Civilian Casualties

Civilian Casualties

Incident Code

ISPT1238

Incident date

November 20, 2023

Location

مدرسة البريج في مخيم البريج, Bureij Preparatory School for Boys, Deir al Balah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.439399, 34.408896 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At around midday on Monday, November 20th 2023, an alleged Israeli bombing of the Bureij Preparatory School for Boys located in the Block 12 of the Bureij refugee camp in the Gaza Strip reportedly killed at least 12 civilians, including children and women, and injured at least 35 civilians. The school run by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Refugees (UNRWA) provided shelter for about two thousand displaced people fleeing from Central and Northern Gaza, according to the Hamas-affiliated Quds News Network report.

Al Jazeera’s correspondent Hani Mahmoud reported that although there was a UNRWA flag on the roof of the affected school building, the Israeli armed forces still allegedly bombed it. The Twitter/X accounts Palestine Now (@PalestineNW) and @AlarabyT shared videos showing the aftermath of the attack where broken furniture in the school’s yard and traces of blood on the ground were to be seen.

According to the video shared by the Twitter/X account of the Palestinian Refugee Portal, the attack happened at lunch time when people staying at the school’s premises were cooking. A young Palestinian girl in the video shared by the Twitter/X account @AlQastalps also said that “we were making food when a large bomb came upon us.” A young boy featured in the video by the Twitter/X account @M0SC0W0 said that during the bombardment he was staying at the school and was drinking water while @qudsn spoke with a man who “went to the market and came back and found his children had been bombed.

Referring to the Hamas statement where Hamas had called for an immediate action “to stop the targeting of civilians in schools protected under international law”, Anadolu Agency reported that more than 10 civilians were killed in the bombing. RT Arabic and Middle East Eye reported about 12 victims while Arabi 21 and Quds News Network estimated the total number of deaths as 15. Al Jazeera wrote that there were at least 20 killed civilians. Twitter/X user @PalinfoAr shared a heartbreaking video of a mother searching for her children among the dead bodies wrapped in white cloth.

Airwars identified the names of two of the victims killed in the attack  – Sami Mohammed Kalab and Bashir Othamn. Both names were identified from videos and images showing the body bags of the victims.

As no clear information was yet available regarding the number of children killed, and as several sources reported that the majority of the victims were children, Airwars estimated between six and 10 children killed – half of the total numbers of victims reportedly killed.

Dozens of civilians, most of them children, were also reportedly wounded in the attack on the UNRWA school. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reported about 35 injured civilians. The Telegram channel of Quds News Network and a Twitter/X account @fouadkhreiss shared videos of the injured children being transported to a hospital. A Twitter/X account @EyeonPalestine shared an emotional video of a young Palestinian boy taking care of his sister injured in the school’s bombing. Al-Jazeera Gaza published a video showing the damage inside the school on Facebook where an eye-witness interviewed  said that women were also among the victims – without providing a number. As such, Airwars estimated that 17 children were injured and at least two women were killed, and two other women injured in the attack. These estimations will be updated once more information comes to light.

The sources differed in their reporting on the nature of the deadly strike. While OCHA, Arabi 21, Safa News and Quds News Network reported that the school was hit by artillery fire, Anadolu Agency referring to a Hamas statement as well as Middle East Eye wrote that it was an airstrike allegedly perpetrated by the Israeli military.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces. The Israeli military did not comment on the strike.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 11:52 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Sami Mohammed Kalab سامي محمد كلاب
Age unknown male killed
Bashir Othamn بشير عثمان
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, School, UN facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12 – 20
  • (6–10 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    35
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Education
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (35) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (19) [ collapse]

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Geolocation notes (3) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Bureij Preparatory School for Boys (مدرسة البريج في مخيم البريج) in Bureij (البريج). Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to the following exact coordinates: 31.439399, 34.408896.  

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  • Imagery:
    @CensoredNws

  • Imagery:
    @CensoredNws

  • Imagery:
    @CensoredNws

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, School, UN facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12 – 20
  • (6–10 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    35
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Education
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (35) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0821

Incident date

November 2, 2023

Location

قطعة 4 في مخيم البريج, Block 4 in Bureij camp, Deir al Balah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.440652, 34.402793 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On Thursday, November 2nd 2023, at least 29 identified civilians, including at least seven women and eleven children, were reportedly killed, dozens of civilians (among them a woman and child) were injured and eight residential houses were completely destroyed as a result of an alleged Israeli airstrike and/or artillery shelling on the residential neighborhood in block 4 (Akl family square) of the Bureij camp market located in the middle of the Gaza Strip. Al Jazeera Arabic (@AJArabic) also shared a video of the aftermath of the attack on Twitter/X, emphasizing that the bombardment was very close to the place of a previous attack.

Eight deceased members of the Agel family were remembered in a heartfelt Facebook testimony by Mosab Agel. Mosab’s mother, Kholoud Akl (Um Mosab) was killed together with her daughters (Mosab’s sisters) Saja Agel and Raghad Agel, whom he called “my beloved ones, the joy of my heart, and my comforters”. His uncle, his “caring companion” Maher Agel (Akl), his aunt Samah Agel together with her son, Baraa Agel, also lost their lives in the attack. Mosab Agel also mentioned his beloved cousin Hazem Hamza Agel and his other cousin, the child Ola Agel (Jamila), among the killed victims.

A young man Maher Aqel (Akl) was also remembered in a Facebook tribute on November 10th by Alburaij1948 where he was called “a precious Moon of the Bureij”. It was said that he was injured a few days before in this attack in Block 4.

The Wishah family suffered losses, having lost 19 family members in the attack. A family member Yasser Hassan Washah initially wrote in a Facebook post that the sons and grandchildren of his late uncle Saeed Ibrahim Weshah who had died during the first days of the war as well as their children and grandchildren were under the rubble. He also showed a video trying to pull two of his cousin Saeed Washah’s children from under the rubble.

In a later Facebook testimony he mourned the details of the family members killed in the strike, in particular, the uncle Saeed’s wife, Salwa Wishah (“Umm Rami”) and her sister, Sawsan Al-Sayyid; Salwa’s son, Waseem Saeed Wishah; daughter of Salwa, Haneen Saeed Wishah; and daughter-in-law of Salwa, Amani Jamal Wishah. He further mentioned the deceased children of Amani – a son Ahmed Wishah* and the daughters Dana Wishah* and Alma Wishah*. Among the victims was also another son of Salwa Wishah, Muhammad Saeed Wishah who was killed together with his wife, Salwa Muhammad Wishah, and their four children: two sons – Amir Wishah* and Saif Wishah* and two daughters – Maryam Wishah* and Mira Wishah*. A one-year old injured girl May Wishah who was the only surviving child of Salwa and Muhamad Wishah, and appears on an image shared by Yasser Hassan Washah in a red sweater holding a comb in her hands.

A daughter-in-law of Salwa married to Firas Saeed Weshah was injured, but their three children –  two daughters Salma Wishah* and Elin (Eileen) Wishah* and a son Said Wishah* were all killed. The woman was pregnant at the time of the attack. She suffered a pelvic fracture and gave birth to a baby boy several days after her injury. According to Yasser Hassan Washah, she still suffers from the risk of infection. One of her children, Muhammad, survived. They were reported to have remained in the field hospital located at the Ibn Rushd School in Al-Zawaida for some time.

The social media source Alburaij1948 also mourned the death of Al-Hajj Eid Othman Eid (Abu Muhammad), Mouhib Issa (Abu Hammam), and Yamen Raed Hamad, all of whom used to live in the Block 4 of Bureji camp. Alburaij1948 posted his tribute to Al-Hajj Eid Othman Eid, referring to him as a “good neighbor” and attaching a picture of the elderly man with a grey beard. Alburaij1948 also posted a tribute to a young man Yamen Raed Hamad pictured in a black-red sports jacket.

Alburaij1948 also shared the picture of the late Mouhib Issa – a smiling young man. The death of Mouhib Issa was also mourned by his friend Sameh Al Batran who shared the image of Sameh together with a young boy. Watan news shared an emotional video of the late Mouhib’s wife where she was mourning her deceased husband.

Samir Ahmed Al-Afghani (Abu Ahmed) also died in the bombardment, and was remembered in a Facebook testimony by the family of Abo Salem Al Masri that shared an image of an elderly man in a black coat. Samir’s nephew Benzaher Ali wrote his own tribute to his uncle, calling him “ kind-hearted and kind to the young and the old.”

The Palestinian refugee portal informed that the attack caused massive destruction in Block 4 in the center of the camp where more than 200 people, most of them children and women, used to live. The Tiwitter/X user Jalal (@JalalAK_jojo) reported that eight residential houses were flattened, attaching a video with the apocalyptic scenes of the destruction, while Facebook user Fadi Sh added that these houses were located in the Akl family square in the middle of the Bureij camp market. RassdNewsN added that shrapnel from the bombing and house debris fell on schools housing displaced people.

Eyewitnesses and journalists reported heartbreaking scenes accompanying the devastating effects of the bombardment. A video by the Palestinian press agency Safa on Twitter/X shows a young girl covered with dust who was being taken out from under the rubble of her family’s building and who asked the rescuers: “Are you taking me to the cemetery?”

Another emotional video shared by @EekadFacts and many other Twitter/X users shows a desperate father looking for his four children, wife and father, sifting through rubble with his bare hands, calling their names and crying as he received no response. A Twitter user @ajmubasher shared a video of a young crying boy looking for his mother after the deadly attack.

A survivor of the strike shared his experiences with Al Jazeera. “My family and I were sitting, and all of a sudden, we heard a huge explosive. Everything was flying around us. We couldn’t see anything but dust and smoke. It was massive. The whole area is turned upside down … all in a second. That was my home [pointing to rubble]. Now it is totally in ruins. I do not know what to say. We are helpless.”

Shehab Agency initially reported about “dozens of martyrs, wounded and missing people”, sharing the gruesome images of the smoke arising over the rubble. Mahmoud Basal, spokesman for the Palestinian Civil Defense in the Gaza Strip, said that the Civil Defense crews recovered 15 killed victims, noting that there were dozens of injured and missing people under the rubble of homes, and defense crews were working to recover them. Safa journalist reported about 22 civilians were killed. Only one local source estimated the potential death toll to be as high as 200 civilians. In a video shared by Twitter/X user @MunaHawwa, a young man present at the scene said that “there are at least 200 martyrs and missing persons”, but other local sources and news agencies did not report a comparable number of casualties. Based on the social media testimonies of the relatives and friends of the victims, Airwars identified 29 civilians by name that were reported killed in the deadly bombardment of the Bureji camp. Due to the lack of corroborating reporting for the higher casualty estimate, Airwars has put this casualty estimate to 29 civilians – though will update the range should further information come to light.

Al Jazeera reported that residents of Bureij chanted “a massacre, a massacre” as they covered the bodies of those killed in Thursday’s strike with blankets. Alhaya news shared the images from the funeral prayer for the victims where bodies covered with white clothes can be seen.

Dozens of civilians, including many small children, were reportedly injured. Al Jazeera shared a video that showed the arrival of a large number of children among other civilian casualties to the “Al-Aqsa Martyrs” Hospital in the city of Deir al-Balah in the Gaza Strip, while the Twitter/X user @AlQastalps shared images of the wounded children.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces. The exact time of the attack is unknown.

*Airwars has quantified them as children based on the ages of family members and images provided by sources.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (8)

Kholoud (Um Mus’ab) خلود أم مصعب
Adult female killed
Saja Agel رغد عقل
female killed
Raghad Agel سجى عقل
female killed
Maher Agel ماهر عقل
Adult male killed
Samah Agel سماح عقل
Adult female killed
Baraa Agel براء الحنون
male killed
Hazem Hamza Agel حازم حمزة عقل
killed
Ola Agel علا عقل
Child killed

Family members (19)

Salwa Washah, Umm Rami سلوى وشاح
Adult female killed
Sawsan Al-Sayyid سوسن السيد
Adult female killed
Waseem Saeed Wishah وسيم سعيد وشاح
male killed
Haneen Saeed Wishah حنين وشاح
female killed
Amani Jamal Wishah أماني جمال وشاح
Adult female killed
Ahmed Wishah أحمد وشاح
male killed
Dana Wishah دانا وشاح
female killed
Alma Wishah ألمى وشاح
female killed
Muhammad Saeed Wishah محمد سعيد وشاح
Adult male killed
Salwa Muhammad Wishah سلوى محمد وشاح
Adult female killed
Amir Wishah أمير وشاح
male killed
Saif Wishah سيف وشاح
male killed
Maryam Wishah مريم وشاح
female killed
Mira Wishah ميرا وشاح
female killed
Mai Wishah مي وشاح
1 years old female injured
Daughter in law of Salwa كنة سلوى وشاح
Adult female pregnant injured
Salma Wishah سلمى وشاح
female killed
Elin Wishah ألين وشاح
female killed
Said Wishah
female killed

The victims were named as:

Eid Othman Eid عيد عثمان عيد
Adult male killed
Mouhib Issa مهيب عيسى
Age unknown male killed
Samir Al Afghani سمير الأفغاني
Adult male killed
Yamen Raed Hamad يامن رائد حمد
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    29
  • (11–14 children7–9 women6–7 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (64) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (54) [ collapse]

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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @irode0
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    Source: @AlQastalps
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    Source: @AlQastalps
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    Source: @AlQastalps
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    Source: @AlQastalps
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    Source: Al Haya PS
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    Source: Al Haya PS
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    Source: Alburaij1948
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    Source: Alburaij1948
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    Source: Alburaij1948
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    Source: RassdNewsN
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    Source: RassdNewsN
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    Source: RassdNewsN
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    Source: RassdNewsN
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    Source: Sameh Al Batran
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    Source: Abo Salem Al Masri
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    Source: Alburaij1948
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    Source: Yasser Hassan Washah
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    Source: Al Jazeera News
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    Source: @QudsNen
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    Source: @QudsNen
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    Source: @QudsNen
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    Source: @QudsNen
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Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention Block 4 (كتلة 4) in the centre of Bureij (البريج). Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to the following exact coordinates: 31.440652, 34.402793.

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  • Imagery:
    @IRIMFA_SPOX

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    29
  • (11–14 children7–9 women6–7 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (64) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0783

Incident date

October 31, 2023

Location

مخيم جباليا, Jabalia camp, North Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.532720, 34.498137 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (other) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On October 31, 2023 confirmed Israeli strikes on the densely populated Jabalia refugee camp killed at least 126 civilians, including 69 children. A further 280 civilians were reported injured by the director of the nearby Indonesian Hospital.

A second strike hit the same location the following day, though the full casualty assessment for that incident will be reviewed separately by Airwars. Israel has confirmed that it conducted both strikes, with the stated target being Hamas leader Ibrahim Biari, and “his base”, according to IDF spokesperson Daniel Hagari. Munitions experts speaking to The Guardian indicated that the IDF used so-called bunker buster munitions in the strike: 2,000lb bombs with an estimated crater size of 40ft which cause an “earthquake like” phenomenon on impact.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights raised concerns on Twitter/X that the strikes may have been “disproportionate attacks that could amount to war crimes”. Though no official civilian casualty estimate has yet been conceded by Israeli forces, IDF Spokesperson Richard Hech acknowledged that the IDF knew that civilians were present, and said that civilian harm was a “tragedy of war”.

Airwars has identified at least 116 names of civilians killed, including ten cases involving the fatality of more than one member of the same family. In three of these cases, families were reportedly killed in their entirety.

The Al Qassam brigade official page posted that seven civilian hostages taken from Israel by Hamas militants, including three holders of foreign passports, were also killed. These civilians have been included in Airwars’ upper fatality estimate only, as they have not yet been otherwise corroborated.

Numerous accounts on social media of relatives grieving over unnamed family members killed in the bombing have also been accounted for in Airwars’ civilian casualty range. When one source mentioned that a civilian and “his whole family” were reportedly killed, but the victims could not otherwise be identified, Airwars counted two civilians killed in its ranges as a minimum. In cases where sources indicated that “children” were killed without providing further information on the number of victims, Airwars counted two children killed as a minimum.

Sources also reported that “a large number” of victims were still under the rubble after the strikes, with Hamas officials, quoted by the National, reporting that 120 individuals were still missing by November 2nd. These individuals have not yet been included in the Airwars casualty toll. No reports were found to indicate that there had been prior warning of the strike.

“Apocalyptic scenes”

Footage and videos released following the strikes showed vast craters, alongside dozens of onlookers standing on the edges and people searching for survivors. Local sources have widely referred to the bombing as a “massacre”. Pictures published by local and international sources showed entire housing blocks leveled.

CNN said the survivors talked about “apocalyptic scenes in the aftermath of Tuesday’s strike”, with one eyewitness saying “it felt like the end of the world”. “Children were carrying other injured children and running, with grey dust filling the air. Bodies were hanging on the rubble, many of them unrecognizable. Some were bleeding and others were burnt,” Mohammad Al Aswad told CNN.

The Washington Post reported that “Palestinians carried away the injured and dead on blankets and mattresses”. The Guardian described “body bags piled up with horrific speed at the morgue of the nearby Indonesian hospital in Beit Lahia, and then outside the building” and added that “the wounded filled [the Indonesian Hospital] beds or were raced to Dar al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City, where medics from the Médicins Sans Frontiers aid group struggled to find space even for badly injured children”.

“Young children arrived at the hospital with deep wounds and severe burns. They came without their families,” said Mohammed Hawajreh, an MSF nurse who was quoted by the organisation in a statement condemning the attack. “Many were screaming and asking for their parents. I stayed with them until we could find a place, as the hospital was full with patients”.

Similarly, @AJA_Egypt described scenes with “rows of corpses and shrouds…Jabalia martyrs piled up in the courtyard of the Indonesian Hospital”.

One source on social media (@rdooan) said the bombing left “a hole filled with the corpses of Palestinian families”, while another source stated that “the bodies of families are crowded on top of each other”.

Rescue efforts to identify civilians in the rubble continued after the strikes, with The Guardian reporting that following the strike, “rescuers combed with their hands through surface layers of a tangled mass of concrete and steel which hours earlier had been homes in the Jabalia refugee camp in Gaza. They were searching for survivors, or the bodies of victims, which the immense force of an Israeli airstrike had left near the surface. Those trapped deeper may be entombed for months”.

Mahmoud Basal, a spokesperson for the Palestinian Civil Defense emergency services, told The Washington Post 20 buildings had been destroyed by the strikes, while Al-Arabiya wrote that the bombing “blew up an entire residential neighborhood”. One source specified that the location hit initially was the Al-Tarnis area of the camp. A number of sources qualified the bombing as a “massacre”. Journalist Anas Al Sharif described the destruction of dozens of homes in the “most populated area in the world”.

Victims identified

In many cases, victims were identified on social media by survivors, relatives or friends.

The Abu Al Qoumsan family

At least 21 members of the family of Al-Jazeera broadcast engineer Muhammad Abu Al Qoumsan were killed in Jabalia. Relative of the Abu Al Qoumsan family, Mahmoud Abu Al Qoumsan, announced on Twitter/X the deaths of his relatives, namely: the three brothers Abu Al Thib Abu Al Qoumsan (Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan’s father), Abu Anas Abu Al Qoumsan, Abu Firas Abu Al Qoumsan. He also announced the deaths of Abu Firas  Abu Al Qoumsan’s wife (name not provided), her two sons Wasel Abu Al Qoumsan and Mohannad Abu Al Qoumsan, and her two daughters Nabough Abu Al Qoumsan and Abrar Abu Al Qoumsan.

He also recorded the deaths of Umayya Abu Al Qoumsan (Mahmoud Abu Al Qoumsan’s sister), and of his sister-in-law, described as the wife of his big brother Thib Abu Al Qoumsan. While her name was not provided, the names of her children were: two daughters Rahaf  Abu Al Qoumsan and Layan  Abu Al Qoumsan, and three sons Abdullah  Abu Al Qoumsan, Mohammed  Abu Al Qoumsan, and Aboud  Abu Al Qoumsan.

Imam Abu Al Qoumsan (Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan’s sister), and her three sons Yamen, Zain and Yazeed were also reportedly killed. Um Mohammed Abu Al Qoumsan, an Abu Al Qoumsan relative, said that her sister “Jamila Yusef Abu Al-Qumsan, mother of Rami Ahjazi” was also killed in the incident. It is unclear if she is one of the wives unnamed previously.

Ra’ed Abu Al Qoumsan announced the deaths of his father, of his uncle Abu Firas, of his uncle’s wife and children – (the uncle, his wife and children have already been included above), of his sisters and their children, of his brother’s wife and her children. No names or ages were provided by this source, and it was unclear whether all of those victims have also been listed above.

One additional woman from Al Qoumsan family unit, Marwa Basil Abu Al Qoumsan was identified killed by Al-Jazeera staff on social media. It was unclear whether Marwa was an additional victim, or whether her identity matched one of the women reportedly killed but whose name had not been provided.

To avoid double counting the deaths of members of Abu Al Qoumsan family, where names were not provided by other sources, Airwars has considered these individuals were already named in the sources above in minimum estimates, though have been considered as additional family members in our maximum estimate.

The Siraj family

A man identified as Abdul Salam Siraj was reportedly killed alongside all the members of his family. Ismail Mohammad Foda posted on Facebook: “My friend Abdul Salam Siraj, his entire family was exterminated in Jabalia… his mother, his wife, his two daughters, two sisters, three brothers, and his uncle’s entire family”. Airwars has been unable to separately identify the uncle’s family, and so has counted these as at least two individuals in our minimum range.

The Khudair Ali family

Muhammad Ali announced on Twitter/X the deaths of nine of his relatives that he described as “my beloved ones, my heart and my soul, my support in my country, my cousins and my sisters, in the treacherous massacre in Jabalia camp”.

He identified the victims as Fadi Khudair Ali and his wife (name not provided), Muhammad Khudair Ali, Malak Khudair Ali (described as his cousin), Khadra Jaber Ali (his aunt), and Khadra’s children: Ahmed, Zainab and Muhammad. He also named his cousin’s sons Haidar and Kanan Al-Daour. Another source said that “Umm Fadi” was grieving her sons and daughters, all killed in the Jabaliya bombing.

The Masoud family

A friend of Omar Masoud “Al-Abeka” announced Omar’s death, alongside the deaths of his wife Donia Bashir and their four children (a son and three daughters). The source described Omar as a former prisoner who was detained for twenty years for killing an Israeli, before he got released, getting married and having children. The names of Omar’s family members were not provided by the source. Sources did not explain if Omar Masoud was imprisoned for being a member of a militant group, and also did not state if Masoud was a member of a militant group at the time of his death.

The Abu Sultan family

Nine members were reportedly killed from the Abu Sultan family, which one source said was killed in its entirety.

Omar Mustafa Abu Sultan and his wife Sahar Abu Sultan (Al-Hoor), and their five children (four sons and one daughter) Mahmoud Omar Abu Sultan, Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan, Muhammad Omar Abu Sultan, Abdullah Omar Abu Sultan, and their daughter named Shahd Omar Abu Sultan. Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan’s wife, and his daughter were also reportedly killed (though names were not provided by the source). On the deaths of the Abu Sultan family, on Facebook, Suhil Yahya posted: There are no relatives or loved ones left, they are all gone”.

The Hamad Family

Medhat Khalil and two other sources reported the death of Kamal Hamad “Abu Diaa” and his son (unnamed) in the Jabalia bombing.

The Al-Tanani family

Two children from the Al-Tanani family were reported killed by one source, namely Ahmed Salah Dhiyab Al-Tanani and Mahmoud Muhammad Dhiyab Al-Tanani. Their age was not provided by the source.

The Okasha family

At least 26 members of the Okasha family were reported killed in the strikes. This includes husband and wife Rawand Okasha Umm Kinan and Belal Okasha, alongside their three children, as reported by their relatives Mohammad Okasha and Abood Okasha. The children’s uncle Ziad Okasha Abu Iyad and his wife Manal Okasha “Al-Najjar” were also reported killed alongside their son Youssef Ziad Okasha and sons of their late uncle Naeem Abu Raed.

Another cousin, Raed Okasha, his children, and his wife, their cousin Muhammad Okasha and his three children Rakan, Amid, and Masa were also listed among the fatalities, alongside their cousin Yasser Okasha, his children and his wife, their cousin Nael Okasha, his children and his wife Islam Muhammad Al-Kafarna Okasha. A video posted on Facebook by Mohammed Okasha showed Yasser Okasha in combat gear wearing weapons, suggesting he may have been a militant. 

A post from Mona Sahle added additional names and offered her condolences to her cousin Nasser Okasha Abu Muhammad for the loss of Nasser’s daughter, her husband, and their children. Muhammad Okasha and his three children are survived by their wife and mother Samah Abu Saltah who was born in the Balata camp, and moved between Gaza and Nablus. Mohammed Okasha added the names Thaer Naeem Okasha and his family, and Muhammad Fayez Al-Zwaidi.

The Alyan family

Jehad Al Sharawi posted a memorial to her uncle Muhammad, uncle Hussein, and the Alyan family for the loss of: Youssef Muhammad Alyan, Mahmoud Jabr Alyan, Karim Majid Alyan. Ziad Alyan also posted a memorial for his brother Mahmoud Jabr Alyan.

The Omrain family

Faraj Abo Mohammed announced five deaths from Abu Al-Omrain family : Ahmed Akram Abu Al-Omrain, Reem Muhammad Al-Firi (Abu Al-Amrain), Muhammad’s wife, and of three children: Rital Youssef Abu Al-Amrain, Abdul Karim Youssef Abu Al-Amrain and Zaher Ramadan Abu Al-Amrain.

The Rayyan family

Reuters published a video of a Jabaliya resident, identified as Abdel Kareem Rayyan, holding a paper listing the names of the 15 family members that he claimed were killed in the Israeli strikes. Abdel Kareem Rayyan declared to Reuters: “I lost my whole family, 15 of them. They were innocent, just staying in the camp. What wrong did they do? All of them were killed. My sister’s house with her children, my brother’s house with his children, all of my siblings, no one left except me and my younger brother. Fifteen people, these are their names – they are innocent an kind, it’s literally a massacre, complete destruction. All of the alley, 20 houses were demolished”.

Airwars was able to identify the following names from the list he showed to Reuters: Raed Ahmad Rayyan, Hanna Rayyan, Sa’ed Rayyan, Maher Rayyan, Anwar Rayyan, Jannah RayyanRaed Sa’ed Rayyan, Hanaa Sa’ed Rayyan, Mahmoud Sa’ed RayyanGhassan Mohammed Rayyan, Israa Mohammed Rayyan, Mujahid Mohammed Rayyan, Masa Mohammed RayyanIman Saed Abou Hamdan, Karam Abdulkarim Rayyan.

Another man identified as Hassan Ahmed Rayan told Reuters in the same video “The house had 15 people in it, until this moment we cannot reach any of them. Since yesterday, we’ve been trying to find anyone, but we couldn’t. There is no equipment, no civil defense teams, it’s all personal efforts to remove the rubble”.

On social media, Ahmad Abi Ibrahim announced the deaths of his relatives his cousin and brother in law Raed Rayan Abu Saed, his “beloved sister Hanna”, described as Saed’s mother, Saed’s sister identifed as Anwar, and her sons. Janna is referred to as a younger sister with who they “recently celebrated her success in high school”.

Maher is described as a ” decent young man, [who] spent his life in obedience to God, between the mosque and the university. He completed his education as a doctor and volunteered to treat the wounded in the Indonesian Hospital at the beginning of the outbreak of the current war on Gaza.” Nassma Jamal published on Facebook: “May God have mercy on the martyrs of the Rayyan family, relatives and cousins, who were martyred while they were steadfast and sitting in their homes in the Jabalia camp massacre. The martyr Abu Saed Raed Rayan, his wife, children and some of his grandchildren, his son Saed Rayan, his wife and children, and the wife of cousin Abu Ghassan Rayan and her children. Fifteen people, most of them children.” Airwars has estimated the minimum number of children killed in the Rayan family to be six, though the exact number is not yet clear.

In addition to the victims identified alongside other family members outlined above, Airwars also identified an individual named Juma Muhammad Al-Shaarawi, whose death was announced by Baraa Samir describing Al-Shaarawi as a “good and decent young neighbor”.

Unnamed victims

As in many incidents of civilian harm, not all victims were named by sources.

The Izz Al Din Al Qassam brigade official page posted that seven civilian hostages taken from Israel by Hamas militants, including three holders of foreign passports, were killed. The identity of the hostages was not provided.

Airwars also archived a number of videos where relatives or friends spoke about their losses surrounded by scenes of desolation.

In one video published by @Roaastudies and by Middle East Eye, an unnamed Palestinian man present at the scene of the incident was recorded explaining to the camera that he had three children and “not one has survived”. He is seen collapsing at the site of the bombing screaming: “My three children are all gone! My three children, Oh God! My three children! That other day, he told me to come, he told me “Come Dad””. A man holding him replies “Maybe we’ll find one, maybe we’ll find one alive”. The camera holder then says, “this is my friend, he just lost his family”.

@ramiaalibrahim published a video including another Palestinian man whose name was not identified, was filmed walking around the rubble screaming “my son is a martyr, oh God!”, while an additional video published by @Yasser_Gaza on Twitter/X showed a grieving mother who reportedly “lost all of her children“.

On social media, one video released by @Palestinealaa19 showed a father and his son at the scene of the bombing – the young adolescent was crying over bodies in plastic bags of members of his family lined up on the street. The father can be heard telling his son “you can’t collapse, you can’t cry, this is our destiny, we are not better than them, look they are all around us, we don’t forget them and the other 8,000 people – without counting those under the rubble, at least we got out, at least we knew who they are”.

In one video published by @AJArabicnet, a child critically injured in the bombing asked his relative to give him water, while another video released by @Ahmed_GR00 shows a young girl injured with blood on her clothes. The source alleged that she lost the sight of her eyes but at the time of the recording was not aware of her fate.

@shamel__news published a video of two young girls and one young boy rescued from the rubble from Jabalia. @visegrad24 mentioned on Twitter/X the case of a young boy rescued from the rubble by rescuers at the site but no further information was provided regarding the child’s identity. Documenting similar scenes, AP recorded “Young men [carrying] the limp forms of two children from the upper floors of the crumbling frame of one damaged apartment building, while helping down another child and woman. It was unclear whether the children were alive or dead. Gray dust, apparently left by pulverized concrete, seemed to coat nearly everything.”

One Twitter/X the user @Mohammed78990 published a video of a baby followed by this comment: “painful scene from the Jabaliya massacre”. The same source explained that the mother was killed in the bombing. In another video released by @AJA_Palestine, a young man and his young sister were filmed sitting on the rubble crying over the death of their father. 

Overall casualty estimates provided by sources

Initial reporting following the first Israeli bombing on October 31st recorded “a number of martyrs” and “dozens” injured, with Bellingcat setting the initial death toll at “at least 40 killed”, followed by the Guardian which initially reported that “47 bodies were “recovered from the rubble after an explosion in several houses in Jabalia camp”, analysing video footage published by Agence France-Presse.

The director of the Indonesian hospital, Mohamed el-Ron, told the BBC that the hospital recorded 400 casualties, “including 120 dead”, the majority being “women and children”. In a press conference held at that hospital on October 31st, doctors announced that “at 4pm the Indonesian hospital received a high number of killed and injured after an attack on residential block in Jabaliya camp”. The medical staff stated that “one staff member lost four members of his family during the strike.” The same source added that the number of civilian casualties was bigger than their capacity. A number of sources reported “hundreds of injured and killed” following the two declared rounds of strikes on Tuesday and Wednesday. – with @ajmubasher reporting “more than 400 martyrs and wounded”, without further details.

On October 31st, the Palestinian Ministry of Health initially counted “50 martyrs and around 150 wounded and dozens under the rubble in a heinous Israeli massacre that targeted a large area of homes in Jabalia camp”. Later in the day, the MoH said it feared at least 100 had been killed in the bombing, and hundreds others injured, according to @ariel_oseran.

Airwars’ civilian fatality range reflects the number of individuals identified by local sources (both named and unnamed). As per our methodology, where specific numbers of civilians were not explicitly mentioned (such as reference to ‘multiple’ children), we have counted these as at least two casualties. Very few sources were able to report on exact numbers of those injured in the first strike, so Airwars has taken the number originally shared by the Indonesian Hospital of 280 injured civilians.

Israel Defense Forces statements on civilian harm

IDF spokesperson Lt Col Richard Hech acknowledged the Israeli strike had “destroyed a big chunk” of the Jabaliya camp. Hech declared that Israeli forces were aware that the area they targeted was an area where many civilians lived but refused to comment on any civilian casualties resulting from their actions. He justified the strike saying that their focus was on “a senior Hamas commander” who “sadly…was hiding again as they do behind the [sic] within civilians. And that’s all I can say at this point. (…)”.

Similarly, The Guardian reported that according to the IDF “some cavities seen in images of destroyed camp buildings were created by the collapse of tunnels that had been dug by Hamas, which [IDF spokesperson Daniel Hagari] said chooses to put key military infrastructure below areas where many civilians gather.”

Military spokesman Jonathan Conricus quoted by AP News stated that the apartment buildings collapsed “only because the vast underground Hamas complex had been destroyed.” Similarly, AP News reported that “Brig. Gen. Daniel Hagari said an underground Hamas installation beneath a targeted building collapsed, toppling other nearby buildings. Conricus later said the main strike had hit between buildings. “We don’t intend for the ground to collapse,” he told reporters. “But the issue is that Hamas built their tunnels there and that they’re running their operations from there.”

Though the IDF did not confirm the exact numbers of civilian casualties, interviews conducted with IDF spokespeople indicate that Israeli forces have acknowledged civilian harm as a result of their strikes on Jabaliya camp. Airwars has therefore graded the civilian harm status of this incident as “confirmed”, and archived relevant excerpts from interviews in the ‘strike report’ section at the end of this assessment.

Combatant fatalities

The October 31st strike was reportedly intended to target Ibrahim Bari, described as a top commander of Hamas’s central Jabalia battalion, and a key commander during the deadly attack inside Israel on October 7th. Israeli forces believed that Biari had also been “leading fighting in northern Gaza from a network of tunnels under the camp,” according to The Guardian.

According to The Guardian, Daniel Hagari announced Biari’s death alongside “scores” of Hamas militants – without providing the total number of combatants killed. He added that the strike on the building Biari was in “led to the collapse of other things because there was a very extensive infrastructure there.”

@AvichayAdraee on Twitter/X released an IDF video in Arabic where Israeli forces claimed to have killed Hamas leader Ibrahim Al Bayari on October 31st in middle of Jabalia, alongside “many elite members” of Hamas. During a briefing (quoted by The Guardian), IDF spokesperson Hagari declared that “There are dozens of terrorists that have been killed with [Bayari], and the ‘metro’ underneath has collapsed, so it made this hole that you see in the area. We are dealing with terrorists that build the system of infrastructure of terror underneath the Jabalia refugee camp for a big reason. They want this picture of destruction.”

Hamas militants “strongly denied the presence of one of its leaders in the refugee camp” according to CNN, with AP adding that “Hamas spokesman Hazem Qassem denied the military’s claim, saying it was trying to justify “its heinous crime” against civilians.”

With ambiguity around the exact number of militants killed, Airwars has applied a 12-24 combatant casualty range to account for comments such as ‘dozens’ of targets killed.

Munitions used

While a video of the moment of the bombing was released by IDF forces on social media, the IDF spokesperson reportedly refused to comment on the number of munitions used or their types or identify “which craters were caused by tunnel collapses” – indicating that Israel would provide information at a later stage, according to The Guardian.

The Guardian reported “at least five craters in the densely populated refugee camp, which weapons experts said were left by the use of multiple JDAMs – joint direct attack munitions – in the airstrike.” Former Pentagon munitions expert Marc Garlasco also told The Guardian that “the biggest crater at the site looked like a hit with a GBU-31.” “There are other bombs it could be. That one just fits best with all the evidence. The estimated crater is around 40 ft [12 metres]””.

A former United Nations weapons inspector Chris Cobb-Smith, told The Guardian, “The munition is almost certainly JDAM, either a GBU 31 (Warhead Mark 84) general purpose bomb or possibly a GBU 56 (Warhead BLU 109) bunker buster. Both about 2,000lb [900kg].”

According to The Guardian: “The GBU (guided bomb unit) is a precision-guided air-to-surface weapon system. It is part of the Israeli arsenal provided by the US and also manufactured by Israel under contract. These Boeing-manufactured GBUs use a tritotal, which is an explosive mix of TNT and aluminium powder, used commonly in air-dropped bombs. The Israeli air force recently posted images of dozens of GBU-31 being loaded on planes. “This fits our analysis. You can see the size of the bomb and guidance straps, which are the signature of the GBU-31,” added Garlasco.””

Garlasco also told The Guardian that “the type of munitions he believes were used would have met stated Israeli military goals of hitting underground tunnels, but also caused extensive damage above ground. If they are set to have a delayed detonation, which is one of three options on the bomb, they cause an earthquake-like phenomenon when they do explode. “JDAMs will burrow through the ground, and have a delayed detonation, causing the building to collapse on itself. This explains the extent of the damage,” he said. “Buildings also collapse due to the blast wave, not just tunnels”.

According to Bellingcat, on October 31, “Reports began to appear online about 2:30 pm local time (…) A Reuters live stream filming towards Jabalia and Gaza City appears to have captured a large explosion at approximately 2:24pm local time, consistent with the earliest reports of the strike on Jabalia.” This observation matched The Guardian’s findings, which noted that “The first online reports of Tuesday’s attack came at about 2.30pm local time. A Reuters live stream captured the moment of impact a few minutes earlier.” According to The Guardian, relying on Reuters video footage and other media content, the exact location of the strike was narrowed to buildings at the intersection of Al Mouhawel and Al Almey streets.

Note that at the time of publication of this assessment, the Ministry of Health had not yet released an update to the list of named fatalities originally published on October 26th.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at 14:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (21)

Abu Al Thib Abo Al Qoumsan أبو الذيب أبو القمصان
Adult male Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan's father killed
Abu Anas Abo Al Qoumsan أبو أنس أبو القمصان
Adult male killed
Abo Firas Abo Al Qoumsan أبو فراس أبو القمصان
Adult male killed
Abo Firas Abo Al Qoumsan's wife زوجة أبو فراس أبو القمصان
Adult female killed
Wasel Abo Al-Quoumsan واصل أبو القمصان
Child male Abo Firas's son killed
Mohannad Abo Al Qoumsan مهند أبو القمصان
Child male Abo Firas's son killed
Nabough Abo Al Qoumsan نبوغ أبو القمصان
Child female Abo Firas's daughter killed
Abrar Abo Al Qoumsan أبرار أبو القمصان
Child female Abo Firas's daughter killed
Umayya Abo Al Qoumsan أمية أبو القمصان
Adult female “Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan”'s sister killed
Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's wife زوجة ذيب أبو القمصان
Adult female killed
Rahaf Abo Al Qoumsan رهف أبو القمصان
Child female Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's daughter killed
Layan Abo Al Qoumsan ليان أبو القمصان
Child female Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's daughter killed
Abdullah Abo Al Qoumsan عبدالله أبو القمصان
Child male Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's son killed
Mohammed Abo Al Qoumsan محمد أبو القمصان
Child male Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's son killed
Aboud Abo Al Qoumsan عبود أبو القمصان
Child male Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's son killed
Iman Abo Al-Qoumsan أيمان أبو القمصان
Adult female Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan's sister killed
Yamen Abo Al-Qoussan يامن أبو القمصان
Child male Imam's son killed
Zain Abo Al-Qoussan زين أبو القمصان
Child male Imam's son killed
Yazeed Abo Al-Qoussan يزيد أبو القمصان
Child male Imam's son killed
Jamila Yusef Abu Al-Qumsan جميلة يوسف أبو القمصان
Adult female mother of Rami Ahjazi killed
Marwa Basil Abu Al-Qumsan مروة أبو القمصان
Adult female killed

Family members (12)

Abdul Salam Siraj عبد السلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's mother أم عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's wife زوجة عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's daughter ابنة عبدالسلام سراج
Child female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's daughter ابنة عبدالسلام سراج
Child female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's sister أخت عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's sister أخت عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's brother أخ عبدالسلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's brother أخ عبدالسلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's brother أخ عبدالسلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's uncle عم عبدالسلام سراج
male killed
Another family member of Abdul Salam Siraj's uncle عم عبدالسلام سراج
(source mentions all of his uncle's family were killed - no number provided) killed

Family members (10)

Fadi Khudair Ali فادي خضير علي
Adult male killed
Fadi Khudair Ali's wife زوجة فادي خضير علي
Adult female killed
Muhammad Khudair Ali محمد خضير علي
Adult male killed
Malak Khudair Ali ملاك خضير علي
Adult male killed
Khadra Jaber Ali خضرة جابر علي
Adult female killed
Ahmed Jaber Ali أحمد جابر علي
Child male Khadra's son killed
Zainab Jaber Ali زينب جابر علي
Child female Khadra's daughter killed
Muhammad Jaber Ali محمد جابر علي
Child male Khadra's son killed
Haidar Al-Daour حيدر الداعور
Child male Muhammad Ali's cousin's son killed
Kanan Al-Daour كنان الداعور
Child male Muhammad Ali's cousin's son killed

Family members (6)

Omar Mas’oud عمر مسعود
Adult male former prisoner - civilian status unclear killed
Donia Bashir دنيا البشر
Adult female killed
Son of Omar and Dunya
Child male killed
Daughter of Omar and Dunya
Child female killed
Daughter of Omar and Dunya
Child female killed
Daughter of Omar and Dunya
Child female killed

Family members (9)

Omar Mustafa Abu Sultan عمر مصطفى أبو سلطان
Adult male killed
Sahar Al-Hoor سحر الهور
Adult female Omar's wife killed
Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan أحمد عمر أبو سلطان
Adult male Omar and Sahar's son killed
Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan's wife زوجة أحمد عمر أبو سلطان
Adult female killed
Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan's daughter ابنة عمر أبو سلطان
Child female killed
Muhammad Omar Abu Sultan محمد عمر أبو سلطان
Child male Son of Omar and Saher, killed
Abdullah Omar Abu Sultan عبدالله أبو سلطان
Child male Son of Omar and Saher killed
Mahmoud Omar Abu Sultan محمود أبو سلطان
Child male Son of Omar and Saher, killed
Shahd Abu Sultan شهد أبو سلطان
Child female Daughter of Omar and Saher killed

Family members (2)

Ahmed Salah Dhiyab Al-Tanani أحمد جمعة صالح ذياب الطناني
Child male killed
Mahmoud Muhammad Dhiyab Al-Tanani محمود محمد صالح الطناني
Child male Ahmed's brother killed

Family members (5)

Ahmed Akram Abu Al-Omrain أحمد أكرم أبو العمرين
Adult male killed
Reem Muhammad Al-Firi ريم محمد الفيري
Adult female Ahmed's wife killed
Rital Youssef Abu Al-Omrain ريتال يوسف أبوالعمرين
Child female Ahmed and Reem's child killed
Abdul Karim Youssef Abu Al-Omrain عبدالكريم يوسف أبوالعمرين
Child male Ahmed and Reem's child killed
Zaher Ramadan Abu Al-Omrain زاهر رمضان أبو العمرين
Child male Ahmed and Reem's child killed

Family members (15)

Raed Ahmad Rayyan رائد أحمد ريان
Adult male killed
Hanna Rayyan هناء ريان
Adult female wife of Raed Rayyan "Abu Saedd" killed
Sa’ed Rayyan سائد ريان
Child male Hanna and Raed's son killed
Maher Rayyan ماهر ريان
Adult male Doctor killed
Anwar Rayyan أنوار ريان
Child female Hanna and Raed's daughter killed
Jannah Rayyan جنة ريان
Child female killed
Raed Sa’ed Rayyan رائد سائد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Hanaa Sa’ed Rayyan هناء سائد ريان
Age unknown female killed
Mahmoud Sa’ed Rayyan محمود سائد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Ghassan Mohammed Rayyan غسان محمد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Israa Mohammed Rayyan سراء محمد ريان
Age unknown female killed
Mujahid Mohammed Rayyan مجاهد محمد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Masa Mohammed Rayyan ماسة محمد ريان
Age unknown female killed
Iman Saed Abou Hamdan يمان سائد ابو حمدان
Age unknown female killed
Karam Abdulkarim Rayyan كرم عبدالكريم ريان
Age unknown male killed

Family members (3)

Mahmoud Jabr Alyan محمود جبر عليان
Age unknown male killed
Youssef Muhammad Alyan يوسف محمد عليان
Age unknown male killed
Karim Majid Alyan كريم ماجد عليان
Age unknown male killed

Family members (26)

Rawnd Okasha روند عكاشة
Adult female killed
Bilal Okasha بلال عكاشة
Adult male Rawnd's husband killed
Child of Bilal and Rawnd Okasha طفل بلال وروند
Child killed
Child of Bilal and Rawnd Okasha طفل بلال وروند
Child killed
Child of Bilal and Rawnd Okasha طفل بلال وروند
Child killed
Ziad Okasha زياد عكاشة
Adult male killed
Manal Al-Najjar منال النجار
Adult female Ziad's wife killed
Youssef Ziad Okasha يوسف زياد عكاشة
Child male Son of Ziad and Manal killed
Raed Okasha رائد عكاشة
Adult male killed
Raed Okasha's child
Child killed
Raed Okasha's child
Child killed
Raed Okasha's wife
Adult female Raed's wife killed
Nael Okasha نائل عكاشة
Adult male killed
Islam Mohammed al Kafarna اسلام محمد الكفارنة
Adult female Nael's wife killed
Nael Okasha's child
Child killed
Nael Okasha's child
Child killed
Yasser Okasha's child
Child killed
Yasser Okasha's child
Child killed
Yasser Okasha's wife
Adult female killed
Thaer Naeem Okasha ثائر نعيم عكاشة
Adult male killed
Thaer Naeem Okasha's relative
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Fayez Al-Zwaidi. محمد فايز الزويدي
Age unknown male killed
Muhammad Okasha محمد عكاشة
Adult male killed
Masa Okasha ماسة عكاشة
Child female Daughter of Mohammed killed
Rakan Okasha راكان عكاشة
Child male Son of Mohammed killed
Ameed, Okasha عميد عكاشة
Child male Son of Mohammed killed

Family members (2)

Kamal Hamad "Abu Diaa" كمال حمد
Adult male killed
Kamal Hamad's son
Child male killed

The victims were named as:

Jumaa Mohammed Al Sharawi جمعة محمد الشعراوي
Adult male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    126 – 136
  • (69 children22 women28 men1 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    280
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    Israeli Military
  • Known target
    Palestinian Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    12–24

Sources (106) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (152) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @TheUKAr
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    Source: @TheUKAr
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    Source: @alyredaa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @WaheidiSaad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas Al Sharif
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas Al Sharif
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas Al Sharif
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas Al Sharif
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas Al Sharif
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alyelbassel
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alyelbassel
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alyelbassel
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    Source: @alyelbassel
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Jales_tinian2
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Emad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Ali
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Ali
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rami Aroki
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    Source: Rami Aroki
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rami Aroki
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Um Mohammed Abo Al Qoumsan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Palestine voice radio
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Palestine voice radio
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Palestine voice radio
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Palestine voice radio
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alaraby television
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alaraby television
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alaraby television
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alaraby television
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khader Sultan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khader Sultan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khader Sultan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khader Sultan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khader Sultan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Suhil Yahya
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Suhil Yahya
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Suhil Yahya
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abdullah Al Hor
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abdullah Al Hor
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abdullah Al Hor
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Raed Abo Al Qoumsan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ra’ed Abo Al Qoumsan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Jehad Al Sharawi
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Jehad Al Sharawi
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ziad Alyan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Baraa Samir
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abood Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mais Al Reem
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hamouda Abo Malek
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hamouda Abo Malek
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khaled Abo Al Hour
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Salah salama
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Salah salama
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Salah salama
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Journalist Adel Za’rab
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Faraj Abo Mohammed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Faraj Abo Mohammed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Faraj Abo Mohammed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Bellingcat Report
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Bellingcat Report
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Bellingcat Report
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Bellingcat Report
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs Statement
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The Guardian News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Reuters
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @trbrtc
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @trbrtc
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: CNN News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: CNN News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: CNN News
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @UNHumanRights
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

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Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention strikes on the Jabalia camp (مخيم جباليا). Satellite imagery shared by Christiaan Triebert (@trbrtc) shows the strike location at the following exact coordinates: 31.533320, 34.499070.

  • Imagery:
    @trbrtc

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Israeli Military

CNN Wolf Blitzer Interview w/ IDF Spokesperson Richard Hecht

WB
Back now to our breaking news here in the Middle East. A massive explosion at the largest refugee camp in Gaza. Joining us now is Lieutenant Colonel Richard Hecht. He's the international spokesperson for the Israel Defense Forces. Thanks so much for joining us. I want to ask you first about this massive blast that we all just saw. We saw the video at the Jabalya refugee camp in Gaza. Is there anything more you can, first of all, tell us about how this explosion happened?

RH
Hi Wolf. Thanks for having me. So we'll be coming out in the next hopefully hour with more data. But I can update you now that there was a very senior Hamas commander in that area. Sadly, he was hiding again, as they do behind the [sic] within civilians. And that's all I can say at this point. We're looking into it and we'll be coming out with more data as we learn what happened there.

WB
So can you confirm it was an Israeli attack that destroyed a big chunk of that Jabalya refugee camp?

RH
Yes, I can. We when we were focused on the target, a senior commander, Wolf, I will be updating you with more data as the hour moves ahead.

WB
But even if that Hamas commander was there, amidst all those Palestinian refugees who are in there in that Jabalya refugee camp, Israel still went ahead and dropped a bomb there attempting to kill this Hamas uh this Hamas commander. Knowing that a lot of innocent civilians, men, women and children, presumably would be killed, is that what I'm hearing?

RH
That's not what you're hearing, Wolf. We again, we're focused on this commander, again, who you'll get more data who this man was, killed many, many Israelis. And we're doing everything we can. These are, it's a very complicated battle space. That could be infrastructure there. There could be tunnels there. And we're still looking into and we'll give you more data as the hour moves ahead.

WB
But you know that there are a lot of refugees, a lot of innocent civilians, men, women and children in that refugee camp as well. Right?

RH
This is the tragedy of war, Wolf. I mean, we as you know, we've been saying for days, move south. If civilians are not involved with Hamas, please move south.

WB
I’m just trying to get a little bit more information. You knew there were civilians there.
You knew there were refugees, all sorts of refugees. But you decided to still drop a bomb on that refugee camp attempting to kill this Hamas commander. By the way, was he killed?

RH
I can't confirm yet. There will be more updated. Yes, we know that he was killed and about the civilians there, we're doing everything we can to minimize. I'll tell you, I'll say again, sadly, they are hiding themselves within the civilian population. And again, we are doing this stage by stage, and we're going to go after every one of these terrorists who was involved in that heinous attack on the 7th of October Wolf.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    126 – 136
  • (69 children22 women28 men1 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    280
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    Israeli Military
  • Known target
    Palestinian Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    12–24

Sources (106) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0319

Incident date

October 18, 2023

Location

عمارة الننام, Al Namnam building, Deir al Balah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.449032, 34.391112 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

An apartment belonging to Abu Rukba family located on the fifth floor of the five-storey Al-Namnam building on Faraj Allah Street in Al-Nuseirat Camp, Gaza Strip, was hit by an alleged strike around 10 PM on Wednesday, 18 October 2023, reportedly killing up to two civilians, including a 14-year-old child, and injuring two civilians. Photos on social media showed a building collapsed into a pile of rubble.

Shehab News Agency and Al-Mayadeen reported a bombing of the building and the death of a child whose body was delivered to Al-Aqsa Martyrs Hospital. A Twitter/X user @YouthGoDigital shared an image showing the transportation of the child’s body in an ambulance. He also reported about the two civilians killed in the strike along with a Facebook user Haithem Abu Moaz.

According to the Twitter/X user @_Ahmad_mazen, there were two burn injuries resulting from the explosion following the attack.

None of the sources attributed the attack to any specific belligerent, therefore Airwars classifed Strike Status as Contested and Civilian Harm Status as Contested until more information comes to light.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 10:00 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @YouthGoDigital
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rbab
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention an alleged strike on the al Namnam building (عمارة الننام) in Nuseirat camp (مخيم النصيرات), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.449032, 34.391112. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Palestinian Militants Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Palestinian Militants
  • Palestinian Militants position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (22) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0323

Incident date

October 18, 2023

Location

منزل لعائلة لبد قرب مسجد اليرموك بغزة, a house for the Labad family near the Yarmouk Mosque in Gaza, Jabalia, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

On October 18th 2023, at around 5.15am, an alleged Israeli airstrike hit the Labad family home near the Yarmouk Mosque, east of Jabalia Camp in Gaza. A number of deaths and injuries were reported, including several women and children. However, the precise number remains unknown as many victims were reported as still missing beneath the rubble. The victims have not been identified.

At 5.17am Shehab Agency reported ‘martyrs and wounded when occupation aircraft bombed a house for the Labad family near the Yarmouk Mosque in Gaza.’ Several other news outlets subsequently reported the same incident, mentioning killed and wounded victims, including women and children.

In videos and photos shared online, children are shown trapped beneath the rubble, dozens of people surround the victims trying to dig them out and others lift the collapsed building in search of other victims.  In a video shared by @SbintQtr, a young boy, buried chest deep in rubble, gestures in distress towards the camera as he, helped by those around him, tries to get out. The comment alongside the video reads ‘‘the moment a child was rescued from under the rubble after the occupation bombed a house for the Labad family east of the Jabalia camp, leaving a number of martyrs and injuries at dawn today.’

On the 19th October, the day after the incident, several users on social media reported that a number of victims were still beneath the rubble. @Alaqsavoice_Brk tweeted ‘there are a number of citizens under the rubble.’ Facebook user Anas also reported that ‘the search for missing persons is still ongoing.’

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 5:15 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (24) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Alaqsavoice_Brk
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Alaqsavoice_Brk
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Alaqsavoice_Brk
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Alaqsavoice_Brk
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Mohamedsa2ed1
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Mohamedsa2ed1
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @EekadFacts
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @mutasemalyemen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @mutasemalyemen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @mutasemalyemen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @mutasemalyemen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Safaagencyps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Safaagencyps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Safaagencyps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0314

Incident date

October 18, 2023

Location

مخبز النصيرات وسط قطاع غزة, The al Nuseirat automated bakery “Al-Banna” in the center of Suf al-Nuseirat in central Gaza strip, Central Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

At 1:34 AM on Wednesday October 18th 2023, at least three young civilian men, including the owner of a bakery, were reported killed and at least 10 others were injured in an alleged Israeli airstrike on the al Nuseirat automated bakery “Al-Banna”  located in the center of Suf al-Nuseirat in the central Gaza strip. Orient News and Araby TV reported that the bakery was considered one of the largest in Gaza and provided bread to a large number of Palestinians, including the displaced people and residents of the al-Nuseirat refugee camp.

Friends, relatives and local sources on social media shared the names of the victims killed – the owner of the al Nuseirat bakery 46-year old Mukhlis al-Zari’i (Abu Iyad), a 24-year old man Ahmed Zaher al-Banna, and a 26-year old man Suhaib Muhammad Wasfi al-Banna.

Shehab Agency initially reported on the death of two civilians in the bombing. It later wrote that the number of civilians killed “has risen to 3.” Al Mayadeen News and sources on social media noted that the Al-Banna bakery was bombed while its workers were still inside, with some sources, including Quds News, adding that the bakery was completely destroyed. Euro News and al Hadath shared videos of the fiery deluge that enveloped the bombed structure.

A Twitter/X user @AboodEmad__ said that the bakery was “the best bakery we use in this situation because it is faster than other bakeries, and even though there are queues and turns, it alleviates the crisis a little,” sharing an image of the completely destroyed building with only its sign intact. A Facebook user Mar’i Bashir said that “even the bakery where I feed people bread with the remaining flour they bombed until we died of hunger”.

Roaamedia reported on “a number of martyrs and wounded” arriving at the al-Aqsa hospital. The AWDA Health Committee shared images of the injured being taken within the hospital, saying “the arrival of one martyr and ten injuries as a result of the bombing.” Sources did not provide details for those injured in the bombing.

Mukhlis al-Zari’i (Abu Iyad) was remembered in a Facebook tribute by the radio station “Voice of the Nation” (WA105FM) as “the good man”. He is seen on the attached image as a smiling bearded young man with a portrait of Yasser Arafat behind him. Khamis Khuseyn (Abu al’-Abd) and other Facebook users shared an image of the other victim, Ahmed Zahir Al-Banna – a young bearded man in an elegant suit and red tie. The death of Suhaib Muhammad Wasfi al-Banna was also mourned by his many friends who shared images of a young smiling bearded man.

All names have been matched with the Palestinian Ministry of Health list of fatalities in Gaza released on October 26th, 2023.

Where sources identified the belligerents, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 1:34 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Mukhlis Ali Muhammad al-Zari’i مخلص علي محمد الزريعي
46 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 901692913
Suhaib Muhammad Wasfi al-Banna صهيب محمد وصفي البنا
26 years old killed Matched to MoH ID 403021603
Ahmed Zaher Muhammad al-Banna أحمد زاهر البنا
24 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 405185323

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Marketplace
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    10
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (43) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (55) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @AboodEmad__
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Kareemkamal3211
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @TZ00G
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @OrientNews
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @qudsn
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @qudsn
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @qudsn
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @qudsn
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Kbariti69
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Kbariti69
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hadith
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Awdaps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Awdaps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Awdaps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Awdaps
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    Source: Awdaps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Kolonaalwatan
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    Source: ADAMADAM1995
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abèdlmadjid
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: new world
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Talal
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Basma
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: WA105FM
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khamis
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    Source: Abdullah
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Nuseirat103
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Nuseirat103
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahmadkh
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahmed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahmed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ashraf.abu.mohammed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ashraf.abu.mohammed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ashraf.abu.mohammed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahmed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Amani
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

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  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

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  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Marketplace
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    10
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (43) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0325

Incident date

October 18, 2023

Location

منزل لعائلة "اسماعيل" بالمخيم الجديد في النصيرات, A house for the “Ismail” family was bombed in the new camp in Nuseirat, Nuseirat, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

At least five people, including a woman and a child, were killed and dozens injured after an alleged Israeli airstrike hit the Ismail family residence located in the new refugee camp in Nuseirat, Gaza Strip.

Ayman Ismail Abu Bakr, a shopkeeper, was killed, along with his sons 22-year-old Ahmad Ayman Ismail and 25-year-old Mohammed Ayman Ismail. 24-year-old Abeer Ismail was also killed, along with her son, who remains unnamed.

Ahmed worked in his father’s supermarket with his brothers, and was remembered on social media for his “kindness,” “laughter” and “smile.”

Multiple sources mentioned “wounded” while Maher Al Hijazi was the only source to specify “dozens of injuries”. The wounded were taken to the al-Aqsa Hospital, along with the deceased.

Where possible, Airwars has matched names with the Palestinian Ministry of Health list of nearly 7000 victims’ names and ID numbers released on October 26th

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (5)

Ayman Ismail أيمن إسماعيل
male killed
Ahmad Ayman Ismail أحمد أيمن إسماعيل
22 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 406024505
Muhannad Ayman Ismail مهند أيمن إسماعيل
25 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 404278780
Abeer Ismail عبير إسماعيل
24 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 404614067
Son of Abeer ابن عبير إسماعيل
male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (1 child1 woman3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Wael Jarwan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahmed Adnan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The brave brave ones
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Qudspress.com news

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (1 child1 woman3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0326

Incident date

October 18, 2023

Location

منزل لآل أبو عميرة في شارع العلمي بجوار المضخة مخيم جباليا, Abu Amira family residence on Al-Alami Street, next to the pump, Jabalia camp, Gaza strip, Jabalia, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

Around 8:49 PM on Wednesday, October 18th 2023, an alleged Israeli airstrike on the home of the Abu Amira family located on al-Alami street “next to the pump” in the Jabalia camp in the northern Gaza Strip reportedly killed and injured a number of civilians, including women and children.

Shehab Agency and Quds News reported on the bombing, stating that “there were injuries at the place.” A source on social media, Ahmad Assaf, said there were “reports of martyrs and wounded at the scene,” while Twitter/X user @Ibrihim tweeted that “there were casualties in the place among the ranks of children and women.” Sources did not specify the exact number of casualties or the details of those injured or killed. The number of injured and killed has been quantified as 2 per Airwars methodology until further information comes to light.

Airwars has graded this incident as “single source claim” as the sources are repeating the same information.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 8:49 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (6) [ collapse]