Turkish Military in Iraq & Syria

An internally displaced Kurdish family in northern Iraq, 2016 (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
Turkish Military
Country
Iraq
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

TI084

Incident date

June 17, 2022

Location

كيسته, Kesta, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.256848, 43.160734 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Two women were injured in alleged Turkish artillery shelling and/or heavy machine gun fire on Kesta village in Kani Massi district on June 17, 2022

Shafaq News reported that Turkish forces launched artillery against Kesta Village, north of Duhok, which resulted in the injury of two women.

Omed Kestayi, chieftain (mukhtar) of Kesta village in Amedi town, told Rudaw’s Haydar Doski on Friday that Turkish troops from a nearby military base shelled inside the village earlier in the day, injuring two women, who were hospitalized. The shelling was done with DShk, a Soviet heavy machine gun, for about half an hour. ANF specified that the injured women were taken to Batifa Hospital.

Omed Kestayi also provided the names of the victims: Kazen (25 years old) and Sally (40 years old), one of them was hit in the head and the other in the hand.

The majority of sources attributed the bombardment/shooting to Turkish forces, while only Zagros News did not identify who was responsible.

The incident occured at approximately 5:30 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

25 years old female injured
40 years old female injured

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Kesta (كيسته), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.256848, 43.160734. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Causes of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • One of the women injured when Turkish artillery attacked Kesta Village, north of Duhok which resulted in the injury of two women. (Image posted by Shafaq News)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Causes of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI001

Incident date

July 25, 2015

Location

العمادية, Amadiyah, Kurdistan, Iraq

Geolocation

37.092003, 43.486966 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three civilians were reportedly injured in alleged Turkish airstrikes on Amadiyah, Iraq.

Iraqhurr reported intensive bombing on PKK positions in the area and said that it “led to the wounding of three civilians.”

Sputnik News also reported Turkish airstrikes in the area but did not mention civilian harm.

No additional details are presently known regarding this event.

The event coincided with a major Turkish ground and air operation against both ISIS and Kurdish forces in Syria, which the US-led Coalition later confirmed were unilateral actions by its erstwhile partner.

Turkey’s Prime Minister told reporters: “Bomb attacks were aimed at the known military targets, including Qandil in northern Iraq [notable as a sanctuary for the PKK], and at the most important command centers and weapon depots of ISIL in Syria. There were no civilians in these areas, none of them have died.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Amadiyah (العمادية), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.092003, 43.486966. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI101

Incident date

December 28, 2023

Location

قرية كاركي, Karki, Sinjar District, Mosul Province, Iraq

Airwars assessment

Between 6 and 8 PM on Thursday, December 28th, 2023, at least five people were killed and two others injured after an alleged Turkish drone strike on the village of Karki in the Sinjar district of Mosul province. The civilian status of five of the men killed is contested within the sources.

Those killed were young men, originally from northern and eastern Syria; information on the wounded was not made available. Roj News, in conjunction with the Democratic Autonomous Administration of Shingal District identified the deceased as follows: 21-year-old Ramadan al-Hammadi, originally from Raqqa; 24-year-old Shaheen Ali, from Kobani; 20-year-old Hussein al-Hussein, also from Raqqa; 23-year-old Ahmed al-Mohammed al-Ali, from Raqqa; and Raqqa-born Munir al-Bakour. al-Bakour’s age was not publicly declared.

There remains dispute regarding the circumstances of the strike. While the local administration in Sinjar reported those killed were working digging wells to provide water for the villages of Kora Samukiya, Al-Arbay News stated that the bombing was a deliberate strike targeting the Kurdistan Workers’ Party. Al-Araby claimed their source, members of Nineveh security, as saying the strike targeted “a group of Labor Party activists.” Al-Arbay also specified that the local Sinjar administration is “known for its association” with the PKK.

Haider Sheshu, a commander of local militia Ezidkhan Protection Units, stated that he was unsure “whether the dead were fighters or civilians.”

Roj News reported the belligerent bombed the area three consecutive times. All of the sources attributed the drone strikes to Turkish forces.

The incident occured between 6:00 pm and 8:00 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Water station
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 8
  • (0–5 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–5

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (8) [ collapse]

  • Source: Roj News
  • Source: Roj News
  • Source: Roj News
  • Source: Roj News
  • Source: Hawar News
  • Source: Hawar News
  • Source: Hawar News

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Water station
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 8
  • (0–5 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–5

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI066 YI001

Incident date

August 20, 2021

Location

بنكي, Banke village, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.207778, 42.968611 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Two Iraqi tourists were killed in an alleged Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) IED or Turkish air or artillery strike near the village of Banke, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021, according to local sources. Their bodies were missing until Kurdish and Iraqi security forces found them on August 22nd.

The security source told Shafaq News Agency, “Two tourists from Mosul entered, two days ago, the prohibited area in the village of Banka in Bativa district, affiliated to Zakho district, north of Dohuk,” noting that “a Turkish artillery shell fell near their car, leaving them dead.” The source added, “The two tourists are Ahmed Shukr, born in 1981, and Youssef Omar, born in 1995,” explaining that “the security forces in Zakho are trying to enter the prohibited area to evacuate the bodies of the tourists.”

Kurdistan 24 correspondent Islam Yousef said: “The bodies of the two men, who had been visiting from Iraq’s nearby province of Nineveh, were discovered still inside a car that sustained damage by the impact of what appears to be a roadside improvised explosive device (IED) in the village of Banke, located in the Batifa subdistrict outside Zakho.” The source quoted local authorities who said the men had been killed by a roadside bomb. The source also quoted anonymous local sources as saying the bomb had been planted by the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).

Bas News reported: “Head of Batifa administration, Farhad Mahmoud, told BasNews that the two men visited Zakho countryside from Mosul on Friday when they were caught in the middle of a fierce conflict between the Turkish Army and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). He said the two men were hit in their personal vehicle in the vicinity of Banke village. “Investigations show that they were hit by a Turkish artillery fire,” he added. “We are now awaiting their conclusion of the forensic report before handing the bodies over to the families.”

The director of Batova district told Rudaw Media Network that “the Turkish bombing of the areas where PKK fighters are located, in the village of Bandro, of Batufa district, led to the killing of Iraqi tourists.” Rudaw reported: “The bodies of two tourists killed on Friday in Turkish artillery fire in northern Duhok province were retrieved by Iraqi border guards on Sunday afternoon and returned to their families. The two, Ahmed Shukir, 40, and Yousif Ammar, 26, are from Mosul had seemingly unknowingly entered a conflict zone when they visited the village of Bankie, in the Batifa sub-district where Turkish forces have clashed with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).” Rudaw quoted an unarmed eyewitness as saying the men had “died after an artillery shell hit their car”.

@BarzanSadiq posted a video alleging to show the moment the car was targeted and said “an IED blast planted by PKK killed the two Iraqi tourists”.

Medyanews quoted the Mesopotamia News Agency as saying “the two lost their lives when their vehicle was bombarded by a drone belonging to the TAF”.

The majority of the sources said the men had been killed by a Turkish artillery strike.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Ahmed Shukr
40 years old male killed
Youssef Omar
26 years old male killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Banke (بنكي), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.207778, 42.968611. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Military, YPG
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (14) [ collapse]

  • An image of Yousif Omar, who was killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike on the village of Banke, Batifa sub-district on August 20 th, 2021. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • An image of Ahmed Shukr Mahmoud, who was killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike close to the village of Banke, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021 (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • An image of Yousif Omar, who was killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike on the village of Banke, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021. (Image posted by Kurdistan revolution in Arabic)
  • An image of the vehicle Ahmed Shukr Mahmoud and Yousif Omar were traveling in when they were killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike while visiting Banke village, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021. (Image posted by @BarzanSadiq)
  • An image of the vehicle Ahmed Shukr Mahmoud and Yousif Omar were traveling in when they were killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike while visiting Banke village, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021. (Image posted by @BarzanSadiq)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An image of the interior of the car the men were traveling in following the alleged Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike or Turkish air or artillery stike which killed them on August 20th, 2021. (Uploaded by Shafaq)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An image of the interior of the car the men were traveling in following the alleged Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike or Turkish air or artillery stike which killed them on August 20th, 2021. (Uploaded by Shafaq)
  • An image of the vehicle Ahmed Shukr Mahmoud and Yousif Omar were traveling in when they were killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike while visiting Banke village, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021. (Image posted by @BarzanSadiq)
  • The funeral for Yousif Omar, who was killed in an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike on the village of Banke, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021. (Image posted by Naynawa Alghad)
  • Caption: “Emergency services are seen in the Zakho area of northern Dohuk, near to where two tourists from Mosul were killed in a Turkish bombardment on August 22, 2021.” (Uploaded by Rudaw)
  • An ambulance is seen waiting to collect the bodies of two men who were killed during an alleged Turkish artillery strike or Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) IED strike near the village of Banke, Batifa sub-district on August 20th, 2021. (Uploaded by Kurdistan 24)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

YPG Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    YPG
  • YPG position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Turkish Military, YPG
  • Suspected target
    Other

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI086

Incident date

July 20, 2022

Location

برخ, Parkh, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.274460, 42.782079 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (other) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between eight and 10 civilians, including three children, were killed and up to 45 others, including four women and two children, were injured in alleged Turkish bombing of the village of Parkh on July 20, 2022.

According to BasNews, five tourists were killed and 15 others were injured by Turkish shelling of a summer resort outside Zakho, adding that the death toll was expected to rise as several of the injured victims were in critical condition. BasNews later updated their numbers to eight tourists killed and 23 others injured, and that the injured included women and children, some of them in critical condition.

A Facebook post from ShakwMakw reported that “Abbas Al-Awadi” from Baghdad was one of the victims killed in the bombing. He got married 5 days before and was on his honeymoon in Zakho. Additionally, Al-Awadi “graduated last year from the university and was recently accepted to study a master’s degree in engineering”.

Al Rabiaa TV posted on Facebook that Ali Sabah al-Jubouri from Tuwairej district was among the civilians killed. Sulaymaniyah Eye added the name of Abbas Muhammad Jawad Abdullah, a student of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Warith Al-Anbiya, who died from his wounds. Baghdad 1 identified  Taha Abdel-Zahra from Orfali as one of the people killed – Taha was married two years ago and father of two children, graduated this year.

Rudaw News provided a list of nine names of civilians killed: Saji Mahmoud Jassim 24 years old – Baghdad, Ali Sabah Ismaiel 43 years old – Baghdad, Abbas Alaa Abdel Hussein 30 years old – Baghdad, Zahraa Kheiri Muhammad 1 year old – Baghdad, Sarah Qais Ali 12 years old – Baghdad, Zahra Qais Ali 16 years old – Baghdad, Taha Abdul Rahman Niema 25 years old – Baghdad, Hassan Abdul Ameer 55 years old – Kerbla, Abbas Mohammed Jawad – Kerbla.

Tahseen Ali, 30, from Babil Province, who said he was standing about 20 meters from one of the strikes, which wounded his brother and sister, told the New York Times “It was chaos ­— tourists’ hands and legs were detached from their bodies.” Tahseen’s sister Ban al-Humnrani, 42, who is a U.S. citizen and was visiting from Sacramento, California, said that “We are used to hearing sounds of war, but I have never seen a horrific scene like this.” Ms. al-Humnrani  suffered a leg wound.

Mustafa Alaa, 24, who was at the resort with a friend when the attack occurred, told Reuters “We go towards the mountainside, there are strikes. We go towards the waterfall, there are strikes. We go towards this side, there are strikes. We pulled up the fence that was around the waterfall. We looked from inside, I saw children lying on the ground. … It’s a scene that I’ve never seen in my life.”

Worood Abbas, a 40 year old from Karbala governorate, who was on holiday in Zakho with her family, reported that her husband, Sabah, had been killed in this attack. She told the Middle East Eye, “I lost my husband, he was everything for me… we came for pleasure but it turned into a funeral.” She also said, “Can words send back my killed husband? Can speech heal my son’s injury? Of course not.”  Her ten year old son and 13 year old daughter were wounded in the attack. 

The Washington Post reported that in an interview broadcast by the Kurdish television network Rudaw, an eyewitness visiting from the capital, Baghdad, said tendrils of smoke had been visible farther up the mountain from the window of his tourist bus as he arrived in Barakh. “We asked our tour guide, but they said it was normal,” he said. About 15 minutes later, four or five strikes landed amid the gathered families, he said. A young boy’s hand was severed. An old man lost two daughters.

Dilsher Abdulsattar, head of the local administration of Darkar, confirmed the casualties to BasNews and said the shelling had targeted a touristic site in Parkh village, with unconfirmed reports saying that the victims were Arab tourists from central and southern provinces of Iraq. Rudaw News specified that the tourists were part of a 200-person tourism group from Baghdad.

Hawar News reported that 10 people were killed and 20 people were injured in the bombing. A Facebook post by “Erbil my city” also put the number of civilians killed at 10 and added that 45 others were injured. The New York Times reported that the dead and wounded were evacuated to Bedar General Hospital in the city of Zakho.

Kurdistan24 identified the location of the Parkh resort site as close to Sharanish waterfall in the Zakho Independent Administration’s northeast. The Washington Post described the scene before the strikes as “families had been gathered by a pool, taking a dip or resting in the dappled shade.”

Zakho mayor Muhsin Bashir claimed that “members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) were roaming the village, which led Turkey to bombard it.”

Vian Dakhil, the official speaker for the Kurdistan Democratic Party bloc in the Iraqi parliament issued a statement that “9 civilians were killed and 33 others were injured” and blamed the Turkish government for the bombing and the federal government for “failing to preserve the lives of its citizens and the sovereignty of its lands”.

Rudaw reported that following the incident, the Iraqi PM Mustafa al-Kadhimi sent a a security delegation and Foreign Minister Fuad Hussein to Duhok to investigate what happened. The Speaker of Parliament Mohammed al-Halbousi called on the Iraqi government to the take necessary measures to investigate the Duhok bombardment. The Iraqi prime minister media office also released a statement that “the Turkish Forces committed an explicit and blatant violation of the sovereignty of Iraq, and the lives and security of Iraqi citizens by targeting a tourist resort in the Governorate of Dohuk in the Kurdistan region of Iraq”, adding that the attack “led to the deaths and injuries of civilians, most of whom are women and children”.

Turkey’s foreign ministry released a statement that Turkey was saddened to hear about the casualties from the attack and “Turkey is ready to take every step for the truth to come out. We call on the Iraqi government to not make remarks influenced by the heinous terrorist organisation’s rhetoric and propaganda, and to engage in cooperation to uncover the perpetrators of this cruel act,” indicating that the PKK was responsible, whilst denying their responsibility.

The Kurdistan Parliament released a statement which condemned “in the strongest terms the Turkish military’s shelling and calls on the Iraqi Federal Government to act in accordance with international law and norms and fulfill its legal and constitutional obligation to protect the territorial and airspace sovereignty of the Kurdistan region.”

The US released a statement condemning the attack, “the killing of civilians is unacceptable, and all states must respect their obligations under international law, including the protection of civilians,” State Department spokesperson Ned Price said in a statement.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

42 years old female Leg injury injured

Family members (2)

Sarah Qais Ali سارة قيس علي
12 years old killed
Zahra Qais Ali زهراء قيس علي
16 years old killed

Family members (4)

Sabah Abbas
male killed
Worood Abbas
female injured
Daughter of Worood and Sabah
13 years old female injured
Son of Worood and Sabah
10 years old male injured

The victims were named as:

Abbas Al-Awadi
Adult male killed
Ali Sabah al-Jubouri علي صباح
43 years old male killed
Abbas Muhammad Jawad Abdullah
Adult male killed
Taha Abdel-Zahra طه عبد الزهرة
Adult male killed
Saji Mahmoud Jassim سجي محمود جاسم
24 years old killed
Abbas Alaa Abdel Hussein عباس علاء عبد الحسين
30 years old killed
Zahraa Kheiri Muhammad زهراء ضرغام محمد
1 years old killed
Hassan Abdul Ameer
55 years old killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention a holiday resort within the village of Parakh (برخي). According to research conducted by @obretix, the exact location of this strike is: 37.274460, 42.782079. Cross referencing evidence from audio-visual material from sources, we can confirm this location.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    8 – 10
  • (3 children4 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    20–45
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (54) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (40) [ collapse]

  • The moment alleged Turkish artillery shelling hits a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by BasNews)
  • Tourists run away from the site of alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    The moment the dead body of Zahra Hamza is handed to the police by her mother. Zahra was the one-year-old child who passed away due to the artillery shelling on the Parkhe tourist resort in Zakho
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    "Kadhimi where are you, where is your country," a victim of the artillery shelling in Zakho shouts in despair
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    The moment Turkish artillery bombed a tourist resort in Zakho
  • A number of Arab tourists have been wounded by the bombardment, including women and children, eyewitnesses told Kurdistan 24. "There are many causalities," one is heard saying in the footage shared with Kurdistan 24. 📹Submitted to K24
  • Image of one of the women injured in the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Hawar News)
  • One of the civilians injured in the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Rudaw News)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Image of one of the children injured in the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Kurdistan Revolution)
  • Tourists run away from the site of alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Erbil my city via Facebook)
  • Victims of the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Erbil my city via Facebook)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Very graphic image of one of the children injured in the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Almaalomah)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Very graphic image of one of the children injured in the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Almaalomah)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Very graphic image of one of the men injured in the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by Almaalomah)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    GRAPHIC FOOTAGE The moment of the impacts of the bombardment in Duhok Governorate northern Iraq.
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    The woman says: i think my husband is dead.
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Turkish airstrikes targeted a resort in Duhok Governorate northern Iraq resulted multiple casualties of Iraqi tourists.
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    "Kadhimi where are you, where is your country," a victim of the artillery shelling in Zakho shouts in despair
  • An Iraqi security delegation visited with the victims of the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by INA)
  • An Iraqi security delegation visited with the victims of the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by INA)
  • An Iraqi security delegation visited with the victims of the alleged Turkish artillery shelling that hit a touristic site in Kurdistan Region’s Duhok province on July 17, 2022. (Image posted by INA)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • Medics transporting the body of a victim on Wednesday after Turkish airstrikes in the city of Zakho in northern Iraq’s autonomous Kurdish region. Credit... Ismael Adnan/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
  • Shoes of victims are seen at the scene of a Turkish attack, according to Iraqi officials, on a mountain resort in Iraq's northern province of Dohuk, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal
  • Security forces inspect the site of a Turkish attack on a mountain resort, according to Iraqi officials, in Iraq's northern province of Dohuk, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal
  • A man pushes a wheelchair carrying a woman wounded by a Turkish attack, next to a hospital in Zakho, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal
  • Abdul Ameer al-Shammari, deputy commander of Iraq's military Joint Operation Command and Iraqi Foreign Minister Fuad Hussein inspect the site of a Turkish attack on a mountain resort in Iraq's northern province of Dohuk, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal
  • A view of the site of a Turkish attack on a mountain resort in Iraq's northern province of Dohuk, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal
  • Iraqi Foreign Minister Fuad Hussein addresses the press after visiting those wounded by Turkish shelling at a hospital in the city of Zakho in the north of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region late on July 20, 2022. - Nine civilians including children were killed in a park in Iraqi Kurdistan region on July 20 by artillery fire that Baghdad blamed on neighbouring Turkey, a country engaged in a cross-border offensive. (Photo by Ismael ADNAN / AFP) (Photo by ISMAEL ADNAN/AFP via Getty Images)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An injured man lies on a hospital bed following Turkish shelling in the city of Zakho in the north of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region on July 20, 2022. (Photo by Ismael ADNAN / AFP) (Photo by ISMAEL ADNAN/AFP via Getty Images)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    An injured boy receives treatment at a hospital following Turkish shelling in the city of Zakho in the north of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region on July 20, 2022. - Nine civilians including children were killed in a park in Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region by artillery fire that Baghdad blamed on neighbouring Turkey, a country engaged in a cross-border offensive. (Photo by Ismael ADNAN / AFP) (Photo by ISMAEL ADNAN/AFP via Getty Images)
  • Saman Barzanji (C), Health Minister of Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan Region, visits the victims injured by Turkish shelling at a hospital in the city of Zakho in the north of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region on July 20, 2022. - Nine civilians including children were killed in a park in Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region by artillery fire that Baghdad blamed on neighbouring Turkey, a country engaged in a cross-border offensive. (Photo by Ismael ADNAN / AFP) (Photo by ISMAEL ADNAN/AFP via Getty Images)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A man stands outside a hospital with a blood-stained shirt after a Turkish attack, in Zakho, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal.
  • Security forces gather outside a hospital after a Turkish attack, in Zakho, Iraq, July 20, 2022. REUTERS/Ari Jalal
  • Prime Minister of Iraq, Mustafa Al-Kadhimi statement on attack on tourist resort in Iraq (Image via @MAKadhimi / Twitter)
  • A nurse gives fluid therapy to Aseel Fadhel after leaving the operation room inside Zakho General Hospital (MEE/Azhar Al-Rubaie)
  • Abu Mustafa outside Aseel Fadhal's room in Zakho General Hospital (MEE/Azhar Al-Rubaie)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    8 – 10
  • (3 children4 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    20–45
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (54) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI002

Incident date

August 1, 2015

Location

زرجيلي, Zergele, Kurdistan, Iraq

Geolocation

36.063457, 45.332963 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Multiple Turkish airstrikes reportedly killed eight or more residents and injured at least eight others – including a child – in an attack on the village of Zergele in the Kandil Mountains.

Alusmaria reported: “Turkish planes today bombed the village of Zergele north of the border, killing eight civilians, wounding ten others and destroying seven houses.”

Rudaw said ten civilians died and eleven were injured.

All Iraq News wrote that 22 houses were destroyed in the attack.

Amnesty International later concluded that none of the dead or injured were affiliated to the PKK: “Evidence gathered during a visit by Amnesty International to the village of Zergele three days after the airstrikes suggests all those killed and injured in the attack were not affiliated with the PKK. Amnesty International spoke to several eyewitnesses, including two doctors who rescued the wounded and three residents who consistently said that none of the dead or injured were PKK fighters and that there were no PKK fighters in the area. Those killed included a local mayor and two municipality workers.

All the witnesses who were present at the time of the attack or arrived there shortly afterwards said that the victims wore civilian clothes and that they saw no weapons on the scene. Amnesty International reviewed 10 photographs and one video from the scene that were consistent with these witness statements.”

The international NGO also added the following: “The apparent absence of a military target within the vicinity of the airstrikes suggests that these strikes are unlawful whether or not there is an armed conflict between the Turkish authorities and the PKK. The Turkish government has displayed a flagrant disregard for the lives of local residents and failed to take necessary precautions to minimize harm to them, or to discriminate between them and PKK fighters.”

While early reporting put the numbers of dead between six and ten, eight killed and eight injured is the figure used by Amnesty and other sources.

The Christian Peacemaker Teams in Iraqi Kurdistan (CPTIK) collected testimonies of witnesses. In a Youtube-video, Jegir, an eyewitness, says: “There were two different planes: a drone and an aeroplane. They were circling the Qandil area. 20 minutes after the first attack, when we were trying to take the dead bodies about 30 metres away, we heard the explosions from the second attack. We could not do anything, people separated and tried to hide. There were four rockets in the second attack. I ran one hundred meters in 30 seconds to get away. Then, there were four more rockets in a third attack.”

Jegir’s uncle Mohammed Amin was severely injured. In his testimony to CPTIK, Mohammed Amin tells how his mother was killed in the airstrike: “When we tried to carry our mum’s body away, the bombing started again.” Besides his mother, Amin also lost his son, two cousins and another relative.

A Peshmerga fighter who was also interviewed stated that his phone rang at exactly 3:50 AM with the news that his mother had been killed in the attack.

The incident occured between 3:00 am and 5:00 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Mohamed Ameen
Adult male Peshmerga injured
Sinur
Adult female Sister in law of Mohamed injured

Family members (4)

Gerbet Ahmed
Adult female injured
Shukariya Ahmed
Adult female Sister of Gerbet injured
Khadija
Adult female Mother of Gerbet and Shukariya injured
Chilan Rasheed
Child female Niece of Gerbet and Shukariya injured

The victims were named as:

Ayesha Ahmed Mustafa
Adult female killed
Salih Mohamed Ameen
Adult male Local mayor killed
Heybet Mohamed Ameen
Age unknown male killed
Najeeb Aziz
Age unknown male killed
Sama Khabat
Age unknown male Municipality worker killed
Endomen Sharawonch
Age unknown male Municipality worker killed
Karoh Mohamed Ameen
Adult male Identified as peshmerga by Amnesty killed
Abdulkader Bakr
Adult male Identified as peshmerga by Amnesty killed

Geolocation notes

Location of Zergele (via TRT)

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    8 – 10
  • (1 child2 women5–7 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    8–11
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Turkish air strikes on August 1st in Zergele kill local residents according to a video published by Amnesty
  • 'Aftermath of airstrike in the village of Zergele, in the Kandil Mountains in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq on 1 August 2015' (via Amnesty International)
  • Investigation of a reported strike location at Zergele (Image from ANF via Amnesty)

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    8 – 10
  • (1 child2 women5–7 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    8–11
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Unknown

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI100

Incident date

December 5, 2023

Location

بامرني, Bamerni, Amedi District, Dohuk Governorate, Iraq

Airwars assessment

At around 7AM on Tuesday, December 5th, 2023, a man was killed and up to three others injured after an alleged Turkish bombardment in the Bamerni subdistrict of Amedi, in Dohuk Governorate.

Gulan Media named the deceased as 44-year-old Ali Jamil Kalash, the father of four children. Kalash was near his home when he died: the strike hit 250 kilometers away from his residence.

While Gulan Media referred to Ali as an “off-duty Peshmerga fighter,” all other sources reported that he was a civilian. Erem News reported that the belligerent, who they named as the Turkish military, carried out “three strikes” and emphasized that those injured and killed had no affiliation with the PKK.

One of the injured was reported as 23-year-old Matin Sadiq, a shepherd. He was brought to the Duhok Emergency Hospital for treatment.

Jamil Kalash, Ali’s father, spoke about the hours leading up to his son’s death, commenting that he had been at his parents’ home, entertaining guests, until 10:30 the previous night. It is unclear whether Ali died immediately or after some time, as multiple sources from December 6th reported he died after he “succumbed to his injuries.”

The number of other injuries is unclear. While Bas News reported three injured and stated they had all been taken to hospitals in Duhok province, Kurdistan 24 and Ronahi TV both reported that there was only one injury. Hawar News reported that, along with the one death and one injury, another person was missing. It is unclear whether this missing civilian was one of the injured reported by other sources.

The strike occurred in a “populated area” near an irrigation project, and also caused property damage amongst residential buildings and farms.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strike to Turkish forces.

The incident occured at approximately 7:00 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Ali Jamil Kalash علي جميل كلش
44 years old male Contested as militant killed
Matin Sadiq
23 years old male injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture, Water station
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (0–1 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture, Water station
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    0 – 1
  • (0–1 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–3
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military
  • Suspected target
    YPG/SDF
  • Belligerents reported killed
    0–1

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

TI072

Incident date

September 24, 2021

Location

هرور, Hiror, Dohuk, Iraq

Geolocation

37.229298, 43.438993 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian man was injured in alleged Turkish artillery strikes on Hirur on September 24, 2021.

According to @kamaran_Mulla, a civilian named Thabt Hussen was severely injured when alleged Turkish shelling landed on his land while we was harvesting pomegranates. At the time of reporting, Thabt was in critical condition and being treated at Zakho hospital. Shafaq News Agency put the man’s age at 45 while Rudaw News reported that Thabt was 55 years old.

The Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) said in a statement that the strikes that wounded the civilian occurred at 10:30am.

The Kani Masi mayor Sarbast Sabri told Rudaw News that Turkish forces targeted Hiror  village from positions in Kani Masi.

All of the sources that reported on the incident attributed the strikes to Turkey and the majority of sources identified artillery shelling as being used by Turkish forces.

The incident occured at 10:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

55 years old male injured

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Hiror (هرور), for which the generic coordinates are: 37.229298, 43.438993. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Image of civilian Thabt Hussen being treated following strikes on his land in Hiror on September 24, 2021. (Image posted by @kamaran_Mulla)
  • Smoke billowing from airstrikes on Hiror Village on September 24, 2021. (Image posted by Basrawi News Encyclopedia)
  • Thabt Hussen, a farmer from Hirur village, was injured from alleged Turkish shelling on September 24, 2021. (Image posted by Roj News)

Turkish Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Turkish Military
  • Turkish Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Turkish Military

Sources (8) [ collapse]