child Badran Shalo, who was wounded with shrapnel in the abdomen, they are subject to 48-hour medical observation”

The father of two of the children, Badran and Suleiman Shalo, said to ANHA English that “the Turkish occupation is constantly targeting the villages of North and East Syria, including the village of Al-Mujibra, and some of the shells fall and do not explode, which poses a threat to the lives of citizens.”

 

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Suleiman Nasr Shalo
11 years old male injured
Badran Nasr Shalo
15 years old male brother of Suleiman injured

The victims were named as:

Ali Mahmoud Shlo
11 years old male injured
Khaled Mahmoud Shlo
13 years old male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Planted explosives and unexploded ordnance (UXO)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Turkish Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • Basnews reported that four children were injured after a previously unexploded Turkish shell exploded on December 3rd 2022 (Image via Basnews)
  • "Four children were injured as a result of a Turkish shell explosion, north of Al-Hasakah" (Image via NPA)
  • "Four children were injured as a result of a Turkish shell explosion, north of Al-Hasakah" (Image via NPA)
  • ANHA English reported that four children were injured after a previously unexploded Turkish shell exploded on December 3rd 2022.
  • "According to the correspondent of Hawar News Agency, four children were injured in the village of Al-Mujibra, northeast of Tal Tamr district of Al-Hasakah canton, when a shell exploded that had fallen earlier on the village but did not explode." (Image via ANF)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Al Mujaibra (المجيبرة), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.515970, 40.892380. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Planted explosives and unexploded ordnance (UXO)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    Turkish Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS616

Incident date

July 28, 2023

Location

الذوق الكبير, Al-Zouq Al-Kabeer, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.511716, 36.774559 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

In the evening of July 28 2023, a boy was injured by shelling allegedly carried out by the Turkish-backed National Army factions in Al-Zouq Al-Kabeer village / Kondi Mazen Sherawa Afrin, Aleppo Governorate.

According to a Syrian correspondent with Hawar News, the child’s name is Hamad (Muhammad) Khalil, 14 years old. He was brought to a hospital in the town of Al-Zahraa in the countryside of northern Aleppo, however, his health condition remains unknown.

After the incident, the correspondent confirmed that the village, which lies within the Kurdish area of deployment, remained under attack by the Turkish-backed National Army factions. DShK machine guns were also reportedly used.

The incident occured in the evening.

The victims were named as:

Hamad Khalil محمد خليل
14 years old male Child injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Al-Zouq Al-Kabeer (الذوق الكبير), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.511716, 36.774559. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS653

Incident date

October 25, 2023

Location

قرية المشيرفة, village Al Mushairfa in the Ain Issa district, Ain Issa, Syria

Airwars assessment

On the afternoon or evening of Wednesday, October 25th, 2023, alleged Turkish artillery shelling struck the village of Al Mushairfa located 8 km east of the town of Ain Issa, Syria, injuring one civilian and striking grain silos.

The injured civilian has been named by most of the sources as a 26-year old Bashar Ahmed Al-Fanash, although North News reported that his age was 23. He was transported to Ain Issa Hospital where he received treatment for his wounds, some of which were located on his head as pictured.

Numerous local sources such as Hawar News reported that the bombs also hit a grain warehouse and silos in the city centre, however did not provide further details on the damage.

All sources attributed the attack to Turkish military forces.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Bashar Ahmed Al-Fanash بشار أحمد
26 years old male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: ANHA facebook
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ain Esa Plus facebook
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (9) [ collapse]