Thousands of civilians were killed during the battle for Mosul, but there is no official death toll.
Australia remains the only American ally to admit any civilian harm after almost four years of strikes
Significant civilian casualties continued from reported Russian strikes in Syria’s eastern Ghouta; and from Turkish actions in Afrin
Thirty months into its Syria campaign, Russia is reportedly killing more civilians than ever
Iraqi forces supported by the international Coalition have driven so-called Islamic State from the nation’s cities and towns. The cost in lives has been significant.
US-led alliance has still made no public comment on 18-month investigation, which found that deaths from Coalition airstrikes were up to 31 times higher than acknowledged.
As strikes targeting ISIS in Iraq wind down, an air-backed race against Islamic State in Syria has put civilians in extreme danger.
On average one Coalition bomb, missile or artillery shell struck Raqqa every eight minutes in August – with local monitors reporting a devastating toll on civilians