Investigations

Investigations

Published

April 1, 2024

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Airwars data featured in detailed visual breakdown by The Sunday Times

This article was originally published in The Sunday Times after Airwars worked with their team to visualise the patterns of families killed in our archive of civilian harm in Gaza. The introduction is repeated below but the entire article is available here, and an archived version here.

 

Maisara al-Rayyes was in the prime of his life. At 30, he had just completed his medical studies at King’s College London as part of the prestigious Chevening scholarship, which brings “outstanding emerging leaders” to study in Britain, funded by the Foreign Office.

Returning to Gaza last summer to work with Doctors Without Borders, he married a fellow scholar, Laura Hayek, whom he described as “the most gorgeous and kind-hearted girl” he had ever met.

A social media post on September 12 shows him taking a selfie with James Cleverly, the foreign secretary, after al-Rayyes and other scholars were invited to discuss the challenges and aspirations of young Palestinians.

Two months later he and his entire family were killed.

The al-Rayyes family are one of at least 1,800 that the Gazan authorities say have lost multiple members. In some cases whole families are being erased, their surnames removed from the civil registry, the official government record of citizens.

In collaboration with Airwars, the British-based organisation that counts civilian casualties in conflicts around the world, The Sunday Times has collated the details of more than 150 families that have lost multiple members in the Israel-Gaza war.

These are some of their stories.

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Published

February 26, 2024

Written by

Airwars Staff

Palestinian civilians allegedly killed every day in the two weeks following the International Court of Justice's ruling on Gaza, Airwars finds

On January 26th, the International Court of Justice ordered provisional measures in a case brought by South Africa alleging that Israel was violating its obligations under the 1948 Genocide Convention in Gaza. Israel refuted the claim, stating it was taking all possible measures to protect civilians during its attempts to destroy the Palestinian militant group Hamas.

The ICJ found that a plausible risk of genocide in the Gaza Strip exists and that Israel must take all measures within its power to prevent genocide, to prevent and punish incitement to genocide, make provision for access to humanitarian aid, ensure preservation of evidence related to South Africa’s allegations, and must report back to the Court within a month about how it was complying with this order.

However concerns have mounted over the destruction of evidence related to civilian harm claims given widespread attacks on healthcare facilities and the highly restrictive operating environment.

To provide independent incident-based research to support investigations into civilian harm claims, Airwars’ research team carried out an expedited assessment process gathering and reviewing all civilian harm allegations in the first two weeks of the month-long period.

Airwars research identified more than 200 alleged incidents of harm from January 27th 2024 to February 9th 2024, originating from more than 1,500 open source claims. These claims include local media outlets, testimonies from family members, and other witness testimonies posted online. Each incident was identified by corroborating at least five sources detailing the civilian harm event.

There are likely to be other incidents that were not publicly reported upon, however this research intends to provide a starting point for further investigation.

Among the claims, Airwars has identified attacks on journalists, on civilians while sheltering in displacement centres, on civilians waiting for humanitarian aid and on healthcare workers.

Airwars is still reviewing these cases through our rigorous casualty recording methodology, which means that no overall fatality estimates will be produced at this time. However these incidents still reveal some key patterns of harm.

Among the key trends were:

    Civilians were reported killed every day in incidents during the two-week period, with an average of 16 casualty incidents recorded per day. In 190 of the incidents, civilians were reported killed or injured following the alleged use of explosive weapons. In 36 incidents, civilians were allegedly shot and killed or injured by live fire. Healthcare workers and first responders were reported killed in six incidents. Civilians waiting for humanitarian aid were reported killed or injured in five separate incidents. Civilians in education centres were reported killed or injured in eight separate incidents, often while taking shelter. Journalists were reported killed in at least five of these incidents, often alongside members of their family. In 13 separate incidents, at least ten civilians were alleged to have been killed. Geographically the largest number of incidents occurred in the governorate of Khan Yunis, which Israeli forces were seeking to take control of during the time period.

Out of the 233 incidents identified by Airwars, our geolocation teams were able to locate 213 to governorate level – key administrative units in Gaza. These incidents are reflected on the map. Further precision on geolocations will be part of Airwars’ forthcoming and comprehensive assessment of each incident.

Incidents include harm from explosive weapon use and to the extent possible from the use of small arms or light weapons. Each incident has not yet been through Airwars’ rigorous assessment process, and therefore data points should be treated as provisional only, including on civilian status and casualty ranges.

Chronology of harm

Key incidents are described chronologically below, and full datasets can be provided on request including with digitally archived links. The following should not be understood as an exhaustive list, but rather a brief summary of each day’s events – as reported by local sources.

More comprehensive analysis will be released once we have completed our full documentation efforts, including the more than 2,000 incidents yet to go through our review process.

January 27th 2024

Civilians alleged to have been killed while waiting for humanitarian aid, as well as in shootings in a hospital courtyard.

January 28th 2024

More than ten civilians reported killed in a single incident in a refugee camp, dozens reported injured while waiting for humanitarian aid, and at least one civilian killed in a school. A journalist was also reported killed.

January 29th 2024

More than ten civilians reported killed in at least three separate incidents, including while sheltering in a school. At least two incidents of identified civilian casualties in a hospital due to shootings. One journalist also reported killed.

January 30th 2024

More than ten civilians reported killed during one incident, as well as other incidents recorded of casualties during aid distributions.

January 31st 2024

Civilians reported killed while sheltering in a collective displacement centre, as well as harm reported on ambulance and first responder crews.

February 1st 2024

Healthworkers reported killed near a hospital entrance, as well as widespread reporting of 22 bodies recovered in Khan Younis.

February 2nd 2024

At least two incidents identified where health workers were reported killed.

February 3rd 2024

More than ten civilians reported killed during an alleged Israeli bombing on a family home.

February 4th 2024

Multiple reports of civilians killed and injured while waiting to receive humanitarian aid. Additional casualties reported in a kindergarten.

February 5th 2024

Civilian casualties reported in education facilities in Khan Younis.

February 6th 2024

At least two incidents where more than ten civilians were reported killed, including in an alleged strike on a family home. Two journalists also reported killed.

February 7th 2024

More than ten civilians killed in a single incident, and additional casualties reported in medical facilities. Several civilians also reported killed while waiting for humanitarian aid.

February 8th 2024

More than ten civilians killed in a single incident, and at least two incidents recorded where healthcare workers were killed, and one incident where civilians were killed in a health centre. One journalist also reported killed.

February 9th 2024

One incident where more than ten civilians were reported killed, another incident where casualties were recorded in medical centres, at aid distributions and also, separately, in an education facility.

Airwars’ ongoing casualty recording efforts

Following the brutal October 7th Hamas attack, Israel launched one of the most intense military campaigns in modern history in Gaza. In the months since, almost every fact emerging has been in dispute.

In an attempt to combat mis- and disinformation and build a permanent public record of civilian harm, Airwars has been recording incident-by-incident civilian harm allegations since October 7th. By utilising Airwars’ open source-led primary language methodology – used to document civilian harm caused by different belligerents in multiple conflict zones including Iraq, Syria and Ukraine – researchers have so far identified more than 2,500 separate allegations of civilian harm in Gaza. These range from incidents in which one or two civilians were reported injured to those in which more than 100 Palestinians have been reported killed.

To date more than 280 incidents have been through a rigorous six-stage verification process and are available on our website in a new archive. Due to the scale of the task and the rigour of the process, most of these relate to the first month of the war. Dozens more are published each week once they have completed the full review process. A forthcoming report will highlight key trends from those published incidents.

▲ Palestinian News & Information Agency (Wafa) in contract with APAimages, reproduced under Creative Commons

Incident Code

ISPT170124n

Incident date

January 17, 2024

Location

المستشفى الميداني الأردني الخاص/2 في خان يونس, Jordanian Private Field Hospital 2, Khan Younis, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.343373, 34.292873 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Two people, including a Jordanian medic, were injured after alleged Israeli shelling of the Jordanian Private Field Hospital 2 on January 17th, 2024.

The hospital employee, whose name is unknown, was wounded on the right side of his body, sustaining injuries to his thigh and arm; both injuries were described as “moderate.” The other civilian, of whom identifying factors are also unknown, has been described only as a “Gazan citizen” who according to Sky News Arabia, was receiving treatment in the intensive care unit and was “injured by shrapnel and a bullet.” The severity of these injuries is unknown.

The employee, under Jordanian royal directive, was evacuated to Jordan the evening of the strike. The Jordanian Royal Medical Services posted on Facebook that he was taken to Al Hussein Medical City, a medical complex in Amman, consisting of five hospitals. Doctors there described him as stable: pictures attached show him conscious and in seemingly good spirits. A bandage on his forearm is clearly visible. Recognition from the Jordanian royal family was noticeable: the Crown Prince Hussein bin Abdullah II visited.

Gazans near the hospital described the scene following the strike. Mohammad Rami, a Palestinian civilian quoted by Middle East Eye, stated that he and others previously taking shelter in nearby tents were “forced to flee late at night, fearing the hospital would be raided or bombed.” Most of those displaced apparently “spent the night on the streets.” The bombing, Rami said, was “terrifying.”

Al Mamlaka TV described the hospital as “affected by missile fragments.” Roya News corroborated this, claiming the hospital “suffered extensive damage.” Israeli tanks allegedly came within meters of the hospital. A video shared by Ahmed el-Madhoun showed multiple bullet rounds in the vicinity of what was described as “dangerously close to the Jordanian field hospital.” Similarly, NPR quoted the Jordanian military as saying that Israel “deliberately targeted” the hospital by “blocking the entrance to the complex with a tank and shooting at the hospital.” The Jordanian embassy released a statement alleging that the attack “involved heavy firepower” which included “direct fire from tanks and vehicles.” Some of the firepower may have been directed at the nearby cemetery, which the hospital borders.

The Israeli fire reached international audiences, with the French government condemning it. Roya News quoted the French Ministry of Foreign affairs, which was said to have expressed “strong disapproval.” France “directly supports” the field hospital by providing financing and medical supplies, it said.

The Israel Defense Forces commented on the alleged strike but denied their involvement. The Times of Israel reported that the military “denied claims” that it shelled the hospital and said that “the hospital is not damaged and continues to function and provide medical care to those who need it.” IDF’s Spokesperson’s Unit told The Times of Israel that the military “did not attack the Jordanian hospital in Khan Younis,” but that troops were engaged in a gun battle with Hamas operatives in a nearby area. However, the Jordanian armed forces released a statement that “this action was not a consequence of a clash with resistance factions,”and that it “strongly asserts that the deliberate targeting of the Jordanian Field Hospital was part of Israel’s consistent approach to targeting hospitals in Gaza.” According to the Jordanian military, Israeli forces knew the location of the hospital and knew that staff were sheltering in an adjacent concrete building. Video footage released by Jordan’s armed forces showed the building with bullet holes in the concrete walls, shattered windows and bloodstains on a bed.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Jordanian Private Field Hospital 2 (المستشفى الميداني الأردني الخاص/2 في خان يونس), located south of Khan Younis (خان يونس), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.343373, 34.292873. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Ground operation
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Causes of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (31) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (30) [ collapse]

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    Source: Xinhua News
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    Source: Xinhua News
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    Source: Xinhua News
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    Source: Xinhua News
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    Source: Xinhua News
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    Source: Hala akhbar
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    Source: Jordanian royal medical services
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    Source: Jordanian royal medical services
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    Source: Madaba headband
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    Source: Tamara nawash al nahar
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    Source: Jordan tv
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    Source: Jordan tv
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    Source: Jordan tv
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    Source: Jordan tv
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    Source: Middle East Eye News
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    Source: Middle East Eye News
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    Source: Roya News News
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    Source: The Times of Israel News
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    Source: NPR News
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    Source: @JorEmbUS
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    Source: @JorEmbUS
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    Source: @lrozen
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    Source: @gbrumfiel
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    Source: @gbrumfiel
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Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Ground operation
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Causes of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions, Small arms and light weapons
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (31) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT110124b

Incident date

January 11, 2024

Location

خانيونس, a residential house in vicinity of the Nasser Medical Complex in Khan Yunis, Khan Yunis governorate, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

Shortly before 12:34 PM on Thursday, January 11th, 2024, up to two Palestinian Civil Defense crew members were reportedly injured in an alleged ‘double tap’ Israeli airstrike on the civil defense crews and paramedics while they were trying to rescue injured people who were trapped under the rubble of a house in the vicinity of the Nasser Medical Complex in Khan Yunis in the southern Gaza Strip.

Shehab Agency was the first to report an injury of a member of the Civil Defense at 12:34 PM. General Directorate of Civil Defense later confirmed the injury of one of its rescue team members in an alleged “double tap” strike which hit crew members who were carrying out their humanitarian duty. Later the Directorate reported that two Civil Defense members were injured.

A video filmed by Al Jazeera and reposted in its shorter version by many Twitter/X users and media outlets showed Palestinian Civil Defense crew members rushing towards a house damaged by the earlier strike, being shown how to get inside by children, then entering it to search for survivors and being hit by a powerful explosion while they were inside. The video also showed how two male Civil Defense members who had been injured were assisted by their colleagues to get into an ambulance.

Twitter/X user @MawtiniLevent shared a similar video alleging that the incident happened in the vicinity of the Nasser Medical Complex and adding that civil defense teams were attempting to extinguish a fire that broke out as a result of the bombardment that affected the place earlier.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strike to the Israeli military.

The incident occured at approximately 12:34 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (75) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (58) [ collapse]

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Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (75) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT281223a

Incident date

December 28, 2023

Location

شرق مستشفى الأمل, East of Al Amal Hospital, Khan Younis, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.351275, 34.298693 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On Thursday morning, December 28th 2023, between 10 and 20 civilians, including at least three children, were killed, and at least 12 others, including at least five children, were injured in an alleged Israeli airstrike/and or artillery strikes on a residential area near the al-Amal Hospital in Khan Yunis, south of the Gaza Strip.

At 7:29 am, The Palestine Post quoted the Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS) in a Twitter/X post, stating “8 martyrs and a number of wounded as a result of bombing near our al-Amal Hospital in Khan Yunis.” Shortly thereafter, The Spectator Index, Al Jazeera, and al-Masry al-Youm among other media and social media sources quoted an updated statement from PRCS which brought the death toll to 10 civilians killed – the Times of Gaza alleged that it was the third strike on the al-Amal hospital in less than 24 hours, and shared a video taken by a PRCS volunteer of emergency workers and locals rescuing four children in varying states of injury including one severely injured child, with three of them being taken in an ambulance.

Reuters News reported that Khan Yunis “came under heavy bombardment on Thursday morning from warplanes and tanks near al-Amal hospital, west of Israeli positions”, also alleging that it was the “third strike targeting the area around the hospital in less than an hour”, and that residents believed it was part of an attempt at provoking “a new exodus ahead of a further ground assault.” CNN’s Michael Holmes @holmesCNN posted on Twitter/X saying “16 killed east of Khan Younis in Gaza Thurs in an apparent Israeli airstrike – medical sources.” The Ministry of Health in Gaza was later quoted by Xinhua News and Aawsat News stating a total of 20 Palestinians had been killed and dozens more had been injured, with the PRCS condemning the alleged strike and posting to Twitter/X that there were “dozens of martyrs and wounded, including children.” @Inejmydarling posted “many were killed and others wounded in an Israeli airstrike…several children are among the casualties” and alleged that it was the second consecutive day of strikes on the area near the hospital. The Middle East Eye reported that five children had been killed in the alleged strike, and that bodies were “scattered throughout the area”, and in another post shared images of five wounded children being treated for their injuries.

The Ministry of Health spokesperson Ashraf al-Qedra stated to Xinhua that the death toll could rise further as the search for survivors beneath the rubble “of a residential building near al-Amal hospital” continued, and warned against alleged “deliberate targeting” of the Nasser Medical Complex and it’s vicinity in Khan Yunis. Xinhua reported that local sources informed them that “there were many displaced Palestinians inside the building” when the alleged strike occurred, and that rescuers at the site said “most of the victims were retrieved in ‘dismembered parts.’”

Users on social media shared the names of the identified civilians among those killed. Khaleel Ibrahim shared nine names of those killed “in the bombing of a house for the Hamdan family, opposite the eastern gate of the Red Crescent Society” – Ibrahim Tayseer Salah Hamdan, Suhail Abdel Fattah Issa, Shadi Saqr Fayad, Makram Akram Shannan, Sally Ghlais al-Ghaf Shannan, Tayseer Eid Saleh Wafi, Aisha Magdy al-Hassi, and the children Farid Mahmoud Ghaf and Yazan Hussein al-Majdalawi. Farid’s mother Mariam Saleh Joudeh Marouf was also killed in the attack. Tamas Abdallah posted that three children had been identified among those killed, but only named Yazan and Farid.

Tributes to Shadi Fayad and Suhail Issa were posted by their loved ones on social media – Khaled Issa called his uncle Suhail “a kind man, the owner of the good memory”, while Nadal Issa shared a photo of Suhail, a smiling, bearded man wearing a cap. Mosab a Fayyad, Arees Alabadla, and the Facebook page al-Qarara’s pulse shared images of Shadi Fayad, a young man with a bright smile, with al-Qarara calling him “the righteous son of Qarara” and Arees saying Shadi was reunited with his mother and sister “in the highest paradise”, and expressed condolences to his surviving sister and family.

In a Twitter/X post, the Palestine Red Crescent Society alleged that the PRCS-run al-Amal hospital had been bombed “for the fifth time in less than a week”, sharing a video documenting their work following the alleged strike on Thursday. In it, a PRCS worker stated that on the morning of Thursday, they were at the Khan Yunis ambulance center when they “heard several explosions nearby” which they gradually confirmed to be as a result of “a bombardment on a residential apartment east of al-Amal hospital”, with simultaneous “artillery shelling on al-Qassam street” the latter for which EMS teams retrieved a body and provided “initial first aid to the cases in the field.” They further informed that according to protocol, injuries were directed to the nearest available hospital, al-Amal, with the “extremely critical cases” being redirected to Nasser Hospital “for more effective management of the situation.”

A video shared by Blue Globe World News showed about five injured, including three children, being taken into Nasser hospital – the children weeping in distress, one with wounds on their limbs and face. The Times of Gaza shared an image of a doctor at Nasser Hospital in Gaza treating a heavily wounded man while on the floor, quoting the doctor “Today, I have this floor to sit on, and maybe it won’t be there tomorrow.” The Times also shared a video of a man collapsing in grief at the hospital, wailing “We can’t take it anymore.”

Another video, shared by @jala_leb, showed a toddler with a severely wounded leg crying and shivering in pain while being comforted by a man.

Amr Tabash shared a heartbreaking video of Farid Ghaf’s grieving father, weeping and carrying the body of his child wrapped in a shroud. Heartbreaking footage was also shared by Twitter/X user @Majstar7 of Farid’s grieving father clutching the lifeless hand of his little child, crying “I got the biscuits you wanted my son, take them with you, take them with you to heaven” – he had gone to get biscuits for his son and returned only to find out that his wife Mariam and son Farid had been killed in the alleged bombardment “on the house to which they had fled.” Another tragic video, shared by @DrShajulIslam, showed a child hugging the covered body of his killed father, crying “Dad, don’t leave me.”

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strike to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured in the morning.

The victims were named as:

Ibrahim Tayseer Salah Hamdan إبراهيم تيسير صلاح حمدان
Age unknown killed
Suhail Abdel Fattah Issa سهيل عبد الفتاح عيسى
Adult male killed
Farid Mahmoud Ghaf فريد محمود الغف
Child killed
Yazan Hussein Al-Majdalawi يزن حسين المجدلاوي
Child killed
Shadi Saqr Fayad شادي صقر فياض
Adult male killed
Makram Akram Shannan مكرم اكرم شنن
Age unknown killed
Sally Ghlais Al-Ghaf Shannan سالي غليص الغف شنن
Age unknown killed
Aisha Magdy Al-Hassi عائشة مجدي الهسي
Age unknown killed
Tayseer Eid Saleh Wafi تيسر عيد صالح وافي
Age unknown killed
Mariam Saleh Joudeh Marouf
Adult female killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention a strike east of the Al Amal Hospital (مستشفى الأمل), within the city of Khan Younis (خان يونس). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Al Amal Hospital are: 31.351275, 34.298693.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    10 – 20
  • (3–5 children1 woman2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (34) [ collapse]

Media
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Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    10 – 20
  • (3–5 children1 woman2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (34) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT1669

Incident date

December 11, 2023

Location

الشيخ رضوان, Sheik Radwan, Gaza City, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.532389, 34.470222 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (other) level. Continue to map

Additional Geolocations

31.532879, 34.470028 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Shortly before 7:43 AM on Monday, December 11th 2023, a series of alleged Israeli airstrikes hit six homes belonging to the extended Salem family in Sheikh Radwan, killing at least 102 civilians. Airwars was able to identify 104 named victims (102 fatalities, and two others injured), though some local reports put the death toll at 200 civilians.

Airwars estimates that 50 children* were killed in the attack, which some sources said wiped out almost an entire neighbourhood. It was reported that many of the victims sought refuge in this house to escape the incursion of the Israeli forces into areas of Gaza.

Shehab Agency, Warfare Analysis and other sources initially reported “dozens of martyrs and wounded”. Other sources, including IMEMC news and Mondoweiss news, wrote about 15 civilians killed and dozens injured. According to a news report by arabi21.com, approximately 50 people, including men, women and children, were home in the Sheikh Radwan neighborhood at the moment of the strike. A Twitter/X user Younis Tirawi (@ytirawi) wrote that the rescue teams managed to retrieve 32 dead bodies and estimated that an additional 80 were still beneath the rubble.

Other social media users and Salem family members provided much higher casualties figures. According to the Facebook user Yahya salem, one of the affected houses belonging to his uncle Suleiman was bombed after his uncles and their children gathered there, leading to the death of around 50 people. Another user @humanprovince wrote that his good friend’s entire extended family was wiped out yesterday in the Sheikh Radwan neighborhood of Gaza City as 70 members of the family were killed. A Twitter/X user @MariamBarghouti wrote that 100 members of the Salem family were killed in the 24 hours since the strike, adding that “There is massacre on top of massacre on top of massacre in Gaza.”

A Facebook user Yahya Salim wrote that 100 family members were killed, and dozens were still under the rubble. He also shared a video showing a completely destroyed building and ongoing rescue efforts – people searching for the bodies of their beloved under the rubble, mentioning that these are his uncles, cousins, his mother and father who remained alive. He added: “there is no ability to rescue those trapped under the rubble, no cars transporting the martyrs and the injured.”

A family relative Ramy salem wrote: “107 martyrs so far and still missing under the rubble💔” Another family relative, Ahmad Salem, alleged that the death toll was higher – according to him, about 130 members of his family were killed, including his uncles and aunts, and their children. A Facebook user Ana Safaa estimated that the number of the victims killed was even higher, up to 200, writing that  “a large number of the family were martyred, approximately 200 martyrs, and a large number are also seriously injured.”

Tributes by family relatives and friends helped Airwars to identify victim names as well as family connections. In particular, the condolence message by Mohammed Salem helped to narrow down the fatalities list to the specific families/houses within the extended Salem family. In cases where sources did not explicitly specify the family connections between the victims, identification through their three full names (usually referring to the victim’s first name, followed by the first name of their father, and their family name) was used.

The extended Salam family

Abu Akram family

An elderly woman Umm Akram Salem, wife of Abu Akram, was killed alongside her two sons, Akram Khalil Salem (Abu Youssef) and Abdul Rahman Salem (Abu Uday), her daughter-in-law, Akram’s wife, Zainab Saber Salem (Umm Youssef), Akram and Zainab’s son Younis Akram Salem and an additional unnamed child, and Abu Uday’s daughter Nada Abdul Rahman Salem.  Umm Akram’s daughter Hana Henno  Khalil Salem and her husband Sherif Saber Salem were also killed. Fadl salem abu anas shared an image of two men, Sharif Salem and Rami Salem (mentioned below in “Abu Ramzi house” section), indicating that both of them are “in heaven”.

The surviving sister of Akram and Hanna, Ana Safaa, expressed her grief in a testimony online: “And it goes a💔 black year, yes, a black year that was full of calamities. . .I lost the most precious thing… my mother, my heaven Umm Akram Salem.” In another post, Ana Safaa explained that her mother, Umm Akram Salem, underwent a heart surgery (“she came out of the death before the war with heart operations”), and that her brother’s wife,  Umm Youssef, was like a second mother to her.

A daughter of Ana Safaa’s brother Abdullah Khalil Salem, identified as Sirin Salem, was also reportedly killed.

Ana also mourned the death of her sister Hanaa and Hanaa’s husband Sheriff, her brother Abu Youssef and his wife Umm Youssef along with her nephew Younis Salem, her brother Abu Uday and his daughter Nada Salem. She wrote about Younis that “he had never harmed anyone in his life”

Fadl Salem Abu Anas wrote a tribute to the memory of Abu Youssef, his wife Zainab and their children, sharing an image where one of the men making a meal outside was apparently Abu Youssef. Only one child of Akram Khalil Salem (Abu Youssef) could be identified (Younis Akram Salem).

Mohammed Salem mourned the death of his beloved aunt, Umm Akram, “the beloved martyr Abu Youssef”,  the martyrs Umm Youssef Zainab Salem, Younis Akram Salem and Umm Ali Howaida Nafez Salem.

The Abu Ramzi house

According to Mohammed Salem, other family members were killed in the Abu Ramzi house. He, and Yahya Salim, identified the following names:

Sufyan Salem was killed along with his wife and all his family members, except for one son named Ahmed. Among the victims were their children Rami Sufyan Salem (Abu Bilal), Rama Sufyan Salem, Ahmed Sufyan Salem, Halima Sufyan Salem, and Saif Sufyan Salem.

Salem Salem (abu Anas), Salem Salem’s wife (who could possibly be Sherine Jamil Salem) and all his family members were also reportedly killed. Salem’s children, who who lost their lives, were identified as Anas Salem Salem, Wabab Salem Salem, Roa Salem Salem, Ahmed Salem Salem and Remas Salem Salem.

Mohammed Salem also added that the entire family of Ramzi Suleiman Salem Deeb – his wife Suhair Majid Awni Al Shawa, sons, daughters, and relatives – were killed, while sources were conflicted as to whether Ramzi himself was left alone injured or was killed. The children were identified by Yahya salim as three sons Mustafa Ramzi Salem, Mohamed Ramzi Salem, Muhannad Ramzi Salem and two daughters Nourhan (Nour) Ramzi Salem and Nawal Ramzi Salem.

Members of Al-Shawa family, related to the Salem family through Suhair Majid Awni Al Shawa’s mariage to Ramzi Suleiman Salem Deeb, were also killed in the same attack (see below: Al-Shawa family).

Al-Shawa family

According to the Facebook tribute by Moataz Shawa, the bombing of her sister’s Suhair house allegedly perpetrated by the Israeli military led to the death of 18 of her family members. “They were my whole life”, she added.

She also shared pictures showing the complete destruction of their family home. “This is what’s left of my house, after all my family members were killed” Moataz wrote.

Moataz’s father Majid Awni Jamil Al-Shawa (abu Fadi) was killed along with his wife, Moataz’s mother Helen Badie Jamil al-Shawa, their sons, Moataz’s brothers Fadi Majid Awni Al-Shawa and Ihab Majed Awni Al-Shawa, their daughter, Moataz’s sister Suhair Majid Awni Al Shawa along with her husband Ramzi Suleiman Salem Deeb (abu Mustafa) and their five children (documented above – “Abu Ramzi house”), their daughter-in-law, wife of Fadi, Nevin Suhail Abdullah Al-Shawa (Al Sarsak), their daughter-in-law, wife of Ihab, Walaa Hossam Salim Al-Shawa (Al-Sarsak) and their grandchildren.

Among the grandchildren killed in the attack were sons of Fadi and Nevin Fares Al-Shawa and Firas Al-Shawa, their daughter Shahad Al-Shawa; a son of Ihab and Walaa, Muhammad Al-Shawa, and the two daughters of Ihab and Walaa – Helen Al-Shawa and an infant Sham Al-Shawa.

In one Facebook post, Moataz Shawa shared a group picture featuring her mother Helen, her sister Suhair, her niece Nawal, her brother Ihab, Ilhab’s wife Walaa with the 5-month old daughter Sham. She wrote the heartbreaking words that all of them were killed: “Everyone in the picture was killed by Israel. They were all martyrs in a hideous massacre carried out by [Israeli] aircraft that killed 18 people from my family. Every person has a story, a story, and a dream that he was seeking to implement.”

In a separate post, Moataz shared the pictures of her sister Suhair – a smiling young woman in a black dress and a grey hijab, and of her children who were killed. In one more post, she shared the pictures of her deceased father Majed and her mother Helen – he is dressed in a suit with a black tie, and she is in a black embroidered dress and hijab. In other posts, she shared the pictures of her brothers Fadi and Ihab and their children.

Another family relative, Ghadeer Mohammad, also mourned his aunt Helen Al-Shawa, his uncle Abu Fadi Em Fadi Al-Shawa, his relative Nevin, “the kind and compassionate one”, and Suhair.  He also wrote a condolence message to the apparently surviving member of the family, Eman Majed Al-Shawa, saying: “Dear Eman, may God give you patience, strengthen you, and give your heart patience.“

The Shawa Family Facebook account also wrote a tribute to the 19 members of the Al-Shawa family who were killed “while they were safe in their home in Gaza City – Sheikh Radwan neighborhood”, and went on to “ask God Almighty to grant them wide mercy, forgiveness, and the highest paradise in Paradise, and to accept them as companions with the prophets, the truthful ones, the martyrs, and the good ones.”

Facebook users Al-qishawi Nael and Alaa al-Fasees mourned the death of Fadi Majid Awni Al-Shawa, calling him “our brother, friend, and comrade” and sharing a picture of a young bearded man in glasses.

Abu Ghassan’s house

According to the post by Abdelmajeed Aljelekh, among the victims were also Umm Ghassan Salem and her four sons, brothers Yahya Zakaria Salem, Bassam Zakarya Salem (Abu Hamza), Hossam Zakarya Salem, and Ahmad Zakarya Salem, as well as her daughter with all her children, and the wife of one of the brothers, Yahya, named Sabreen Sami Kasbeh. Yahya Salim and Emad j Abushawiesh further identified Nidal Zakarya Salem, son of Zakarya Salem, as killed.

Mohammad Sandouqa wrote that Umm Ghassan was a wife of the late Zakaria Salem. He mourned the death of the brothers – Bassam, Hossam, Yahya and Ahmad.

According to the Facebook tribute by Omar Mustafa, Yahya Salem was his neighbour and childhood friend. He added that he was killed along with his mother, his brothers Bassam and Hossam, some of their children and wives..

Qusi Mustfa Alooz also mourned the death of Umm Ghassan and her sons, sharing the image of Yahya and Ahmad, apparently quite young men.

Mohammed Salem wrote that he lost his beloved aunt, Umm Ghassan, his nephews Yahya and Ahmed as well as Yahya’s wife.

Mohammed Kusba, uncle of the late Sabreen, mourned her death and death of her husband and aunt: “With hearts full of faith in God Almighty and satisfied with God’s will and destiny, my niece (Sabreen Sami Kasba, her husband Yahya Salem, and her aunt, a thousand mercy on them) was martyred.”

Ziad Salem (Abu Wissam)’s house

A family relative Waleed Naeem Salem wrote on Facebook that it was “a black day for our family”. He mourned the death of 60 members of his family, including his aunt, Bushra Ahmed Salem (Umm Wissam) who was killed along with her husband Ziad Abdel Rahman Salem (abu Wissam), their daughter Ahlam Ziyad Salem and their three sons –  Wissam Ziad Salem, Abdullah Ziyad Salem, and Basil Ziad Salem. A wife of Basil, Shaima Akram Salem was also killed along with their sons Youssef Basil Salem and Zain Basil Salem. They were all killed in the house of Ziad Salem, according to Mohammed Salem, survived only by Hossam Basil Salem, one of Basil’s sons. Waleed also shared a striking  image where names of the victims written in Arabic can be seen on the black background.

Mohammed Salem also added that Muhammad and his wife were also killed in this house- it is possible that he could refer to Muhammad Iyad Salem who was mentioned in the list of victims published by Emad j abushawiesh.

A niece of the late Ziad, Abed Deeb, wrote a heartfelt Facebook testimony, mourning the death of her dear uncle Ziad, his wife and children.

Mohammed b Salem in his post wished “Mercy on the family of my aunt Umm Wissam, her husband Ziad, her children, her grandchildren, and her children’s wives 💔😭.”

Hamed jawad mahdi posted a tribute for Basil Ziad Salem, calling him “the beloved and dear friend to our hearts.”

Shaimaa Akram Salem, her husband and children were mentioned also in the testimony by Ana Safaa.

Umm Bashir’s house

According to a post by Mohammed Salem, the three women belonging to three different generations were killed in the house of his aunt Umm Bashir, in particular, Haji Noha Saeed Salem was killed alongside her daughter Reham Saeed Salem and Reham’s daughter Haji Hanan Saeed Salem.

Among the civilians killed in this house were a mother Khader Salem (umm Basil), her three sons –  Basil Rafiq Salem, Jihad Rafiq Salem and Ahmed Rafiq Salem and her daughter Farah Rafiq Salem.  At the same time, Khader’s husband Rafiq Salem (Abu Basil), their married daughters, and Basil’s wife and daughter survived.

Khitam Saeed Salem, child of Saeed Salem was also listed as civilians killed by Yahya Salim and Emad j Abushawiesh

Thaer Mounir Salem was killed alongside his mother, his wife, his brothers Muhammad  Mounir Salem, Ammar Mounir Salem and Omar Mounir Salem (Omar was identified in Yahya Salim’s list of victims) and his sister Shahd Mounir Salem. Thaer and his siblings’ father Abu Thaer survived.

Rizq Salem’s (Abu Nidal) house

According to Mohammed Salem, his uncle Muhammad Rizq Salem (Abu Nidal) was killed alongside his wife, their son Alaa Muhammad Salem, their daughter Amani Muhammad Salem and their two grandchildren, sons of their surviving son Nidal –  Muhammad Nidal Salem and Ahmed Nidal Salem. He stated that Nidal Salem, his wife and two daughters survived. However, Yahya Salim and Emad j Abushawiesh’s list of victims included Nidal Muhammad Salem as one of those killed, with the following relatives: Fidaa Muhammad Salem, Nihad Muhammad Salem, and Kafah Muhammad Salem (mentioned below).

Abu Iyad’s house

According to Mohammed Salem, Mahmoud Abdel Karim Salem (Abu Ahmed) was killed alongside his wife and all their four children. The names of his deceased children were Ahmed Mahmoud Salem, Mohamed Mahmoud Salem, and Ibrahim Mahmoud Salem, the name of the fourth child was not provided. It could possibly be Kafah Muhammad Salem as his name was listed right below those of the three brothers identified in the list provided by Mohammed Salem- in case there was a typo in the writing of Kafah’s middle Arabic name (Mohammad instead of Mahmoud – only one letter different in Arabic).

Abed Deeb mourned the loss of her cousin Mahmoud Abdel Karim Salem (Abu Ahmed) and his entire family. She added many images of the family members – mostly men of different ages, but it is hard to identify exactly who was portrayed in the pictures.

Additional members of the Salem family

There were additional members of the Salem family mentioned in the testimonies by Yahya Salim and Emad j Abushawiesh as killed, but absent in the post by Mohammed Salem. In particular, those were identified as Moaz Hossam Salem, Lana Hossam Salem, Baraa Hossam Salem – children of Hossam Salem, and Muhammad Iyad Salem (on Muhammad Iyad Salem, see section Ziad Salem (Abu Wissam)’s house), Muhammad Suleiman Salem, Wisam Al-Khawaldeh, Nesma Hani Salem.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strike to the Israeli military.

*When victims were referred to as “children of” Airwars counted them as children given the context and understanding of the family in this case, unless there was evidence to suggest at their age (such as marital status). Where only names were identified without ages, Airwars counted these as adults. Our civilian casualty ranges will be updated once more information is available.

 

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 7:43 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (104)

Khader Salem خضر سالم
Adult female killed
Basil Rafiq Salem باسل رفيق سالم
male killed
Jihad Rafiq Salem جهاد رفيق سالم
male killed
Ahmed Rafiq Salem احمد رفيق سالم
male killed
Farah Rafiq Salem فرح رفيق سالم
female killed
Nidal Zakaria Salem نضال زكريا سالم
killed
Thaer Munir Salem ثائر منير سالم
Adult male killed
Wife of Thaer Salem زوجة ثائر
Adult female killed
Mother of Thaer أم ثائر
Adult female killed
Ammar Mounir Salem عمار منير سالم
Adult male killed
Muhammad Mounir Salem محمد منير سالم
Adult male killed
Shahd Mounir Salem شهد منير سالم
Adult female killed
Wisam Al-Khawaldeh وسام الخوالدة
killed
Hanan Saeed Salem حنان سعيد سالم
female killed
Noha Saeed Salem نهى سعيد سالم
Adult female killed
Reham Saeed Salem ريهام سعيد سالم
Adult female killed
Muhammad Rizq Salem محمد رزق سالم
Adult male killed
Wife of Muhammad Rizq Salem زوجة محمد رزق سالم
Adult female killed
Omar Mounir Salem عمر منير سالم
killed
Khitam Saeed Salem ختام سعيد سالم
killed
Alaa Muhammad Salem علاء محمد سالم
Adult male killed
Amani Muhammad Salem اماني محمد سالم
Adult female killed
Muhammad Nidal Salem محمد نضال سالم
male killed
Ahmed Nidal Salem احمد نضال سالم
male killed
Mahmoud Abdel Karim Salem محمود عبد الكريم سالم
Adult male killed
Wife of Mahmoud Abdel Karim Salem (Abu Ahmed) زوجة محمود عبد الكريم سالم
Adult female killed
Kafah Muhammad Salem كفاح محمد سالم
male killed
Ahmed Mahmoud Salem احمد محمود سالم
killed
Mohamed Mahmoud Salem محمد محمود سالم
killed
Ibrahim Mahmoud Salem ابراهيم محمود سالم
killed
Fourth child of Mahmoud Salem
male killed
Abdul Rahman Salem عبد الرحمن سالم
Adult male killed
Fidaa Muhammad Salem فداء محمد سالم
killed
Sufyan Salem سفيان سالم
Adult male killed
Wife of Sufyan Salem زوجة سفيان سالم
Adult female killed
Rami Sufyan Salem رامي سفيان سالم
male killed
Rama Sufyan Salem راما سفيان سالم
female killed
Ahmed Sufyan Salem احمد سفيان سالم
killed
Halima Sufyan Salem حليمه سفيان سالم
Age unknown female killed
Saif Sufyan Salem سيف سفيان سالم
Age unknown male killed
Salem Suleiman Salem سالم سليمان سالم
Age unknown male killed
Sherine Jamil Salem شرين جميل سالم
Age unknown female killed
Wabab Salem Salem وباب سالم سالم
Age unknown female killed
Roa Salem Salem رؤى سالم سالم
Age unknown female killed
Anas Salem Salem انس سالم سالم
Age unknown male killed
Ahmed Salem Salem احمد سالم سالم
Age unknown male killed
Nada Abdel Rahman Salem ندى عبد الرحمن سالم
Age unknown female killed
Akram Khalil Salem (abu Youssef) اكرم خليل سالم
Adult male killed
Mother of Akram أم اكرم
Adult female killed
Zainab Saber Salem (umm Youssef) زينب صابر سالم
Adult female killed
Younis Akram Salem يونس اكرم سالم
Age unknown male killed
Child of Zainab Saber Salem طفل زينب صابر سالم
Age unknown killed
Hanaa Khalil Salem هناء خليل سالم
Adult female killed
Sherif Saber Salem شريف صابر سالم
Adult male killed
Nihad Muhammad Salem نهاد محمد سالم
Age unknown killed
Yahya Zakaria Salem يحيى زكريا سالم
Adult male killed
Umm Ghassan Salem أم غسان سالم
Adult female killed
Bassam Zakarya Salem بسام زكريا سالم
Age unknown male killed
Hossam Zakarya Salem حسام زكريا سالم
Age unknown male killed
Ahmad Zakarya Salem احمد زكريا سالم
Age unknown male killed
Sabreen Sami Kasbeh صابرين سامي كسبة
Adult female killed
Howaida Nafez Salem (Umm Ali) هويدا نافذ سالم
Adult female killed
Ziad Abdel Rahman Salem زياد عبد الرحمن سالم
Adult male killed
Bushra Ahmed Salem شرى احمد سالم
Adult female killed
Ahlam Ziyad Salem احلام زياد سالم
Age unknown female killed
Abdullah Ziyad Salem عبدالله زياد سالم
Age unknown male killed
Wissam Ziad Salem وسام زياد سالم
Age unknown male killed
Basil Ziad Salem باسل زياد سالم
Adult male killed
Shaima Akram Salem شيماء اكرم سالم
Adult female killed
Youssef Basil Salem يوسف باسل سالم
Age unknown male killed
Zain Basil Salem زين باسل سالم
Age unknown male killed
Muhammad Iyad Salem محمد اياد سالم
Age unknown male killed
Muhammad's wife
Age unknown Matched to MoH ID possibly Muhammad Iyad Salem's wife
Nesma Hani Salem نسمه هاني سالم
Age unknown female killed
Moaz Hossam Salem معاذ حسام سالم
Age unknown male killed
Lana Hossam Salem لانا حسام سالم
Age unknown female killed
Baraa Hossam Salem براء حسام سالم
Age unknown killed Matched to MoH ID gender unknown
Remas Salem Salem ريماس سالم سالم
Age unknown male killed
Nidal Muhammad Salem نضال محمد سالم
Age unknown male killed
Muhammad Suleiman Salem محمد سليمان سالم
Age unknown male killed
Sirin Salem سيرين سالم
Age unknown female killed
Majid Awni Jamil Shawa ماجد عوني جميل الشوا
Adult male killed
Helen Badie Jamil Shawa هيلين بديع جميل الشوا
Adult female killed
Fadi Majid Awni Al-Shawa فادي ماجد عوني الشوا
Adult male killed
Nevin Suhail Abdullah Al Sarsak نفين سهيل عبدالله السرسك
Adult female killed
Fares Al-Shawa فارس الشوا
Child male killed
Shahad Al-Shawa شهد الشوا
Child female killed
Firas Al-Shawa فراس الشوا
Child male killed
Ihab Majed Awni Al Shawa ايهاب ماجد عوني الشوا
Adult male killed
Walaa Hossam Salim Al-Sarsak ولاء حسام سليم السرسك
Adult female killed
Helen Al-Shawa هيلين الشوا
Child female killed
Muhammad Al-Shawa محمد الشوا
Child male killed
Sham Al-Shawa شام الشوا
4 years old female killed
Suhair Majid Awni Al Shawa سهير ماجد عوني الشوا
Adult female killed
Ramzi Suleiman Salem Deeb Salem's wife
Adult female killed
Ramzi Suleiman Salem Deeb Salem رمزي سليمان سالم ديب
Adult male killed
Mustafa Ramzi Salem مصطفى رمزي سالم
Child male killed
Muhammad Ramzi Salem محمد رمزي سالم
Child male killed
Nawal Ramzi Salem نوال رمزي سالم
Child female killed
Nourhan Ramzi Salem نورهان رمزي سالم
Child female killed
Muhannad Ramzi Salem
Adult male killed
Um Ghassan Salem's daughter
Adult female killed
Um Ghassan Salem's daughter's child 1
Child killed
Um Ghassan Salem's daughter's child 2
Child killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention multiple residential buildings being struck in the vicinity of the Sheik Radwan Clinic (عيادة الشيخ رضوان) within Sheik Radwan (الشيخ رضوان) neighbourhood of Gaza (غزة) city. Al Jazeera provided Airwars with the exact coordinates for one residential buildings after receiving testimony from a survivor, as follows: 31.532389, 34.470222. The generic coordinates for Sheik Radwan Clinic are: 31.532879, 34.470028. Due to limited imagery from the site, we were unable to verify the locations further..

{"type":"FeatureCollection","features":[{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"Residential building struck","label-type":"black-white"},"geometry":{"coordinates":[34.470222,31.532389],"type":"Point"}},{"type":"Feature","properties":{"label":"Sheik Radwan Clinic \n عيادة الشيخ رضوان","label-type":"black-white"},"geometry":{"coordinates":[34.470028,31.532879],"type":"Point"}}]}

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    102 – 200
  • (50 children26 women26–27 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (50) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (51) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammad jaber salem
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    Source: Mohammad jaber salem
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Fadl salem abu anas
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Fadl salem abu anas
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    Source: Qusi mustfa aloozi
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    Source: Qusi mustfa aloozi
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    Source: Abu waseem abu diah
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Princ princ
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Princ princ
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Princ princ
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abed deeb
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Waleed naeem salem
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alaa al-fasees
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Al-qishawi nael
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Al-qishawi nael
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Yahya salim
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Yahya salim
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    Source: Yahya salim
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
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    Source: Moataz m shawa
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    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
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    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Moataz m shawa
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    102 – 200
  • (50 children26 women26–27 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (50) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT1483

Incident date

December 5, 2023

Location

شارع ابو حسني, Abu Hosni Street, central Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.415100, 34.357300 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Street level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On Tuesday, December 5th, 2023, an Israeli aircraft allegedly bombed the Abu Musabbeh family home containing a bakery located on Abu Hosni Street, in Deir Al Balah, central Gaza Strip, reportedly flattening it to the ground. According to publicly available accounts, this resulted in the deaths of at least 30 and up to more than 50 family members, and caused dozens to be wounded, including children. Among the injured civilians was an infant girl named Layan Abu Musabbeh whose entire family was reportedly killed in the strike.

Numerous photographs of bodies allegedly being recovered from the site of this bombing were published by MSDR News. Similarly, the radio station Mazaya Fm shared images showing members of the public and Red Crescent recovering bodies from the location. Anadolu News Agency cited the mayor of Deir Al Balah, Diab Al Jarro, who reportedly stated that around 50 civilians were killed in the house of Abu Musabbeh family, and the majority of those killed were displaced people seeking refuge in Deir Al Balah from other areas within the Gaza Strip, including Gaza City. The agency also reported that 50 fatalities resulting from the airstrike were buried in a mass grave because, according to Diab Al Jarro, the existing cemeteries were no longer adequate to accommodate the substantial number of the deceased. The lowest death count was provided by @adham922 which identified 30 people killed, “all of them children, women and innocent civilians” while the highest death count of “over 50” victims was documented by @QudsNen.

According to Aljazeera, the dead and wounded were taken to Al Aqsa Martyrs Hospital in Deir Al Balah. The official Twitter/X account of the Palestinian mission to the UK shared the heart-wrenching images of the funeral of at least 45 members of Abu Musabbeh family where a crying woman was embracing a dead body of her relative wrapped in white cloth.

In its Twitter/X account, Al Mayadeen News alluded to why the alleged bombing of this site caused such a high number of purported casualties, stating “A new massacre in #Deir_Al-Balah after the occupation targeted the home of the Abu Musabah family, which contained a clay bakery, around which people gathered to get a piece of bread.”

In its coverage of this event, Al Jazeera posted a graphic video on Twitter/X purportedly filmed at the scene by a Palestinian journalist. The video shows the rubble left from the building, flames of fire and people carrying numerous bodies of the dead and injured civilians. An injured man and an injured crying boy are also visible. According to Al Jazeera Mubasher, limited supplies of medical resources complicated efforts to tend to the wounded. On this, the outlet stated, “It was documented that the wounded continued to arrive at the hospital, with a shortage in all hospitals in the Gaza Strip and a shortage of medical supplies.”

At present, Mohammad Kamal Abu Musabbeh has been named as among the deceased. Condolence posts on social media were numerous. A friend of Mohammad Musabbeh, Muhammad al-Safir, described his last moments before the strike. The two had hugged only seven minutes before the explosion, and al-Safir remembered Musabbeh saying he was tired but that still he “smiled at me and said, I swear I love you.” Had he known this would have been the last time the two saw each other, al-Safir said, he would have “prolonged the hug.” From the attached image the late Mohammad appears as a smiling young bearded man.

A little girl, Talia Khattab, was also killed in the strike. A committed student, Talia was remembered for her diligence to her schooling. Eager for the war to end, Talia reportedly told her grandfather: “Tomorrow everything will be over grandpa, I will go to kindergarten and get the highest grades.”

Whilst describing how this incident orphaned an infant girl Layan Abu Musabbeh to the news outlet Al Watan, a relative Muhammad Abu Musabbeh said that the explosion threw her and her bed into one of the neighbors’ houses. He also described the aftermath of the bombing stating that, “The scene we saw cannot be described. We heard a loud explosion, so we quickly left the house. I was surprised that it was the house of my cousin and his family. The scene was horrific, fires burning in the house.”  Abu Musabbeh also said that they were searching for the child for several hours, and “almost lost hope, until one of the neighbors heard the sound of a child crying, and upon tracing the source of the sound, we found that she had flown away.”

A Twitter/X user @monther_khaled posted a video showing the infant Layan wrapped in green cloth.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces. At least one source, @rdooan, referenced the bombing as being carried out by “American weapons”.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Mohammad Kamal Abu Musabbeh محمد كمال أبو مصبح
male killed
Layan Abu Musabbeh ليان أبو مصبح
Child female injured

The victims were named as:

Talia Khattab
Child female killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention Abu Hosni Street (شارع ابو حسني) in the town of Deir Al Balah (دير البلح), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.415100, 34.357300. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

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Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Marketplace, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    30 – 51
  • (1 child1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (42) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (25) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Msdr news
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Msdr news
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Msdr news
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Msdr news
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Msdr news
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Refat Farhat
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: MAZAYARADIOFM
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohamed.safeer2014
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @PalMissionUK
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @PalMissionUK
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @PalMissionUK
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Marketplace, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    30 – 51
  • (1 child1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (42) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT1437

Incident date

December 3, 2023

Location

مدرسة الفاخورة, al Fakhoura School, North Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.452843, 34.390054 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On the morning of December 3, 2023, a number of civilians were killed and injured, including a woman and a child, in an alleged Israeli strike at the gate of the Al Fakhoura School in the Jabalia Camp, located in North Gaza. Few specific details about the victims were publicly available.

At 3:27 am, the Palestinian Press Agency (Safa), among other sources on local and social media, reported that Israeli forces had allegedly committed “a new massacre…by bombing the gate of Al-Fakhoura School in Jabalia Camp, north of the Gaza Strip”. A correspondent for Al-Ghad TV also reported on the alleged bombing by Israeli forces, stating that the strike resulted “in martyrs and injuries.” Yaffa News Agency reported that there were a “number of casualties and injuries” as a result of the alleged bombing. Marsal Qatar alleged that “Israeli warplanes carried out a new massacre earlier today”, and that “they bombed a residential square and the gate of Al-Fakhoura School in the camp, which shelters hundreds of displaced people.”

On Twitter/X and Facebook, users @Poztve, Yousef el Hawney, and The Palestinian Community in Norway page shared two videos taken in the aftermath of the strike. In one 45-second clip, at least four casualties, including a child and a woman, can be seen lying on the ground, all of whom appear to be gravely wounded or dead. Screams are heard throughout the video, as people desperately try to tend to the victims and drag the bodies to safety. In the other video taken in the same area, locals can be seen trying to help a severely wounded and profusely bleeding man lying on the ground. The sources termed it as “a new Israeli massacre at al-Fakhoura school”, and as “one massacre after another.”

The names, details, and precise number of casualties are currently unknown.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strike to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured in the morning.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention an alleged strike on al Fakhoura school (مدرسة الفاخورة) in Jabalia (جباليا), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.452843, 34.390054. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, School
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (0–1 children0–1 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Education
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, School
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2 – 4
  • (0–1 children0–1 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Education
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (12) [ collapse]