Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

TI074

Incident date

October 9, 2021

Location

Saydani village, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Between one and two people, including a woman, were killed and two civilians were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on Saydani village on October 9, 2021. The majority of sources refer to all of the casualties from the incident as civilians except BasNews, which identified two Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK) fighters as being killed.

Rudaw News reported that a woman was killed and two others were wounded in Turkish drone strikes. The person killed had not yet been identified because “the body is mangled and therefore we can’t determine the age of the deceased,” Sharif Rahim, spokesperson for Chamchamal’s health directorate, told Rudaw, adding that “the wounded are between 25 and 35 years of age.”

According to BasNews, two Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK) fighters were killed in the drone strike, which struck a car. BasNews was the only source that identified PKK fighters as being involved and not civilians. Hawar News specifically referred to a “civilian car” being hit by the airstrikes and identified those injured as being civilians.

Xeber24 News added that the two injured civilians were transferred to Chamchamal Hospital and the woman who was killed’s body was taken to forensic medicine in Sulaymaniyah.

The Political Bureau of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan issued a statement to public opinion, which stated: “The Political Bureau of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan condemns the bombing by Turkish planes of the Qaranjir border near the city of Kirkuk, which left casualties and damages.”

All of the sources attributed the strikes to Turkish drones or reported that they “believed” Turkey was responsible.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (0–1 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–2

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (0–1 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–2

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI073

Incident date

October 4, 2021

Location

Saydani village, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Two to three people, including a woman, were injured in alleged Turkish drone strikes on the village of Saydani on October 4, 2021. Local sources were conflicted as to whether those injured were civilians or members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).

According to Rudaw News, a 24 year old woman and a 53 year old man were injured in a Turkish drone strike on Saydani village. Sharif Rahim, spokesperson for Chamchamal health directorate, told Rudaw “the injury to the man is serious.”

The head of Chemchemal’s health directorate, Sharif Raheem Moawen, told Shafaq News Agency, “two civilians from Sidan village, the Chemchemal district, were injured: a 24 years old male and a 33 years old male.”

Hawar News reported that the drone strike struck a car while Kurdistan 24 referred to the location as being an alleged Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) outpost, adding that “Two injured people were transferred to the emergency hospital in Chamchamal,” Chamchamal health directorate spokesman Sharif Rahim told Kurdistan 24. It was not immediately clear if the victims were PKK members or civilians.”

Said Karim, a Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) official in Qarahanjir, told BasNews that “As a result of this bombardment, three fighters of PKK have been injured who have now been transferred to Chamchamall hospital for medical treatment.”

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured at approximately 5:00 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other
  • Belligerents reported injured
    0–3

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    0–2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other
  • Belligerents reported injured
    0–3

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS475

Incident date

October 2, 2021

Location

قرية معلك, Malak village, Raqqa, Syria

Geolocation

36.386051, 38.860960 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

At least one child was injured in alleged Turkish shelling on the village of Malak on October 2, 2021.

According to Alyaum TV, a civilian who was tending to his sheep was injured in Turkish shelling of the village of Malak.

Xeber 24 reported that the civilian injured was a 16 year old boy named Adel Muslim and he was transferred to Ain Issa district hospital to be treated for his wounds. At the time of the strikes, Adel was grazing his sheep near the Ain Issa camp when a shell landed near him and hit him.

All of the sources that reported on the strike attributed the shells to Turkish forces.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Image of Adel Muslim, 16 years old, who was injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Malak on October 2, 2021. (Image posted by ANF News)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Malak (معلك), allegedly located 1km west of Ain Issa (عين عيسى). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Ain Issa are: 36.386051, 38.860960.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI072

Incident date

September 24, 2021

Location

قرية هرور, Hiror village, Dohuk, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian man was injured in alleged Turkish artillery strikes on Hirur on September 24, 2021.

According to @kamaran_Mulla, a civilian named Thabt Hussen was severely injured when alleged Turkish shelling landed on his land while we was harvesting pomegranates. At the time of reporting, Thabt was in critical condition and being treated at Zakho hospital. Shafaq News Agency put the man’s age at 45 while Rudaw News reported that Thabt was 55 years old.

The Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) said in a statement that the strikes that wounded the civilian occurred at 10:30am.

The Kani Masi mayor Sarbast Sabri told Rudaw News that Turkish forces targeted Hiror  village from positions in Kani Masi.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey and the majority of sources identified artillery shelling as being used by Turkish forces.

The incident occured at 10:30 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Image of civilian Thabt Hussen being treated following strikes on his land in Hiror on September 24, 2021. (Image posted by @kamaran_Mulla)
  • Smoke billowing from airstrikes on Hiror Village on September 24, 2021. (Image posted by Basrawi News Encyclopedia)
  • Thabt Hussen, a farmer from Hirur village, was injured from alleged Turkish shelling on September 24, 2021. (Image posted by Roj News)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS474

Incident date

September 17, 2021

Location

الدبس, Al Dabas, Raqqa, Syria

Geolocation

36.45705, 38.762341 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

At least four civilians, including a child, were killed and up to three others were injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al Dabas on September 17, 2021.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), four people, including a child, were killed by Turkish missile shells while digging tunnels for the Syrian Democratic Forces in the village of Al Dabas. SOHR had originally reported that two people were killed and three people were injured but later updated their death toll.

In June this year, Al Monitor reported that trenches and tunnels for the Syrian Democratic Forces are dug by “civilians who receive a daily wage of $3 to $5 without medical insurance”.

North Press Agency reported that four civilians were killed in the strikes and according to a medical source, “Turkish forces’ drones targeted a car carrying four civilians heading towards the town of Ain Issa. The source added that the four civilians lost their lives immediately.”

Sputnik News also identified four civilians as being killed in intense Turkish bombardment and provided their names: Malik Al-Muharib Al-Hamid, 25 years old, Idan Hamad Al-Amiri, 40 years old, Hamad Al-Khunais Al-Jarbou’, 20 years old, and Khamis Al-Busaili, 17 years old.

Zaman Al Wasl provided information from the “Hawar” agency, a spokesman for the Democratic Union Party, that in addition to the four people that were killed, three others were injured.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The incident occured around dawn.

  • Malik Al-Muharib Al-Hamid 25 years old killed
  • Idan Hamad Al-Amiri 40 years old killed
  • Hamad Al-Khunais Al-Jarbou’ 20 years old killed
  • Khamis Al-Busaili 17 years old killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Al Dabas (الدبس), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.45705, 38.762341. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI071

Incident date

September 7–8, 2021

Location

قرية سناموك, Sinamoka village, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Up to two civilians were killed and up to two others were injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes on the village of Sinamoka on September 7, 2021.

According to Roj News, two civilians were injured in the Turkish bombing of the village of Sinamoka that involved three airstrikes. Baghdad concurred that two civilians were wounded.

Basnews initially reported that two civilians were injured but later stated that two civilians were killed in the strikes on Sinamoka. Mayor Nahro Abdullah told BasNews that the airstrikes occurred around 1:30am and that Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) fighters were in the area.

In addition to the civilian casualties, the bombing resulted in damage to civilian property.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the airstrikes to Turkey.

The incident occured at approximately 1:30 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TS473

Incident date

September 6, 2021

Location

الخالدية, Al Khalidiya, Raqqa, Syria

Geolocation

36.418333, 38.809444 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian, a young man, was injured in alleged Turkish bombing of the village of Al-Khalidiya on September 6, 2021.

According to North Press Agency (NPA), a 28 year old man named Yasser Youssef Hajo was injured by shrapnel when Turkish forces bombed the village of Al-Khalidiya. A medical source in Ain Issa Town Hospital, whether the man was treated, told NPA that the injured man may ned surgery.

Both Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and Ronahi TV also reported that one civilian was wounded in the bombing of Al-Khalidiya and both attributed the strikes to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    28 year old Yasser Youssef Hajo was injured in alleged Turkish strikes on the village of Al-Khalidiya on September 6, 2021. (Image posted by Ronahi TV)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Al Khalidiya (الخالدية), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.418333, 38.809444. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI070

Incident date

September 4, 2021

Location

قرية هرور, Hirrur, Dohuk, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Up to three civilians, including two women, were reported injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling on Hirrur on September 4th 2021. There were some claims that chemical weapons featured in the attack.

A resident of the village of Hirrur told IQ News, “Turkish artillery bombed our village this evening, as a result of which a woman and her daughter were wounded, and they were taken to the hospital for treatment.” Various other news outlets quoted the same source and reported the same information.

ANF News reported that three civilians were injured when an artillery shell landed near their home and that the injured were transferred to Zakho Hospital.

ANF News later added that Turkish forces also used chemical weapons during the bombardment. Those affected by the chemicals “had shortness of breath, redness in their eyes and an irregular heartbeat.” According local sources reported on ANF News, Turkey has been using chemical weapons in the Werxelê area and a video posted by ANF shows chemical gas coming out of a tunnel following an attack.

According to Rudaw News, Turkish forces dropped six bombs and they landed nearly a kilometer from Abdullah Hassan’s house. Hassan, his wife Hadiya Mustafa, and their daughter Zhiman were hospitalized two hours after smoke from the bombs reached their house.

“A Turkish bomb brought this to me. Smoke came towards me and I said ‘go inside as this smoke stinks.’ I went into the house,” Mustafa, 66, told Rudaw. Adeeb Mousa, who lives in the same village, said that six bombs landed in the vicinity of the village and one of them “produced a black smoke” that spread to Hassan’s house. The others emitted a yellow smoke. Hassan was discharged from the hospital a day after the attack while his wife and daughter were discharged two days after the attack.

This was not the first time that Haasan and his family have been impacted by the conflict. They narrowly survived an alleged Turkish bombardment in late June when shrapnel hit the front of their house.

Dr. Rasul Mohammed, the doctor who provided them with first aid at the nearby Rozana health center told Rudaw that the family’s symptoms were that “They had breathing issues. Their eyes teared up and were painful. Two of them felt nauseous and dizzy. It was strange to me to see that a bombardment could cause these symptoms.” Amir Ali, head of Zakho health directorate’s media office, said that he was in touch with the specialists regarding the incident, but that “there is no equipment to know whether it was 100 percent a poisonous gas or something else.”

In an article published by Roj News on September 9th 2021, Jihad Abdullah, a relative of the three victims, said they were still feeling dizzy and unwell after being discharged from hospital. Mr. Abdullah accused hospital staff of failing to investigate whether his family had been exposed to chemicals gas: “This incident that has befallen us is no less than the incident in Halabja. But unfortunately we have been neglected. We have registered a complaint with the Human Rights Institution. But the hospital does not give us an accurate report until we can use it as evidence. ” After reviewing video footage of an alleged chemical weapons attack in another part of northern Iraq, Gisela Penteker, a director at the International Union of Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), told ANF that the footage warranted further investigation and called on the United Nations to “start an investigation”.

All of the sources attributed the attack to Turkey.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

  • Abdullah Hassan 76 years old male injured
  • Hadiya Mustafa Adult female injured
  • Zhiman 28 years old female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Image of Hadiya Mustafa being treated at a hospital following an alleged chemical attack on the village of Hirrur on September 4, 2021. (Image posted by Rudaw News)

Turkish Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Armed Forces
  • Turkish Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Armed Forces

Sources (9) [ collapse]