US-led Coalition in Iraq & Syria

Civilians in the ruins of Mosul city. (Maranie R. Staab)

Belligerent
US-led Coalition
Country
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

CS1306

Incident date

July 31, 2017

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Fifteen civilians reportedly died in alleged Coalition and SDF actions at Raqqa, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

No further details are currently available.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    15
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 31st – August 1st: “Near Raqqah, 16 strikes engaged 11 ISIS tactical units and destroyed 14 fighting positions, a tactical vehicle, a mortar system and a VBIED facility.” It additionally reported that “On July 31, near Raqqah, Syria, two strikes engaged two ISIS tactical units.”

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Monday 31 July – Typhoons attacked a Daesh defensive position and two sniper teams in Raqqa…Royal Air Force Tornado, Typhoon and Reaper aircraft have continued to fly daily armed reconnaissance missions against Daesh over Syria and Iraq, and have delivered a number of air strikes against terrorist targets in Raqqa. On Monday 31 July, two flights of Typhoons, based at RAF Akrotiri, delivered successful attacks with Paveway IV guided bombs against a defensive position from which Daesh were firing on the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and against two sniper teams.’

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    15
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1307

Incident date

July 31, 2017

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

One civilian male died in Raqqa, according to local media, though sources were conflicted as to whether he was killed by an SDF sniper or by artillery.

Ahmad al Shibli , RBSS and Raqqa Media Center all blamed artillery for his death. Airwars understands that only the Coalition has access to artillery in Raqqa.

However, Soheb Al Haskawi, Al Hasaka Rasd, Shbab, Ar Raqqa Ahlna and Ar Raqqa Al a’ahlya said that a sniper killed him.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Hassan Hussein Dandoush Adult male killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)

Sources (11) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 31st – August 1st: “Near Raqqah, 16 strikes engaged 11 ISIS tactical units and destroyed 14 fighting positions, a tactical vehicle, a mortar system and a VBIED facility.” It additionally reported that “On July 31, near Raqqah, Syria, two strikes engaged two ISIS tactical units.”

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Monday 31 July – Typhoons attacked a Daesh defensive position and two sniper teams in Raqqa…Royal Air Force Tornado, Typhoon and Reaper aircraft have continued to fly daily armed reconnaissance missions against Daesh over Syria and Iraq, and have delivered a number of air strikes against terrorist targets in Raqqa. On Monday 31 July, two flights of Typhoons, based at RAF Akrotiri, delivered successful attacks with Paveway IV guided bombs against a defensive position from which Daesh were firing on the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and against two sniper teams.’

Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1305 RS2375

Incident date

July 31, 2017

Location

العشارة, Al A'shara, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

34.92, 40.56 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Two civilians were wounded in an airstrike on Al A’shara, according to local media – though reports were conflicted as to whether this was the work of the US-led Coalition or Russia.

According to sources, the residential neighbourhood was struck with cluster bombs – believed to be Russian.

Fresh Syria pointed at the Coalition, while Euphrates Post – who was among some other sources in not identifying the culprit – named the two victims.

However, @alhdth2, Jisrtv, @MasarPressNet all blamed Russian cluster bombs.

A single source suggested there were civilian casualties from the incipient, however no specific numbers were reported.

There are no other details at this time.

The incident occured at 2:30 am local time.

  • Malik al-Alaya “Abu Anas” Age unknown male injury to his foot injured
  • Talal al Mi’ssar Age unknown injury to his head injured

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near al A’shara, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 31, 2018
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 31st – August 1st: “ Near Dayr Az Zawr, three strikes destroyed 13 ISIS oil stills, an oil storage barrel and an ISIS chemical weapons factory.“

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Monday 31 July – Typhoons attacked a Daesh defensive position and two sniper teams in Raqqa…Royal Air Force Tornado, Typhoon and Reaper aircraft have continued to fly daily armed reconnaissance missions against Daesh over Syria and Iraq, and have delivered a number of air strikes against terrorist targets in Raqqa. On Monday 31 July, two flights of Typhoons, based at RAF Akrotiri, delivered successful attacks with Paveway IV guided bombs against a defensive position from which Daesh were firing on the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and against two sniper teams.’

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between July 1st – 31st 2017.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Russian Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1302

Incident date

July 31, 2017

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

A 14-year-old boy died following an injury sustained in an alleged Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, according to local sources.

Revolution Coordination Committee in Palmyra reported “the martyrdom of the child Mohammed Ali Hassan Taha (14 years old), displaced from Palmyra, died following being injured by a shell from the bombing of the international coalition on the streets of the city of Al-Raqqa yesterday.”

All sources blamed the US-led Coalition for the child’s death.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Mohammed Ali Hassan Taha 14 years old male killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Mohammed Ali Hassan Taha, killed following a shrapnel wound sustained in an alleged Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, July 30th 2017. (via Revolution Coordination Committee in Palmyra)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 31, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 30th – 31st, the Coalition reported: “Near Raqqah, 14 strikes engaged 12 ISIS tactical units; destroyed nine fighting positions, three supply caches, two ISIS-held buildings, a vehicle, a tunnel, and a command and control node; and suppressed a fighting position.”

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Monday 31 July – Typhoons attacked a Daesh defensive position and two sniper teams in Raqqa…Royal Air Force Tornado, Typhoon and Reaper aircraft have continued to fly daily armed reconnaissance missions against Daesh over Syria and Iraq, and have delivered a number of air strikes against terrorist targets in Raqqa. On Monday 31 July, two flights of Typhoons, based at RAF Akrotiri, delivered successful attacks with Paveway IV guided bombs against a defensive position from which Daesh were firing on the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and against two sniper teams.’

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1303

Incident date

July 31, 2017

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently reported the death “of the children of ‘Khaled al-Issa‘ by the bombing of the international coalition aircraft on the city of Al-Raqqa.”

No further details are currently available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

  • Child of‘Khaled al-Issa 1 Child killed
  • Child of‘Khaled al-Issa 2 Child killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 children)
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 31, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 31st – August 1st: “Near Raqqah, 16 strikes engaged 11 ISIS tactical units and destroyed 14 fighting positions, a tactical vehicle, a mortar system and a VBIED facility.” It additionally reported that “On July 31, near Raqqah, Syria, two strikes engaged two ISIS tactical units.”

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Monday 31 July – Typhoons attacked a Daesh defensive position and two sniper teams in Raqqa…Royal Air Force Tornado, Typhoon and Reaper aircraft have continued to fly daily armed reconnaissance missions against Daesh over Syria and Iraq, and have delivered a number of air strikes against terrorist targets in Raqqa. On Monday 31 July, two flights of Typhoons, based at RAF Akrotiri, delivered successful attacks with Paveway IV guided bombs against a defensive position from which Daesh were firing on the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and against two sniper teams.’

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 children)
  • Airwars grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1304 RS2374

Incident date

July 31, 2017

Location

قرية الكشمة, Al Kasham, Deir ez-Zor, Syria

Geolocation

34.811111, 40.600833 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Ten civilians were reported injured in airstrikes on Al Kasham village according to local media – though it was unclear who was responsible, with allegations against the Coalition, Russia and the Syrian regime.

According to Euphrates Post, one male also died in a Russian strike on the village. The source also named the following two civilians among those injured: “the son of Mohammed is in critical condition; The wife of Eid Al Hakoum is in critical condition.”

Fresh Syria and Almanar blamed the Coalition for carrying out a strike which reportedly injured “a number of civilians”. According to Euphrates Post – which did not identify the culprit – said a strike hit “the house of Hilou al-Mansi and Mohammed al-Farhan”.

However the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that it was unclear whether the US-led Coalition or Moscow were to blame. The Observatory reported: “About 10 civilians including children were confirmed injured as a result of the bombing by warplanes. It is unknown whether the planes belonged to Russia or the international Coalition”. Jisirtv also pointed towards Russia.

One source, Akhbaraalaan, attributed the event to the Assad regime, reporting that “the Syrian air force launched air strikes on areas in al-Kashmeh area in the western suburb of Deir al-Zour, causing injuries, including children and women.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–10
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Ayman Mohammed Farhan Abdul, killed in alleged Russian and Coalition airstrikes on Al Kasham, 31st July 2017. (via Euphrates Post)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    No Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Al Kamsheh (Dayr Az Zawr), Syria
    Nearest population center
  • Location accuracy
    1 m
  • MGRS coordinate
    37SFV1716807013
    Military Grid Reference System

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • Sep 29, 2017
  • After a review of available information it was assessed that no Coalition strikes were conducted in the geographical area that correspond to the report of civilian casualties.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 31st – August 1st: “ Near Dayr Az Zawr, three strikes destroyed 13 ISIS oil stills, an oil storage barrel and an ISIS chemical weapons factory.“

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Monday 31 July – Typhoons attacked a Daesh defensive position and two sniper teams in Raqqa…Royal Air Force Tornado, Typhoon and Reaper aircraft have continued to fly daily armed reconnaissance missions against Daesh over Syria and Iraq, and have delivered a number of air strikes against terrorist targets in Raqqa. On Monday 31 July, two flights of Typhoons, based at RAF Akrotiri, delivered successful attacks with Paveway IV guided bombs against a defensive position from which Daesh were firing on the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and against two sniper teams.’

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between July 1st – 31st 2017.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–10
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1300

Incident date

July 30, 2017

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

The child, Yousef Haj Abdullah, was named as a victim of an alleged Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, by multiple local sources.

There are no other details at this time.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Yousef Haj Abdullah Child male killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • Yousef Haj Abdullah, killed in an alleged Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, July 31st 2017. (via RBSS)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 31, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 30th-31st , the Coalition reported: “Near Raqqah, 14 strikes engaged 12 ISIS tactical units; destroyed nine fighting positions, three supply caches, two ISIS-held buildings, a vehicle, a tunnel, and a command and control node; and suppressed a fighting position.”

It additionally reported that “On July 30, near Raqqah, Syria, 11 strikes engaged six ISIS tactical units, destroyed four fighting positions, and suppressed an ISIS tactical unit.” And that “On July 30, near Raqqah, Syria, four strikes engaged four ISIS tactical units.”

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Sunday 30 July – a Tornado and Typhoon pair eliminated two terrorist snipers in Raqqa...On Sunday 30 July, a further mixed pair of aircraft conducted successful Paveway strikes when the SDF came under fire from two snipers as they continued to clear areas of Raqqa from Daesh control.’

Media
from belligerent (1) [ collapse]

  • RAF reporting on their continued airstrikes in Syria, 30th July 2017. (via Defence HQ)

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

CS1301

Incident date

July 30, 2017

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.9505639, 39.0094148 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. marker Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Four civilians died in air and artillery or mortar shelling in Raqqa, according to local sources.

Alraqqa Ahlna  listed two civilians as killed by air and artillery strikes.

Mohammed Ali Swaid was named as dead “after being hit by a mortar shell from SDF militia on al Thakana”, according to Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently.

Airwars understands that only the Coalition has access to artillery in Raqqa, however, the SDF are reportedly using mortars and rockets.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that four civilians died in Raqqa as a result of a Coalition airstrike.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

  • Jamal al-Abd Adult male named by Alraqqa Ahlna killed
  • Wife of Jamal al-Abd Adult female named by Alraqqa Ahlna killed
  • Ahmed Jihad Al-Marouh Child male displaced from Palmyra, was named by multiple sources as killed “as a result of aerial and artillery bombardment” in Raqqa. killed
  • Mohammed Ali Swaid Adult male killed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 4
  • (1 child1 woman2 men)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Ahmad Jihad Al-Marouh, killed in an alleged Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, 30th July 2017. (via Revolution Coordination Committee in Palmyra)
  • Ahmad Jihad Al-Marouh, killed in an alleged Coalition airstrike on Raqqa, 30th July 2017. (via Hasan Murawah)
  • Mohammed Ali Swaid, killed in an alleged airstrike on Raqqa, 30th July 2017. (via RBSS)

US-led Coalition Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    US-led Coalition
  • US-led Coalition position on incident
    Non credible
    Insufficient information to assess that, more likely than not, a Coalition strike resulted in civilian casualties.
  • Reason for non-credible assessment
    Insufficient information on the time and location
  • Civilian deaths conceded
    None
  • Civilian injuries conceded
    None
  • Stated location
    near Raqqah, Syria
    Nearest population center

Civilian casualty statements

US-led Coalition
  • May 31, 2018
  • The report contains insufficient information of the time, location and details to assess its credibility.

Original strike reports

US-led Coalition

For July 30th-31st: “Near Raqqah, 14 strikes engaged 12 ISIS tactical units; destroyed nine fighting positions, three supply caches, two ISIS-held buildings, a vehicle, a tunnel, and a command and control node; and suppressed a fighting position.”

It additionally reported that “On July 30, near Raqqah, Syria, 11 strikes engaged six ISIS tactical units, destroyed four fighting positions, and suppressed an ISIS tactical unit.” And that “On July 30, near Raqqah, Syria, four strikes engaged four ISIS tactical units.”

United Kingdom
  • English
    /
    Original

‘Sunday 30 July – a Tornado and Typhoon pair eliminated two terrorist snipers in Raqqa...On Sunday 30 July, a further mixed pair of aircraft conducted successful Paveway strikes when the SDF came under fire from two snipers as they continued to clear areas of Raqqa from Daesh control.’

Media
from belligerent (1) [ collapse]

  • RAF reporting on their continued airstrikes in Syria, 30th July 2017. (via Defence HQ)

Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)
  • Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 4
  • (1 child1 woman2 men)
  • Airwars grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected belligerents
    US-led Coalition, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)

Sources (8) [ collapse]