Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident date

Incident Code

TS644

LOCATION

الخالدية, Khalidiya village, Ain Essa countryside, Raqqa, Syria

On Saturday, October 7th, 2023, an alleged Turkish artillery shelling in Khalidiya village, located in the Ain Essa countryside, Syria, reportedly killed an elderly woman and injured at least one other person, her husband. Numerous sources, such as Facebook page Ehlê Qamişlo, have named the deceased woman as Amsha Muhammad Hilal Al-Baqer, aged 65, and her

Summary

First published
October 7, 2023
Last updated
April 4, 2024
Strike status
Likely strike
Strike type
Artillery
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 woman)
Civilians reported injured
1–3
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Suspected target
YPG/SDF
Named victims
2 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

July 23, 2015

Incident Code

CS104

LOCATION

ﺣﻠﺐ, Nahiyat Sereen near Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria

A reported Coalition airstrike at 3.45pm killed up to seven civilians including two children, at Nahiyat Sereen near Aleppo. One young victim, Mohammad Jassen Al Abou Rakan, was decapitated in the incident, with graphic images of his body widely distributed on social media. Islamic State later published a propaganda video of the event, including interviews

Summary

First published
July 23, 2015
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Strike status
Contested strike
Strike type
Airstrike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2 – 7
(2 children)
Civilians reported injured
5
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
US-led Coalition
Suspected targets
Al Qaeda/HTS, ISIS
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

January 3, 2016

Incident Code

TS038

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

According to local sources, 11 civilians were killed and 26 injured in an alleged Turkish airstrike on Al Bab, Syria. Al Jazeera posted on Twitter that “11 people were killed and 26 wounded and an ambulance destroyed after Turkish bombardment of the city of Bab in the countryside of eastern Aleppo.” Al Bab Al Hadath

Summary

First published
January 3, 2017
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
11
Civilians reported injured
26
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

March 14, 2016

Incident Code

TS001

LOCATION

جكة, Jakka, Aleppo, Syria

A single source, the Daesh-linked propaganda outlet Al A’amaq Media, reported an alleged ‘friendly fire’ event in the village of al Jakka: “An American plane carries out a raid by mistake on a position for the armed opposition on the outskirts of the village of Jakka in the northern Aleppo countryside, leading to deaths in

Summary

First published
March 14, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerents
Turkish Military, US-led Coalition
View Incident

Incident date

August 28, 2016

Incident Code

TS003

LOCATION

ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﻧﺔ, Al Armana, Aleppo, Syria

Fifteen to 24 civilians were reported killed in Turkish airstrikes on the town of Al Armana, as invading Turkish forces were said to have turned their attention to Kurdish YPG fighters. Al Hayat newspaper reported as many as twenty civilians were killed.  However, Turkey denied it had killed any non-combatants in the action. According to Reuters

Summary

First published
August 28, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
15 – 24
(4 children)
Civilians reported injured
25
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
24 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

August 28, 2016

Incident Code

CS300 TS002

LOCATION

جب الكوسا, Jeb el Kussa, Aleppo, Syria

Twenty people were reported killed and 50 injured after clashes at Jeb el Kussa, south of Jarabulus. According to Al Alam “these people fell during battles between militants and extremist groups backed by Turkey and the so-called “democratic forces of Syria” and armed groups backed by America. The Syrian Observatory confirmed casualties in the ranks of

Summary

First published
August 28, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
20
(2 children2 women)
Civilians reported injured
50
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 2, 2016

Incident Code

CS325 TS004

LOCATION

دابق‎, Dabiq, Aleppo, Syria

Between 5 and 8 civilians were reported killed in a Coalition or unilateral Turkish airstrike at Dabiq. According to LCCSY, “eight civilians from one family, mostly women and children, were martyred due to International Coalition warplanes shelling  #Dabiq village in the northern countryside.” Shaam News also said eight died – which it claimed included 5 children

Summary

First published
October 2, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
5 – 8
(5 children3 women)
Civilians reported injured
6
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
3 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

October 4, 2016

Incident Code

CS327 TS005

LOCATION

الثلثانة, Taltanah, Aleppo, Syria

Up to 19 civilians including 3 children were killed – and as many as 41 people injured – when airstrikes hit the village of Al Thaltanah. Multiple reports initially assigned blame to the Coalition or Turkish forces. However, on December 1st 2016 the Coalition conceded it had injured one civilian in the event. The Syrian

Summary

First published
October 4, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
11 – 19
(3 children)
Civilians reported injured
41
Airwars civilian harm grading
Confirmed
A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
Known belligerent
US-led Coalition
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
11 named, 4 families identified
View Incident

Incident date

October 8, 2016

Incident Code

CS333 TS005a

LOCATION

دويبق, Dabiq, Aleppo, Syria

Twelve to 14 civilians, including up to seven children and five women, were killed in air raids on the village of Dabiq in Aleppo governorate, according to local reports. It was alleged that both the Coalition and Turkey were responsible. The Syrian Network reported “at least 8 civilians died in International Coalition warplanes missiles fired

Summary

First published
October 8, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
9 – 14
(4–7 children4–5 women)
Civilians reported injured
23
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
8 named, 2 families identified
View Incident

Incident date

October 11, 2016

Incident Code

CS335 TS005b

LOCATION

تل بطال, Tall Btal, Aleppo, Syria

Between 3 and 4 displaced people were reported killed in camps near Tal Btal, a village south of Ra’i in the Aleppo countryside. It was unclear whether Turkey or the Coalition was responsible. Ramaf reported that an attack hit a camp, claiming “the lives of three martyrs and [left] more than fifteen wounded as a

Summary

First published
October 11, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3 – 4
(0–1 children)
Civilians reported injured
15
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
4 named
View Incident

Incident date

October 18, 2016

Incident Code

CS343 TS005C

LOCATION

حساجك, Hassadjek, Aleppo, Syria

At least 6 people were killed by airstrikes in the vicinity of Hassadjek village in Aleppo, though the circumstances were unclear. Initially, Voice of Kurdistan blamed the US-led Coalition for a strike occurring around 3am, which it said left six people dead and four wounded. The Russian Ministry of Defense said that Russian and Syrian government

Summary

First published
October 18, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
6
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 22, 2016

Incident Code

CS345 TS005d

LOCATION

الطويحينة, Al Tweihina, Aleppo, Syria

Airstrikes, possibly carried out by Turkish forces, killed one civilian according to one local report. Others referred only to violent clashes between non state actors. Smart News Agency reported that “international Coalition aircraft” targeting ISIS in Al Tweihina which it said killed one civilian and two members of the terror group. However, the report identified

Summary

First published
October 22, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 26, 2016

Incident Code

CS350 TS005e

LOCATION

نعمان, Nu'man, Aleppo, Syria

Ten civilians were killed by alleged Turkish or Coalition airstrikes in the vicinity of Nu’man, according to local sources. The US-led alliance later denied conducing strikes in the vicinity on this date. An initial report by ISIS-controlled propaganda unit Al A’amaq said that “10 civilians [were] killed in American raids on a group of fuel

Summary

First published
October 26, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
10
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

October 29, 2016

Incident Code

CS352 TS005f

LOCATION

الجطل, Al Jatal, Aleppo, Syria

At least one person was killed by alleged Coalition raids in the vicinity of al Jatal, according to sparse local reports. However a Turkish assault on the village was also reported at the time. Halab News named one male victim who it also said was a victim of “coalition raids.” The only other specific report

Summary

First published
October 29, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1 – 4
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

November 7, 2016

Incident Code

TS006 CS364

LOCATION

قرية قباسين, Al Qabasin, Aleppo, Syria

One named civilian male was reported by both Halab News Network and the Violations Documentation Centre as having been killed by ‘Coalition’ strikes or shelling at Al Qabasin, Syria. However Turkish forces and their FSA allies may also have been responsible, according to other local reports. TR Diplomacy tweeted a map on the 7th, reporting that

Summary

First published
November 7, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 man)
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
1 named
View Incident

Incident date

November 13, 2016

Incident Code

TS007 CS371

LOCATION

مدينة الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

One or two civilians were reported killed and three injured in ‘Coalition’ strikes on Al Bab. However, other reports claimed that Turkey and its FSA allies may have been responsible. Sky News reported that Turkish tanks were advancing on Al Bab, while France 24 described Turkish airstrikes on the city. Reporting casualties, Halab News said

Summary

First published
November 13, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1 – 2
(1 woman1 man)
Civilians reported injured
3
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Turkish Military, US-led Coalition
View Incident

Incident date

November 13, 2016

Incident Code

TS008

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Various sources reported intense attacks by Turkish and FSA forces on Al Bab in a push to oust ISIS from the city. The only source which reported civilian casualties was the ISIS-affiliated propaganda outlet Al A’amaq: “One dead and three civilians injured, one of them in a critical condition. following Turkish artillery bombardment of the

Summary

First published
November 13, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
Civilians reported injured
3
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

November 14, 2016

Incident Code

TS009

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Between three and five civilians were reported killed as a result of Turkish airstrikes or artillery shelling on Al Bab. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that bombing during the Euphrates Shield operation “resulted in the deaths of four people at least and dozens wounded, some of them still in critical condition.” Rojava 24

Summary

First published
November 14, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
3 – 5
Civilians reported injured
27
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
2 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

November 15, 2016

Incident Code

TS010

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Turkish artillery or tank shelling reportedly hit a kindergarten in Al Bab, Syria. The ISIS propaganda outlet Al A’amaq reported: “Two dead and ten wounded, including three children, due to Turkish tank bombardment in Al Bab city.” It added that residential areas and the village Al-Qabaseen north of Al Bab were struck. Alrawi tweeted it

Summary

First published
November 15, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
0 – 2
Civilians reported injured
5–10
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

November 20, 2016

Incident Code

TS011

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

A child was reportedly killed and 12 more people injured as a result of Turkish artillery shelling in Al Bab. The ISIS-affiliated media outlet Al A’amaq reported: “A child was killed and 12 people injured by Turkish artillery on the neighbourhoods of Al Bab northeast of Aleppo.“ Ajal posted a similar report on Twitter, though

Summary

First published
November 20, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 child)
Civilians reported injured
12
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

November 21, 2016

Incident Code

TS012

LOCATION

قرية الغوز, Al Ghor, Aleppo, Syria

According to the ISIS-affiliated media outlet al Amaq, five civilians were killed byTurkish artillery shelling on Al Ghor, a village west of Al Bab. “Five people killed and ten injured following Turkish artillery bombing of the village of al Ghor west of al Bab in the Aleppo countryside,” the propaganda unit claimed. There are currently

Summary

First published
November 21, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
5
Civilians reported injured
10
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

November 22, 2016

Incident Code

TS013

LOCATION

الباب, Al Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Two civilians were reported killed and 17 more wounded in Turkish artillery shelling or takn fire on Al Bab. The ISIS-affiliated media outlet Al A’amaq reported: “Two killed and 17 injured, including women and children following continuous Turkish artillery shelling on the neighbourhoods of al Bab north of Aleppo.“ Ajel_1 posted a carbon copy of

Summary

First published
November 22, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
Civilians reported injured
17
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

November 22, 2016

Incident Code

CS387 TS014

LOCATION

صابويران, Sab Wayran, Aleppo, Syria

Two girls died in a reported Turkish or Coalition airstrike on the village of Sab Wayran near Aleppo, Syria. Manbij Military Council (linked to the SDF) reported that “two sisters were martyred from the family of Ahmad al Rashid Beish Illo after Turkish occupation planes raided their home in the village of Sab Wayran.” It added

Summary

First published
November 22, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
(2 children)
Civilians reported injured
4
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
6 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

November 24, 2016

Incident Code

TS015

LOCATION

صابويران, Sab Wayran, Aleppo, Syria

Two civilians from Sab Wayran were killed in alleged Turkish airstrikes, according to local media. Smart News reported: “Two civilians were killed and others wounded on Wednesday by Turkish air and missile strikes on the city of Manbij, Aleppo, according to the information office of the Manbij military council. The spokesperson, Ahmed Mohammed, told Smart

Summary

First published
November 24, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
(2 children)
Civilians reported injured
4–7
Airwars civilian harm grading
Fair
Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
Named victims
6 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

November 27, 2016

Incident Code

TS016

LOCATION

تادف, Tadif, Aleppo, Syria

Between one and five civilians were reportedly killed in a Turkish or Syrian regime artillery strike on Tadif outside Al Bab. Nabd Syria reported: “Five civilians were killed and others injured by the artillery shelling of the Assad forces in Tadif in the eastern countryside of Aleppo.” The ISIS propaganda outlet Al A’amaq published a

Summary

First published
November 27, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1 – 5
(0–1 children)
Civilians reported injured
5
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Turkish Military, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

November 27, 2016

Incident Code

RS1704

LOCATION

الزهراء , Al Zahra village, Aleppo, Syria

On November 27, 2016, according to the Shaam News Network amongst other local sources, two people were reportedly killed and dozens wounded when an aerial bombing resulted in “several successive explosions” hitting a residential area the town of Zahra, located in the northern countryside of Aleppo, in northwestern Syria. Where sources identified a belligerent, most

Summary

First published
November 27, 2016
Last updated
June 27, 2024
Strike status
Contested strike
Strike type
Airstrike
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
2
Civilians reported injured
2–12
Cause of injury / death
Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
Russian Military, Syrian Regime
View Incident

Incident date

December 1, 2016

Incident Code

TS017

LOCATION

بزاعة, Al Baraziya village, Aleppo, Syria

Syria News Desk reported that a child was killed and other members of their family injured in a Turkish artillery strike on Al Baraziya. According to the local agency: “A child was killed and four other civilians were wounded, all of them from one family, this afternoon, by Turkish artillery targeting Al Baraziya village east

Summary

First published
December 1, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
1
(1 child)
Civilians reported injured
4
Airwars civilian harm grading
Weak
Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
Suspected belligerent
Turkish Military
View Incident

Incident date

December 6, 2016

Incident Code

CS405 TS018

LOCATION

البزاعة, Al Baza'a, Aleppo, Syria

Multiple sources blamed the US-led Coalition for the deaths of a woman and her seven children at al Baza’a, north east of al Bab. However the Coalition later assessed the claims as ‘Not credible.’ Given Turkey’sd own campaign at the time at Al-Bab, its aircraft may therefore have been responsible. According to Step News “Coalition

Summary

First published
December 6, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
8
(3–7 children1 woman)
Civilians reported injured
22
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
7 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

December 9, 2016

Incident Code

CS410 TS019

LOCATION

الباب, Al-Bab, Aleppo, Syria

At least thirteen civilians were reported killed and eight injured in either a Turkish or Coalition airstrike on al Bab. The Coalition later denied responsibility. Al Jazeera – citing ISIS – said two families were among 13 dead civilians after multiple “Turkish airstrikes” on the city. The Syrian Observatory said that “no less than 12

Summary

First published
December 9, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
13 – 20
(7 children4 women8 men)
Civilians reported injured
12
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
12 named, 1 familiy identified
View Incident

Incident date

December 12, 2016

Incident Code

CS413 TS020

LOCATION

الباب, Al-Bab, Aleppo, Syria

Twelve civilians were killed and up to 30 injured at al Bab in what local sources claimed was a ‘Coalition’ strike, but which may have been a result of Turkish-ISIS fighting. Al A’maq, ISIS’s media wing, reported “12 dead and 30 injured, most of them women and children, following violent Turkish shelling with more than

Summary

First published
December 12, 2016
Last updated
January 18, 2022
Civilian harm reported
Yes
Civilians reported killed
12
(6 children1 woman)
Civilians reported injured
20–30
Airwars civilian harm grading
Contested
Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
Suspected belligerents
US-led Coalition, Turkish Military
Named victims
8 named, 2 families identified
View Incident