All Belligerents in Libya, 2011

Mourners in Majer, Libya in 2011 following a NATO airstrike which killed at least 34 civilians, according to multiple reports. Image courtesy of Sidney Kwiram/ Human Rights Watch

Belligerent
Country
Libya
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents

Incident Code

LQ047

Incident date

June 17, 2017

Location

بنغازي‎, Benghazi, Libya

Geolocation

32.105045, 20.086239 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Two Facebook sources claimed that 13 “foreign airstrikes” had struck Benghazi, but seem to have copied one another on the information.

There were no known public reports of civilian harm at the time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LQ030

Incident date

May 29, 2016

Location

بنغازي‎, Benghazi, Libya

Geolocation

32.075302, 19.8042297 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Subdistrict

Airwars assessment

LNA fighter jets targeted a vessel west of Qamins 25 km west of Benghazi according to the official LNA Facebook page.
Social media sources added that the LNA also launched raids on Qawarsheh, Bosnib and Sabri.

The status of any civilian crew onboard the vessel is unknown. 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LQ010

Incident date

September 25, 2015

Location

درنة الفتايح, Al Fatayah, Derna, Libya

Geolocation

32.733611, 22.645278 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

The LNA reportedly targeted the Shura Council and ISIS with 25 airstrikes at dawn in the eastern part of the city.

According to Libya 24 News, “a plane belonging to the Libyan air force struck at dawn today sites belonging to the Libyan branch of the Islamic State organization ‘Daesh’ east of the city of Derna, amid ongoing clashes.”

Despite the significant number of reported airstrikes, there were no local published reports of civilian harm.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (10) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LQ002

Incident date

October 18, 2014

Location

بنغازي‎, Bosnib, Benghazi, Libya

Geolocation

32.035556, 20.048333 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Several local sources reported that the LNA targeted the Shura Council in Benghazi – though one source blamed Egypt. The strike reportedly hit the area in the west of Benghazi called Bosnib.

Nöor çoröğlü posted pictures of destroyed civilian homes due to the strikes but did not mention civilian harm.

According to @zicotarhuni, the Egyptian air force bombed the Bosnib area.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Egyptian Military, Libyan National Army

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Translation: the target of Bu-Utni by the LNA (source: Alzarook_Nabbos)
  • Translation: Images of destroyed civilian homes (source: tweeted by Nöor çoröğlü)

Egyptian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Egyptian Military
  • Egyptian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Egyptian Military, Libyan National Army

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LC198

Incident date

September 13, 2019

Location

طرابلس‎: خزانات النفط, Tripoli: Oil tanks, Tripoli, Libya

Geolocation

32.790556, 13.148889 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Nearby landmark

Airwars assessment

One child was reportedly injured because of LNA shelling on Tripoli.

The GNA Burkan Al Ghadab operation claimed: “The child Osama Mohammed Hamza was injured by shrapnel in the neck as a result of the indiscriminate shelling of the militias of the war criminal Hafter behind oil tanks and was transferred to the field hospital for treatment.”

There is currently no additional information available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Osama Mohammed Hamza Child male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Child receeiving treatment after being injured in alleged LNA strike on Tripoli on September 13th, 2019 (via Burkan Al Ghadab)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention oil tanks (خزانات النفط) in Tripoli (طرابلس‎). The coordinates for the oil tanks are: 32.790556 13.148889. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LC174a

Incident date

July 29, 2019

Location

طرابلس‎: مدرسة ابي الاشهر, Tajoura: Abu Al Ashur School, Tripoli, Libya

Geolocation

32.888512, 13.313069 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Exact location (via Airwars)

Airwars assessment

One civilian was reportedly injured by indiscrimante artillery shelling on Tajoura.

An Amnesty International field investigation said: “A 22-year-old man, Abdelrahman Adel Abi al-Ashhar, was injured when a rocket struck a school located near the eastern perimeters of Mitiga airport, on the evening of 29 July 2019. He told Amnesty International:

“I was standing in front of the supermarket opposite the school, it was about 8pm. A rocket hit the school and I was hit by shrapnel all over my back and legs. We heard two other rockets striking nearby just before the one which hit the school and injured me”.

Fragments recovered at the scene by Amnesty International investigators confirm that the weapon was a 122mm 9M22U “Grad” rocket.”

Other sources said the school was damaged without civilian harm.

Local reports of fighting between GNA and LNA point at one of them as the culprit.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Abdelrahman Adel Abi al-Ashhar Adult male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Government of National Accord, Libyan National Army

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • Pictures of the damage to the school
  • Another picture of the damage caused at the school (via Al Wasat)
  • Another picture of the damage caused at the school (via Al Wasat)
  • Another picture of the damage caused at the school (via Al Wasat)
  • Another picture of the damage caused at the school (via Al Wasat)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Abu Al Ashur School (مدرسة ابي الاشهر), for which the exact coordinates are: 32.888512, 13.313069.

Government of National Accord Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Government of National Accord
  • Government of National Accord position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Government of National Accord, Libyan National Army

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LC256

Incident date

December 19, 2019

Location

مصراتة, Misurata, Libya

Geolocation

32.374457, 15.087794 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

During a night of heavy LNA and UAE attacks on the city of Misurata – with at least 17 airstrikes reported, mostly targeting military sites – up to six civilians were locally reported injured.

According to Libya al Ahrar, “A medical source confirms to Libya Al-Ahrar the arrival of 6 wounded civilians to the emergency department of the Misurata Medical Center as a result of the bombing of supportive aircraft for Haftar sites in the city.”

Burkan Al Ghadab gave more details, noting that “The Accident and Emergency Department at Misurata Medical Center received 6 injuries as a result of the aerial bombardment of the city of Misurata, two cases were housed in the department, a state underwent an emergency operation and three cases of minor injuries who received first aid and left the department.” It also published photographs of some of the injured.

Al Mashad placed the number injured lower at four, noting that “The Misurata Hospital stated that four civilians were wounded by shrapnel as a result of the aerial bombardment carried out by the air force fighters of the National Army, targeting ammunition storage sites in residential neighborhoods since the late hours of Thursday, which resulted in violent explosions. The Misrata Hospital demanded the Presidential Council to remove weapons and ammunition depots from the population.”

The following day, al Wasat reported that ” the Presidential Council of the National Accord Government condemned the ‘treacherous aerial bombardment’ that targeted the city of Misurata on Thursday, ‘and resulted in the injury of a number of civilians’, noting that the bombing was ‘carried out by a supportive foreign aircraft’ for the commander of the national army, Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Libyan National Army, United Arab Emirates Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • One of the civilians injured in LNA strikes on Misurata on the night of December 19th arrive for treatment at Misurata Medical Centre (via Burkan Al Ghadab)
  • Misurata Medical Centre (via Burkan Al Ghadab)
  • One of the civilians injured by the LNA in Misurata on December 19th 2019 is treated by medics (via Burkan Al Ghadab)
  • One of the civilians injured by the LNA in Misurata on December 19th 2019 is treated by medics (via Burkan Al Ghadab)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Misrata (مصراتة), for which the generic coordinates are: 32.374457, 15.087794. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

United Arab Emirates Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    United Arab Emirates Military
  • United Arab Emirates Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Libyan National Army, United Arab Emirates Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

LC284

Incident date

January 28, 2020

Location

مدرسة رجب النائب, Rajab Al Naab School, Tripoli, Libya

Geolocation

32.834167, 13.216611 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Nearby landmark

Airwars assessment

Four children were allegedly killed by LNA artillery shelling on the Hadaba Al Badri neighbourhood of Tripoli.

Initially sources reported two dead and two injured, referring to a GNA Ministry of Health spokesperson.

The Libya Observer reported: “Three children have been killed and others injured in Al-Hadba Al-Badri neighborhood as Khalifa Haftar’s forces have fired indiscriminate shells on residential areas in southern Tripoli.

The Volcano of Rage Operation’s media office said Tuesday that one of the random shells fired by Haftar’s forces fell near Rajab Al-Naeb School in Al-Hadba Al-Badri area.

Meanwhile, the media consultant of the Health Ministry Ameen Al-Hashimi confirmed the number of killed children and said other children were wounded, adding that they were on their way to school and that they aged between 9 and 12 years old.”

The Field Medicine and Support Center said: “In the context of the tasks assigned to the Center for Field Medicine and Support, a team from the center toured the field to find out the size of the injuries left by the fall of a projectile behind a school in Al-Hadaba Al-Badri region on Tuesday 28 January 2020, which resulted in the martyrdom of three children who were referred to the Mercy House at Tripoli Medical Hospital.

Anas Abdul Hakim Al-Ghazwi, 12 years

Ramadan Orabi, 10 years

Zakaria Jamal Mustafa, 9 years

The child Malik Abdel Hakim Al-Ghazewi entered operations at the Tripoli Medical Hospital.”

Al Wasat also reported that the third child had died.

Emadeddin Badi tweeted that the “last of the 4 child casualties of #Haftar’s LAAF shelling on Hadhba yday (initially 2 killed/2 severely injured) has also died this morning in intensive care due to the severity of his wounds.”

Other sources also later confirmed the death of the fourth child

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Anas Abdul Hakim Al-Ghazwi 12 years old male killed
  • Ramadan Orabi 10 years old male killed
  • Zakaria Jamal Mustafa 9 years old male killed
  • Malik Abdel Hakim Al-Ghazewi Child male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (4 children)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (29) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • Video of the incident
  • Damaged car after alleged LNA shelling on Tripoli on January 28th, 2020 (via Al Wasat)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Ramadan Orabi, allegedly killed by LNA shelling on Tripoli on January 28th, 2020 (via Raif Zak)
  • Blood stain on the ground after alleged LNA shelling on Tripoli on January 22nd, 2020 (via Burkan Al Ghadab)
  • Hospital where victims were supposedly treated after alleged LNA shelling on Tripoli on January 22nd, 2020 (via Tk Yahroug Kl shy)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the vicinity of the Rajab Al Naab School (مدرسة رجب النائب) for which the generic coordinates are: 32.834167, 13.216611. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Libyan National Army Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Libyan National Army
  • Libyan National Army position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • (4 children)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Libyan National Army

Sources (29) [ collapse]