Investigations

Investigations

Published

March 18, 2021

Written by

Oliver Imhof

Assisted by

Anna Zahn, Ayana Enomoto-Hurst, Clive Vella, Duncan Salkovskis, Imogen Piper, Mai Fareed, Mohamed ben Halim, Mohammed al Jumaily, Osama Mansour, Peixian Wang and Shihab Halep

published in partnership with

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NATO members still refuse to discuss potential civilian harm from their strikes a decade after intervening against Gaddafi.

Ten years ago, French President Nicholas Sarkozy welcomed British Prime Minister David Cameron and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to the Elysee Palace with a shock announcement. “He surprised us both when he said that he had already issued orders for French jets to take off,” Cameron later recalled. The first airstrikes of the international intervention against Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi’s forces hit their targets less than an hour later.

The 2011 Libyan civil war had begun on February 17th as an Arab Spring uprising, with tens of thousands taking to the streets. Within weeks Gaddafi’s forces had brutally crushed most of the protests, and were closing in on the last major rebel stronghold of Benghazi. With fears of a Srebrenica-style massacre, the United Nations passed a resolution demanding the protection of civilians, upon which the NATO intervention was then justified. The war officially ended in October as Gaddafi, whose forces had been routed, was captured and killed by NATO-backed rebels.

Neither during nor after the war has there been a thorough analysis of the number of civilians likely killed by all sides. For the tenth anniversary of the conflict, Airwars has conducted the first comprehensive overview of civilian harm from all belligerents, based on the available public materials.

Over six months Airwars reviewed thousands of media and social media posts, and post-conflict investigations; as well as conducting interviews with survivors and officials.

The result is a detailed look at a brief but violent conflict that killed at least 1,142 civilians and injured at least one thousand more in 212 incidents of concern that Airwars researched. By the highest estimate, as many as 3,400 civilians were killed in those events.

The new archive offers a detailed insight into gruesome air and artillery strikes, as well as shocking ground massacres that occurred during the civil war. The tally of civilian deaths during the uprising was almost certainly significantly higher than the Airwars study indicates. In 2011 for example, social media use by Libyans was still relatively limited, and independent media in the country was not yet established. Based on Airwars’ experience of other conflicts such as Syria, a significant number of local claims of civilian harm made online at the time may also since have been lost, as a result of sites being closed or accounts being shut down.

Many small scale ground actions are additionally not reflected at present in the Airwars database – though likely constituted a key element of the civilian toll. Most estimates of Libya 2011 casualties to date have included both fighters and civilians – with a Libyan government study from 2013 likely being the most accurate, with its estimate of 4,700 fighter and civilian deaths on the rebel side alone, as well as at least 2,100 people listed at the time as missing.

Armed men at the edge of Fashlum Al-Dhahra neighbourhood in Tripoli on February 20th 2011, where up to 700 civilians were alleged killed by Gaddafi forces while taking part in mass demonstrations, Image via Taha Krewi

Most deaths from Gaddafi forces

The tragedy of Libya’s 2011 war was not just of those who were killed, injured and displaced – but of the new world it ushered in. Following a couple of years of uneasy calm, by 2014 the country had split in two and reverted to civil war. Only in October 2020 was a United Nations-brokered deal seemingly able to bring a decade of violence to an end, though the rifts remain.

Hala Bugaighis, a Libyan lawyer and founder of the Jusoor Libya think tank, said the 2011 war has had two long-lasting effects that have deeply impacted Libyan society.

“The first is the impact on the social fabric that emerged from armed conflicts between cities,” she told Airwars. During the war some neighbouring towns found themselves on either side of the conflict, with one broadly loyal to Gaddafi’s forces and the other supporting the rebellion.

“The second is the long term effect of the conflict on the mental wellbeing of civilians, including PTSD, stress and depression,” Bugaighis added.

The majority of civilian harm identified in the events reviewed by Airwars was reportedly caused by forces of the Gaddafi regime – with between 869 and 1,999 likely deaths and as many as 1,100 injuries identified from 105 assessed actions. Overall, as many as 2,300 civilian deaths were locally alleged from these same Gaddafi actions. Many more small-scale killings have yet to be fully documented.

At the beginning of the uprising, Gaddafi forces were reported to have deliberately targeted protesters with both heavy weaponry and small arms fire, causing high numbers of casualties.

Later on, several massacres and indiscriminate shelling of urban areas by the regime were documented in both local and international media.

“In the first days of the uprising, I was so scared,” said Bugaighis, who lived in Tripoli at the time. “Growing up in Libya we were raised to fear the regime, so at first, I thought nothing would take down the regime. I started to realise that it is more serious when the state of emergency was declared in Tripoli and foreigners were evacuated.”

Many Gaddafi forces incidents had previously gone unreported to an international audience, given the tendency of international media to focus only on larger scale events. On June 29th for example, a review of local sources found that a 13-year old boy named Moftah Muhammad Jalwal was killed and six more civilians injured by Gaddafi forces shelling on the Doufan neighbourhood of Misurata. Gruesome videos showed bloodstains at the site and injured children in the local hospital.

Moftah Muhammad Jalwal, reportedly killed by Gaddafi forces on June 29th 2011 in Misurata (Screengrab via a video by Ali Al Dadi)

NATO: lower civilian harm but lack of accountability

A decade on from NATO’s intervention, neither it nor any individual member has ever publicly admitted to a single civilian death. Libyans themselves tell a very different story.

Airwars reviewed claims of thousands of airstrikes reportedly conducted by NATO and its allies during Libya 2011, which between them resulted in 223 to 403 likely civilian deaths and 215 to 357 injuries in 84 events of concern, according to our assessment. NATO itself declared having conducted 7,600 strikes. Overall, Airwars identified as many as 800 civilians locally alleged killed by NATO forces – though those higher claims appear to have been significantly exaggerated by pro-Gaddafi sources at the time.

United Nations investigators after the war accused both Gaddafi and rebel forces of indiscriminate killings, but concluded that NATO had conducted a “highly precise campaign with a demonstrable determination to avoid civilian casualties.” They noted that the international alliance had used precision-guided munitions and carried out extensive pre-strike assessments to try and avoid killing civilians.

Frederic Wehrey, Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Endowment, said NATO planners were supported by Western special forces marking targets on the ground, which had contributed to the accuracy of bombing and helped avoid civilian harm.

Both rebels and NATO were “very active in liaison, coordinating various operation centres even though NATO commandos made clear they were not acting as the rebels’ air force,” he says.

But while NATO itself insisted it was purely focused on protecting civilians, key members of the alliance were accused of supporting regime change. An Airwars investigation has found that a Norwegian effort to negotiate Gaddafi’s stepping down in April 2011 was seemingly undermined by France and the UK. As the former Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Store now notes, “Had there been in the international community a willingness to pursue this track with some authority and dedication, I believe there could have been an opening to achieve a less dramatic outcome and avoid the collapse of the Libyan state.”

Even though the number of reported civilian casualties from NATO actions is far lower when compared to Gaddafi forces, Airwars’ findings indicate that likely fatalities were still significantly higher than the estimated 60 deaths that the United Nations documented at the time, in its review of 20 events of concern.

By contrast and based on local reporting from the time across Libya, as well as major investigations by Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and the New York Times, Airwars has identified at least 223 likely civilian deaths.

Reported victims of NATO airstrikes on Majer on August 8th 2011 (via Majer Zletin Massacre)

Those seeking clarity about individual incidents remain sadly disappointed. Inquiries to NATO about civilian harm from its actions in Libya are routinely referred to member states, which in turn then refer back to NATO. All recent Freedom of Information requests from Airwars to individual member states about their potential role in civilian harm during 2011 have been denied.

Only on one known occasion, on June 19th 2011, did NATO acknowledge that a malfunction of a munition in an attack on Tripoli’s Souk al Joumaa neighbourhood had potentially resulted in civilian casualties.

Mohammed Al Gharari, who lost five family members in the strike, told Airwars he had the following questions for NATO: “You struck people and admitted that it was by mistake. Why did you never care about us? If you had any humanity and you believe in human rights, you would have at least cared.”

“Even after ten years, no phone call or even any official has contacted us.”

Aftermath of the incident in Souq Al Joumaa on June 19th, 2011

Little reporting on civilian harm from rebels

Among the three parties to Libya’s 2011 war, the lowest documented number of civilian casualties was reported from rebel actions – with 57 incidents of concern reviewed by Airwars containing allegations of between 50 and 113 likely deaths.

That relatively low estimate of civilian harm from rebel actions can be explained by the lack of an air force and access to heavy weapons, particularly early on. It may also reflect a lack of media interest at the time.

The largest known loss of civilian life from rebel actions was reported on August 10th in the remote southern city of Tawergha, when between 24 and 74 inhabitants, including whole families and an imam of the town, were claimed killed by artillery fire. Tawergha was considered loyal to Gaddafi, with its more than 40,000 residents forced to flee by rebels. The majority of residents have still not been able to return a decade on.

“130 men from Tawergha are missing ever since, and no one knows anything about them. They were taken by the rebels. My brother is one of them,” Gabriel Farag, who also had to flee Tawergha, told Airwars. “These 130 men were arrested just for the mere fact that they are from Tawergha.”

“The war has impacted Libyan society in many ways, especially in social relationships among tribes. Libyan society is a tribal society, and the war has broken the connections between tribes across the country,” says Mustafa Al Fetouri, a Libyan journalist who covered the civil war back in 2011.

Mabrouk Elyan, reportedly among those killed by rebel forces on August 10th 2011 in Tawergha, via Tawergha Martyrs

Ten years of anarchy

What followed after the 2011 defeat of Gaddafi was a decade of chaos and on-and-off civil war that turned Libya into a failed state. Many hopes were betrayed and opportunities missed in a country that had once been described as Africa’s most developed.

“The notion of justice was completely absent after the revolution,” says Bughaigis. “Instead of avoiding a repetition of the injustice that occurred in the past, such as the Abu Salim prison incident or the killing of students, all we saw was the repetition of these mistakes over and over again.”

Airwars found that some victims had been paid compensation by one of Libya’s post-revolution governments, but only for damage done to property. Efforts to create proper mechanisms for restitution were abandoned when the country slipped into civil war again in 2014.

“Justice was one of the principles of the Libyan uprising. However, all those in power have failed to do so, and it may be in a systematic way to entrench chaos and hate,” explained Bughaigis.

Former US President Barack Obama once described the failure to plan for what came after NATO’s intervention in Libya as a “shit show”, and as his biggest foreign policy mistake. “We averted large-scale civilian casualties, we prevented what almost surely would have been a prolonged and bloody civil conflict. And despite all that, Libya is a mess,” he told The Atlantic in 2016.

However, better times could now be ahead for Libyans, with the country recently selecting a unified transitional government which has committed to working on a reconciliation process for those affected by the civil wars. Those in the international community who have become embroiled in Libya’s violence since 2011 could now too – it might be hoped – finally acknowledge the civilian harm they themselves have caused.

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Incident Code

Lib2011-204

Incident date

October 12, 2011

Location

سرت‎, Western Sirte, Surt, Libya

Geolocation

31.20892, 16.58866 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least 42 civilians were killed near the western Sirte frontline and were found on October 12, 2011 according to Elaph.

According to Anis Faraj, a witness who claimed he shared a cell with those that were found dead, about 47 men were being held in a cell and they were taken to Musassim Gaddafi, the son of Colonel Gaddafi, and shot but Anis was able to escape with the help of a sympathetic soldier.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the western front of Sirte (سرت). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Sirte are: 31.190547, 16.571441.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    42
  • (42 other protected persons)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    42
  • (42 other protected persons)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-171

Incident date

September 21, 2011

Location

بني وليد, Bani Walid, Misrata, Libya

Geolocation

31.75805, 13.983513 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least four people were killed by Gaddafi forces in Bani Walid on September 21, 2011 according to News.sar5t.libya and Al Jazeera.

According to both sources, the four people were executed for raising the flag of independence.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the city of Bani Walid (بني وليد), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.75805, 13.983513. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-156

Incident date

September 2, 2011

Location

وادي الأحمر, Wadi Al Ahmar, Surt, Libya

Geolocation

30.907725, 17.518703 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least 45 people, including men and women, were found dead in September in a mass grave in the Red Valley near Sirte after being tortured and killed by Gaddafi’s forces. One person survived and was left with the dead in the grave.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Wadi Al Ahmar (وادي الأحمر) area, for which the generic coordinates are: 30.907725, 17.518703. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

  • Reports of the incident mention the Wadi Al Ahmar (وادي الأحمر) area.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    45
  • (2 women2 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    45
  • (2 women2 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-152

Incident date

August 26, 2011

Location

مشفى أبو سليم, Abu Salim Hospital, Tarabulus, Libya

Geolocation

32.854058, 13.174511 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between 39 and 200 civilians died in Abu Salim hospital in Tripoli on August 26, 2011 according to multiple news sources, including Al Jazeera and BBC News.

A video by Al Jazeera shows Abu Salim hospital in Tripoli full over more than 100 dead bodies in the intensive care unit after the majority of the staff fled from violence. The reporters saw 39 bodies but is estimated that up to 150 died, with some being shot according to a witness. They describe the victims in the hospital as being both rebels and Gaddafi loyalists.

According to BBC News, about 200 people died in the hospital, including men, women, and children and pro-Gaddafi forces were responsible for killing them.

Videos posted by AFP Arabic, Popular Front for the Liberation of Libya, Ali Bob and Al Aan TV show countless dead bodies in the hospital and patients, including children, being evacuated by the International Red Cross.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Abu Salim hospital (باب العزيزية) in Tripoli (طرابلس‎), the generic coordinates for which are: 32.854058, 13.174511. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    39 – 200
  • (2 children2 women2 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    39 – 200
  • (2 children2 women2 men)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-151

Incident date

August 25, 2011

Location

باب العزيزية, Bab Al Aziziyah, Tarabulus, Libya

Geolocation

32.872127, 13.173331 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least 29 people were killed at a camp site outside the Bab Al Aziziyah compound in Tripoli on August 25, 2011 that may have housed a makeshift medical clinic and was alleged to be supervised by Gaddafi supporters.

According to BBC News, two of those killed had strips of green cloth, indicating that they were Gaddafi supports, but it is unclear whether they were killed by rebels or Gaddafi loyalists. Human Rights Watch says that four of the bodies were on hospital beds and the others were lying on mines.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Bab Al Aziziya (باب العزيزية) complex in Tripoli (طرابلس‎), the generic coordinates for which are: 32.872127, 13.173331. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

  • Reports of the incident mention the Bab Al Aziziya (باب العزيزية) complex in Tripoli (طرابلس‎).

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    29
  • (1 man)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    29
  • (1 man)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-150

Incident date

August 23, 2011

Location

باب عكاره, Bab Akkara, Tarabulus, Libya

Geolocation

32.866912, 13.173494 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between 15 and 19 men, including three medical personnel, were killed and at least six others were injured between Gargur and the Gaddafi compound at Bab al-Aziziyah in Tripoli on August 23, 2011.

A member of the rebel forces witnessed 15 bodies, all in civilian clothes and all of them handcuffed behind the back with electric cable or handcuffs, being loaded into a truck outside of the Gaddafi compound.

Another witness saw Gaddafi forces stop an ambulance with “17 February” written on the side and shoot the three men on board, two men in medical scrubs and the driver.

Another witness was detained at the same checkpoint and saw a man who had a card identifying him as a Tripoli rebel shot in the head. The witness and his friend were beaten and held in a shop in Bab Aukara where four detainees were already being held and had undergone severe torture. This same witness also witnessed the medical staff being executed.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the Bab Akkara (باب عكاره) neighbourhood of Tripoli (طرابلس‎), the generic coordinates for which are: 32.866912, 13.173494. Reports of the incident also mention a riverbed which runs along the neighbourhood’s southwestern edge. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

  • Reports of the incident mention the Bab Akkara (باب عكاره) neighbourhood of Tripoli (طرابلس‎). Reports of the incident also mention a riverbed which runs along the neighbourhood’s southwestern edge.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    15 – 19
  • (15–19 men3 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    15 – 19
  • (15–19 men3 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (1) [ collapse]

Incident Code

Lib2011-149

Incident date

August 23, 2011

Location

خلة الفرجان, Warehouse in Khallet Al Furjan, Tarabulus, Libya

Geolocation

32.886602, 13.190912 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between 63 and 170 prisoners were killed in the early evening in Yarmouk prison under the control of Gaddafi forces in a warehouse in Khallet al Furjan on August 23, 2011.

According to the UN Report Source, in the early evening, prison guards at the facility threw between 6 and 8 grenades into the warehouse holding the prisoners and then the guards began shooting the prisoners with AK47s. The violence continued for between 10-30 minutes before the guards stopped, possibly to get more ammunition. A guard ordered to collect the bodies counted 109 bodies.

DW News reported that 50-53 charred bodies were found at the site of the massacre. BBC News reported that 47 bodies were found at the site but a survivor of the massacre said that 153 people were being held at the time and only 20 escaped. He also added that most of the detainees were civilians.

Lalout News reported that over 170 victims were killed at the Yarmouk massacre.

The names of those killed:

Ali Muhammad Faraj Al-Bahbah, 20 years old, from Zliten

Anas Bashir Abu Bakr bin Aisha, arrested on August 18, 2011 in the uprising of Al Baza

Abd al-Hakim Khalifa al-Kabir

Bahaa al-Din Salih Abd al-Salam al-Thani

Jamal Khalifa Abdullah Al-Lafi

Osama Khalifa Abdullah Al-Lafi

 Muhammad Khalfa Abdullah Al-Lafi

Imad al-Din Salem Abu al-Qasim Hassan

Al Naji Masoud Salem Al-Zardab

Masoud Salem Abdullah Al-Zardab

Osama Abd Al-Salam Abdullah Al-Saeedi

Joum’a Masoud Abu Al-Qasim Abu Dabba

Saleh Khalifa Muhammad Al-Fitouri

Saddam Ali Muhammad Ashour

Saleh Ali Muhammad Ashour

Muhammad Imhamed Erhim Obaid

Muhammad Mahmoud Abdullah Al-Sari

Mahmoud Imhamed Mahmoud As-Sari

Ahmed Mustafa Ahmed Al-Sari

Ali Saleh Ahmad As-Sari

Muhammad Nuri Mahmoud As-Sari

Mustafa Muhammad Qununu

Khaled Mustafa Muhammad Qununu

Abd al-Basit Musafi Muhammad Qununu

Ramadan Abdullah Muhammad Zureik

Muhammad Umar Al-Sadiq Ahmadi

Osama Faraj Al-Misrati

Tariq Abd al-Latif bin Zahia

Atia Omar Ahmidan

Abdul-Malik Abdel Hafeez Himyer

Muhammad Omar Al-Bak

Abdullah Bouamran Al-Ghoula

Abdul Razzaq Masoud Misbah Al-Naaji

Rajab Masoud Misbah Al-Naaji

Abu Bakr Miloud Al-Taif Al-Najjar

Mustafa Ahmed Al-Ashhab

Ali Ibrahim Al-Shwahidi

Mustafa Muhammad Al-Manqoush

Salem Hussein Al-Qady

Yusef Salem Al-Qadi

Essam Jabra Ihbeish

Atiyah Moftah bin Sulaiman

Muhammad Moftah Hammouda

Hussain Abdul Hamid Al-Mabqa 

Muhammad Bashir bin Aisha

Ramadan Mahmoud Jaber

Ali Al-Hadi Misbah

Hasan Ali Ghaith

Abd al-Salam Abu Hanik

Ibrahim Fateh Al-Eshitr

Mustafa Muhammad Abu Mariqa

Faraj Muhammad Aghilib

Wael Atiyah Abd Al-Hamid Al-Adl

Al-Saeed Al-Sayyed Al Sayyad 

Al-Najjar is Egyptian

Khaled Al-Soghair Abusaq

Ayman Younis Al-Sukaih

Amhammad Muhammad Abdullah Al-Aswad

Mahmoud Abdel Salam Adrah

Muhammad Muhammad Shaaban al-Dabrzi

Miftah Abdul Qader Al Futaisi

Ali Ibrahim Al-Daradh

Omar Salem Muhammad Salhuba

 

 

 

The incident occured at approximately 7:30 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Ali Muhammad Faraj Al-Bahbah
20 years old male He is one of the rebels from the jihad city of Zliten, who was lost while joining the rebels and was arrested by the Gaddafi Brigades on Thursday at 10:30 pm on 08/18/2011. killed
Anas Bashir Abu Bakr bin Aisha
Age unknown male Anas was arrested on August 18, 2011 in the uprising of Al Baza killed
Abd al-Hakim Khalifa al-Kabir
Age unknown male killed
Bahaa al-Din Salih Abd al-Salam al-Thani
Age unknown killed
Jamal Khalifa Abdullah Al-Lafi
Age unknown killed
Osama Khalifa Abdullah Al-Lafi
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Khalfa Abdullah Al-Lafi
Age unknown killed
Imad al-Din Salem Abu al-Qasim Hassan
Age unknown killed
Al Naji Masoud Salem Al-Zardab
Age unknown killed
Masoud Salem Abdullah Al-Zardab
Age unknown killed
Osama Abd Al-Salam Abdullah Al-Saeedi
Age unknown killed
Joum’a Masoud Abu Al-Qasim Abu Dabba
Age unknown male killed
Saleh Khalifa Muhammad Al-Fitouri
Age unknown killed
Saddam Ali Muhammad Ashour
Age unknown killed
Saleh Ali Muhammad Ashour
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Imhamed Erhim Obaid
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Mahmoud Abdullah Al-Sari
Age unknown killed
Mahmoud Imhamed Mahmoud As-Sari
Age unknown killed
Ahmed Mustafa Ahmed Al-Sari
Age unknown killed
Ali Saleh Ahmad As-Sari
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Nuri Mahmoud As-Sari
Age unknown killed
Mustafa Muhammad Qununu
Age unknown killed
Khaled Mustafa Muhammad Qununu
Age unknown killed
Abd al-Basit Musafi Muhammad Qununu
Age unknown killed
Ramadan Abdullah Muhammad Zureik
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Umar Al-Sadiq Ahmadi
Age unknown killed
Osama Faraj Al-Misrati
Age unknown killed
Tariq Abd al-Latif bin Zahia
Age unknown killed
Atia Omar Ahmidan
Age unknown killed
Abdul-Malik Abdel Hafeez Himyer
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Omar Al-Bak
Age unknown killed
Abdullah Bouamran Al-Ghoula
Age unknown killed
Abdul Razzaq Masoud Misbah Al-Naaji
Age unknown killed
Rajab Masoud Misbah Al-Naaji
Age unknown killed
Abu Bakr Miloud Al-Taif Al-Najjar
Age unknown killed
Mustafa Ahmed Al-Ashhab
Age unknown killed
Ali Ibrahim Al-Shwahidi
Age unknown killed
Mustafa Muhammad Al-Manqoush
Age unknown killed
Salem Hussein Al-Qady
Age unknown killed
Yusef Salem Al-Qadi
Age unknown killed
Essam Jabra Ihbeish
Age unknown killed
Atiyah Moftah bin Sulaiman
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Moftah Hammouda
Age unknown killed
Hussain Abdul Hamid Al-Mabqa
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Bashir bin Aisha
Age unknown killed
Ramadan Mahmoud Jaber
Age unknown killed
Ali Al-Hadi Misbah
Age unknown killed
Hasan Ali Ghaith
Age unknown killed
Abd al-Salam Abu Hanik
Age unknown killed
Ibrahim Fateh Al-Eshitr
Age unknown killed
Mustafa Muhammad Abu Mariqa
Age unknown killed
Faraj Muhammad Aghilib
Age unknown killed
Wael Atiyah Abd Al-Hamid Al-Adl
Age unknown killed
Al-Saeed Al-Sayyed Al Sayyad
Age unknown killed
Al-Najjar is Egyptian
Age unknown killed
Khaled Al-Soghair Abusaq
Age unknown killed
Ayman Younis Al-Sukaih
Age unknown killed
Amhammad Muhammad Abdullah Al-Aswad
Age unknown killed
Mahmoud Abdel Salam Adrah
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Muhammad Shaaban al-Dabrzi
Age unknown killed
Miftah Abdul Qader Al Futaisi
Age unknown killed
Ali Ibrahim Al-Daradh
Age unknown killed
Omar Salem Muhammad Salhuba
Age unknown killed

Geolocation notes (5) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention a warehouse in Khallet Al Furjan (خلة الفرجان) south of Tripoli (طرابلس‎). Analyzing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to these exact coordinates: 32.773607, 13.211762.

  • Reports of the incident mention a warehouse in Khallet Al Furjan (خلة الفرجان) south of Tripoli (طرابلس‎). Analyzing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to exact coordinates.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

  • Tagged satellite imagery according to mateial from sources.

    Imagery:
    Google Earth

  • Tagged audio-visual material from sources.

    Imagery:
    @rabta2011

  • Tagged audio-visual material from sources.

  • Tagged audio-visual material from sources.

    Imagery:
    @rabta2011

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    64 – 170
  • (4 men64–170 other protected persons)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (25) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Image of charred bodied killed in a prison massacre on August 23, 2011
  • Anas Bashir Abu Bakr bin Aisha, killed in Yarmouk prison on August 23, 2011
  • From the association of the families of the victims of the Yarmouk prison holocaust
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Prisoners killed at Yarmouk on August 23, 2011
  • Images of those killed at Yarmouk prison, August 23, 2011
  • Images of those killed at Yarmouk prison, August 23, 2011
  • Images of those killed at Yarmouk prison, August 23, 2011
  • Images of those killed at Yarmouk prison, August 23, 2011
  • Images of those killed at Yarmouk prison, August 23, 2011
  • Image taken the day of the Yarmouk prison massacre

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Ground operation
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    64 – 170
  • (4 men64–170 other protected persons)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected target
    Gaddafi forces

Sources (16) [ collapse]