Israel and Gaza 2023

Satellite imagery, screenshot from Google Earth, October 2023

Belligerent
Israeli Military
Country
Syria
the Gaza Strip
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

ISPT0905

Incident date

November 5, 2023

Location

محيط شارع الصناعة, Vicinity of Al Sinaa Street, Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.509642, 34.443460 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Eight people, including three children, all from the Al Rayees family, were killed on November 5, 2023, when two alleged Israeli missiles hit their seven-story house, the Al-Safadi Building on Al-Sinaa Street.

@Hakeam_ps, a neighbour of Al Rayees family, described their own escape and forced displacement after their house was destroyed in the same strike, adding that they were now isolated without electricity. The source said “What happened could never be described, more like an earthquake, but more violent… Dust stormed the house, fragments everywhere. My mother and her grandchildren were in a state of panic and fear”.

The family members were killed across three generations: grandfather Azmi Al Rayees and his wife Enaya Al Rayees were killed alongside their son, Dr Maisara Azmi Al Rayees, and their daughters, Uraib Al Rayees and Izza Al Rayees. Izza’s three children Karim Ramez Samir Nabhan, Adam Ramez Samir Nabhan, and Sham Ramez Samir Nabhan were killed as well.

Several local sources reported that the bodies of the victims killed could not be rescued due to a lack of suitable equipment to search through the rubble of the family home. @HuDa_NaIm92 said that some neighbors were “digging with their hands under piles of stones and rubble”. Mai Mare on Facebook reported that “There is no hope of retrieving them. There is no equipment, no gasoline or diesel, no bulldozers, nothing.”  Leqa’a Al Saadi said on Facebook that Muhammad Al Rayees and Moayad Al Rayees, two brothers from the Al Rayees family who reportedly survived the attack, “tried in every possible way to search for their family and extract them from under the rubble, hoping to find them or some of them alive”.

The next day, on social media, Amr Tabaza called Palestinians in Gaza to help reach the members of Al Rayees family buried under the rubble, saying “The building is 7 floors… and no one has reached them so far.”. On November 7th, on Twitter, @Ali_Hisham added that Maisara Al Rayees had been buried under the rubble for two days and asked for help to “exhume his body to tell him goodbye one last time”. A second strike was reported in the same location just days after the incident, with additional casualties alleged. This incident will be assessed separately by Airwars.

Dr Maisara Al Rayees was described as a maternal and child health specialist and a graduate of a prestigious UK Foreign Office Chevening Scholarship through which he studied at King’s College London for his master’s degree. Mai Mare said that Maisara worked with Doctors Without Borders. The same source indicated that she had met Maisara two months ago to send him “a special invitation to meet with British Foreign Secretary Cleverly to talk to him face to face about Gaza”. Mai added: “Just last month, I contacted Maisara and asked him if they would like me to work on a video for the Chevening Scholarships as a photo story, telling the story of [him and his wife’s] love, education and work in Gaza, but today, my heart is heavy and worn out with this news.” One source described Maisara as ambitious, kind and calm; someone who loved to help people. He had recently married his partner Laura Al Hayyek, whom he met on the scholarship programme. Laura Al Hayyek, an employee of the United Nations and a graduate of the Chevening Scholarship, was reported as killed in the bombing by some sources. However through private communication, Airwars researchers have been able to confirm that she was not present when the strike occurred.

Uraib Al Rayees was described as creative. He was said to be a dentist and a painter.

A BBC article published five days after the strike reported that “The Foreign Office on Wednesday said it was “devastated” and offered condolences to the surviving family and “Chevening Alumni community” over the death of Dr Al Rayees but didn’t give any details about what happened to him, or where.” The handling of this incident reportedly led to internal complaints within the Foreign Office that the government was showing a “permissive approach” to Israel “breaching international humanitarian law””.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

 

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (8)

Azmi Al Rayees عزمي الريّس
Adult male killed
Enaya Al Rayees عناية الريس
Adult female killed
Uraib Al Rayees عريب الريس
Adult female killed
Izza Al Rayees عزة الريس
Adult female killed
Maisara Al Rayees ميسرة عزمي الريّس
Adult male killed
Karim Ramez Samir Nabhan كريم رامز سمير نبهان
Child male killed
Adam Ramez Samir Nabhan آدم رامز سمير نبهان
Child male killed
Sham Ramez Samir Nabhan شام رامز سمير نبهان
Child male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    8
  • (3 children3 women2 men2 healthcare_personnel)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (14) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @GazaShaheed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @HuDa_NaIm92
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @yazanabueid
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mai Mare
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Tahany Hedar
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Q.D
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Ali_Hisham
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Ali_Hisham
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Ali_Hisham
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Ali_Hisham
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShaymaAlWaheidi
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Geolocation notes (3) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention the vicinity of Al Sinaa Street (شارع الصناعة) in Gaza city (غَزَّة). Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to the following exact coordinates: 31.509642, 34.443460.

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  • Imagery:
    @MuathHumaid

  • Imagery:
    @MuathHumaid

  • Imagery:
    @MuathHumaid

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    8
  • (3 children3 women2 men2 healthcare_personnel)
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (18) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0821

Incident date

November 2, 2023

Location

قطعة 4 في مخيم البريج, Block 4 in Bureij camp, Deir al Balah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.440652, 34.402793 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On Thursday, November 2nd 2023, at least 29 identified civilians, including at least seven women and eleven children, were reportedly killed, dozens of civilians (among them a woman and child) were injured and eight residential houses were completely destroyed as a result of an alleged Israeli airstrike and/or artillery shelling on the residential neighborhood in block 4 (Akl family square) of the Bureij camp market located in the middle of the Gaza Strip. Al Jazeera Arabic (@AJArabic) also shared a video of the aftermath of the attack on Twitter/X, emphasizing that the bombardment was very close to the place of a previous attack.

Eight deceased members of the Agel family were remembered in a heartfelt Facebook testimony by Mosab Agel. Mosab’s mother, Kholoud Akl (Um Mosab) was killed together with her daughters (Mosab’s sisters) Saja Agel and Raghad Agel, whom he called “my beloved ones, the joy of my heart, and my comforters”. His uncle, his “caring companion” Maher Agel (Akl), his aunt Samah Agel together with her son, Baraa Agel, also lost their lives in the attack. Mosab Agel also mentioned his beloved cousin Hazem Hamza Agel and his other cousin, the child Ola Agel (Jamila), among the killed victims.

A young man Maher Aqel (Akl) was also remembered in a Facebook tribute on November 10th by Alburaij1948 where he was called “a precious Moon of the Bureij”. It was said that he was injured a few days before in this attack in Block 4.

The Wishah family suffered losses, having lost 19 family members in the attack. A family member Yasser Hassan Washah initially wrote in a Facebook post that the sons and grandchildren of his late uncle Saeed Ibrahim Weshah who had died during the first days of the war as well as their children and grandchildren were under the rubble. He also showed a video trying to pull two of his cousin Saeed Washah’s children from under the rubble.

In a later Facebook testimony he mourned the details of the family members killed in the strike, in particular, the uncle Saeed’s wife, Salwa Wishah (“Umm Rami”) and her sister, Sawsan Al-Sayyid; Salwa’s son, Waseem Saeed Wishah; daughter of Salwa, Haneen Saeed Wishah; and daughter-in-law of Salwa, Amani Jamal Wishah. He further mentioned the deceased children of Amani – a son Ahmed Wishah* and the daughters Dana Wishah* and Alma Wishah*. Among the victims was also another son of Salwa Wishah, Muhammad Saeed Wishah who was killed together with his wife, Salwa Muhammad Wishah, and their four children: two sons – Amir Wishah* and Saif Wishah* and two daughters – Maryam Wishah* and Mira Wishah*. A one-year old injured girl May Wishah who was the only surviving child of Salwa and Muhamad Wishah, and appears on an image shared by Yasser Hassan Washah in a red sweater holding a comb in her hands.

A daughter-in-law of Salwa married to Firas Saeed Weshah was injured, but their three children –  two daughters Salma Wishah* and Elin (Eileen) Wishah* and a son Said Wishah* were all killed. The woman was pregnant at the time of the attack. She suffered a pelvic fracture and gave birth to a baby boy several days after her injury. According to Yasser Hassan Washah, she still suffers from the risk of infection. One of her children, Muhammad, survived. They were reported to have remained in the field hospital located at the Ibn Rushd School in Al-Zawaida for some time.

The social media source Alburaij1948 also mourned the death of Al-Hajj Eid Othman Eid (Abu Muhammad), Mouhib Issa (Abu Hammam), and Yamen Raed Hamad, all of whom used to live in the Block 4 of Bureji camp. Alburaij1948 posted his tribute to Al-Hajj Eid Othman Eid, referring to him as a “good neighbor” and attaching a picture of the elderly man with a grey beard. Alburaij1948 also posted a tribute to a young man Yamen Raed Hamad pictured in a black-red sports jacket.

Alburaij1948 also shared the picture of the late Mouhib Issa – a smiling young man. The death of Mouhib Issa was also mourned by his friend Sameh Al Batran who shared the image of Sameh together with a young boy. Watan news shared an emotional video of the late Mouhib’s wife where she was mourning her deceased husband.

Samir Ahmed Al-Afghani (Abu Ahmed) also died in the bombardment, and was remembered in a Facebook testimony by the family of Abo Salem Al Masri that shared an image of an elderly man in a black coat. Samir’s nephew Benzaher Ali wrote his own tribute to his uncle, calling him “ kind-hearted and kind to the young and the old.”

The Palestinian refugee portal informed that the attack caused massive destruction in Block 4 in the center of the camp where more than 200 people, most of them children and women, used to live. The Tiwitter/X user Jalal (@JalalAK_jojo) reported that eight residential houses were flattened, attaching a video with the apocalyptic scenes of the destruction, while Facebook user Fadi Sh added that these houses were located in the Akl family square in the middle of the Bureij camp market. RassdNewsN added that shrapnel from the bombing and house debris fell on schools housing displaced people.

Eyewitnesses and journalists reported heartbreaking scenes accompanying the devastating effects of the bombardment. A video by the Palestinian press agency Safa on Twitter/X shows a young girl covered with dust who was being taken out from under the rubble of her family’s building and who asked the rescuers: “Are you taking me to the cemetery?”

Another emotional video shared by @EekadFacts and many other Twitter/X users shows a desperate father looking for his four children, wife and father, sifting through rubble with his bare hands, calling their names and crying as he received no response. A Twitter user @ajmubasher shared a video of a young crying boy looking for his mother after the deadly attack.

A survivor of the strike shared his experiences with Al Jazeera. “My family and I were sitting, and all of a sudden, we heard a huge explosive. Everything was flying around us. We couldn’t see anything but dust and smoke. It was massive. The whole area is turned upside down … all in a second. That was my home [pointing to rubble]. Now it is totally in ruins. I do not know what to say. We are helpless.”

Shehab Agency initially reported about “dozens of martyrs, wounded and missing people”, sharing the gruesome images of the smoke arising over the rubble. Mahmoud Basal, spokesman for the Palestinian Civil Defense in the Gaza Strip, said that the Civil Defense crews recovered 15 killed victims, noting that there were dozens of injured and missing people under the rubble of homes, and defense crews were working to recover them. Safa journalist reported about 22 civilians were killed. Only one local source estimated the potential death toll to be as high as 200 civilians. In a video shared by Twitter/X user @MunaHawwa, a young man present at the scene said that “there are at least 200 martyrs and missing persons”, but other local sources and news agencies did not report a comparable number of casualties. Based on the social media testimonies of the relatives and friends of the victims, Airwars identified 29 civilians by name that were reported killed in the deadly bombardment of the Bureji camp. Due to the lack of corroborating reporting for the higher casualty estimate, Airwars has put this casualty estimate to 29 civilians – though will update the range should further information come to light.

Al Jazeera reported that residents of Bureij chanted “a massacre, a massacre” as they covered the bodies of those killed in Thursday’s strike with blankets. Alhaya news shared the images from the funeral prayer for the victims where bodies covered with white clothes can be seen.

Dozens of civilians, including many small children, were reportedly injured. Al Jazeera shared a video that showed the arrival of a large number of children among other civilian casualties to the “Al-Aqsa Martyrs” Hospital in the city of Deir al-Balah in the Gaza Strip, while the Twitter/X user @AlQastalps shared images of the wounded children.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces. The exact time of the attack is unknown.

*Airwars has quantified them as children based on the ages of family members and images provided by sources.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (8)

Kholoud (Um Mus’ab) خلود أم مصعب
Adult female killed
Saja Agel رغد عقل
female killed
Raghad Agel سجى عقل
female killed
Maher Agel ماهر عقل
Adult male killed
Samah Agel سماح عقل
Adult female killed
Baraa Agel براء الحنون
male killed
Hazem Hamza Agel حازم حمزة عقل
killed
Ola Agel علا عقل
Child killed

Family members (19)

Salwa Washah, Umm Rami سلوى وشاح
Adult female killed
Sawsan Al-Sayyid سوسن السيد
Adult female killed
Waseem Saeed Wishah وسيم سعيد وشاح
male killed
Haneen Saeed Wishah حنين وشاح
female killed
Amani Jamal Wishah أماني جمال وشاح
Adult female killed
Ahmed Wishah أحمد وشاح
male killed
Dana Wishah دانا وشاح
female killed
Alma Wishah ألمى وشاح
female killed
Muhammad Saeed Wishah محمد سعيد وشاح
Adult male killed
Salwa Muhammad Wishah سلوى محمد وشاح
Adult female killed
Amir Wishah أمير وشاح
male killed
Saif Wishah سيف وشاح
male killed
Maryam Wishah مريم وشاح
female killed
Mira Wishah ميرا وشاح
female killed
Mai Wishah مي وشاح
1 years old female injured
Daughter in law of Salwa كنة سلوى وشاح
Adult female pregnant injured
Salma Wishah سلمى وشاح
female killed
Elin Wishah ألين وشاح
female killed
Said Wishah
female killed

The victims were named as:

Eid Othman Eid عيد عثمان عيد
Adult male killed
Mouhib Issa مهيب عيسى
Age unknown male killed
Samir Al Afghani سمير الأفغاني
Adult male killed
Yamen Raed Hamad يامن رائد حمد
Age unknown male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    29
  • (11–14 children7–9 women6–7 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (64) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (54) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @irode0
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @AlQastalps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @AlQastalps
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    Source: @AlQastalps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @AlQastalps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Al Haya PS
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Al Haya PS
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alburaij1948
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alburaij1948
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alburaij1948
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: RassdNewsN
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: RassdNewsN
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    Source: RassdNewsN
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: RassdNewsN
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Sameh Al Batran
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abo Salem Al Masri
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alburaij1948
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Yasser Hassan Washah
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    Source: Al Jazeera News
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    Source: @QudsNen
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    Source: @QudsNen
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    Source: @QudsNen
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    Source: @QudsNen
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Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention Block 4 (كتلة 4) in the centre of Bureij (البريج). Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to the following exact coordinates: 31.440652, 34.402793.

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  • Imagery:
    @IRIMFA_SPOX

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    29
  • (11–14 children7–9 women6–7 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (64) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0783

Incident date

October 31, 2023

Location

مخيم جباليا, Jabalia camp, North Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.532720, 34.498137 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (other) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On October 31, 2023 confirmed Israeli strikes on the densely populated Jabalia refugee camp killed at least 126 civilians, including 69 children. A further 280 civilians were reported injured by the director of the nearby Indonesian Hospital.

A second strike hit the same location the following day, though the full casualty assessment for that incident will be reviewed separately by Airwars. Israel has confirmed that it conducted both strikes, with the stated target being Hamas leader Ibrahim Biari, and “his base”, according to IDF spokesperson Daniel Hagari. Munitions experts speaking to The Guardian indicated that the IDF used so-called bunker buster munitions in the strike: 2,000lb bombs with an estimated crater size of 40ft which cause an “earthquake like” phenomenon on impact.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights raised concerns on Twitter/X that the strikes may have been “disproportionate attacks that could amount to war crimes”. Though no official civilian casualty estimate has yet been conceded by Israeli forces, IDF Spokesperson Richard Hech acknowledged that the IDF knew that civilians were present, and said that civilian harm was a “tragedy of war”.

Airwars has identified at least 116 names of civilians killed, including ten cases involving the fatality of more than one member of the same family. In three of these cases, families were reportedly killed in their entirety.

The Al Qassam brigade official page posted that seven civilian hostages taken from Israel by Hamas militants, including three holders of foreign passports, were also killed. These civilians have been included in Airwars’ upper fatality estimate only, as they have not yet been otherwise corroborated.

Numerous accounts on social media of relatives grieving over unnamed family members killed in the bombing have also been accounted for in Airwars’ civilian casualty range. When one source mentioned that a civilian and “his whole family” were reportedly killed, but the victims could not otherwise be identified, Airwars counted two civilians killed in its ranges as a minimum. In cases where sources indicated that “children” were killed without providing further information on the number of victims, Airwars counted two children killed as a minimum.

Sources also reported that “a large number” of victims were still under the rubble after the strikes, with Hamas officials, quoted by the National, reporting that 120 individuals were still missing by November 2nd. These individuals have not yet been included in the Airwars casualty toll. No reports were found to indicate that there had been prior warning of the strike.

“Apocalyptic scenes”

Footage and videos released following the strikes showed vast craters, alongside dozens of onlookers standing on the edges and people searching for survivors. Local sources have widely referred to the bombing as a “massacre”. Pictures published by local and international sources showed entire housing blocks leveled.

CNN said the survivors talked about “apocalyptic scenes in the aftermath of Tuesday’s strike”, with one eyewitness saying “it felt like the end of the world”. “Children were carrying other injured children and running, with grey dust filling the air. Bodies were hanging on the rubble, many of them unrecognizable. Some were bleeding and others were burnt,” Mohammad Al Aswad told CNN.

The Washington Post reported that “Palestinians carried away the injured and dead on blankets and mattresses”. The Guardian described “body bags piled up with horrific speed at the morgue of the nearby Indonesian hospital in Beit Lahia, and then outside the building” and added that “the wounded filled [the Indonesian Hospital] beds or were raced to Dar al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City, where medics from the Médicins Sans Frontiers aid group struggled to find space even for badly injured children”.

“Young children arrived at the hospital with deep wounds and severe burns. They came without their families,” said Mohammed Hawajreh, an MSF nurse who was quoted by the organisation in a statement condemning the attack. “Many were screaming and asking for their parents. I stayed with them until we could find a place, as the hospital was full with patients”.

Similarly, @AJA_Egypt described scenes with “rows of corpses and shrouds…Jabalia martyrs piled up in the courtyard of the Indonesian Hospital”.

One source on social media (@rdooan) said the bombing left “a hole filled with the corpses of Palestinian families”, while another source stated that “the bodies of families are crowded on top of each other”.

Rescue efforts to identify civilians in the rubble continued after the strikes, with The Guardian reporting that following the strike, “rescuers combed with their hands through surface layers of a tangled mass of concrete and steel which hours earlier had been homes in the Jabalia refugee camp in Gaza. They were searching for survivors, or the bodies of victims, which the immense force of an Israeli airstrike had left near the surface. Those trapped deeper may be entombed for months”.

Mahmoud Basal, a spokesperson for the Palestinian Civil Defense emergency services, told The Washington Post 20 buildings had been destroyed by the strikes, while Al-Arabiya wrote that the bombing “blew up an entire residential neighborhood”. One source specified that the location hit initially was the Al-Tarnis area of the camp. A number of sources qualified the bombing as a “massacre”. Journalist Anas Al Sharif described the destruction of dozens of homes in the “most populated area in the world”.

Victims identified

In many cases, victims were identified on social media by survivors, relatives or friends.

The Abu Al Qoumsan family

At least 21 members of the family of Al-Jazeera broadcast engineer Muhammad Abu Al Qoumsan were killed in Jabalia. Relative of the Abu Al Qoumsan family, Mahmoud Abu Al Qoumsan, announced on Twitter/X the deaths of his relatives, namely: the three brothers Abu Al Thib Abu Al Qoumsan (Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan’s father), Abu Anas Abu Al Qoumsan, Abu Firas Abu Al Qoumsan. He also announced the deaths of Abu Firas  Abu Al Qoumsan’s wife (name not provided), her two sons Wasel Abu Al Qoumsan and Mohannad Abu Al Qoumsan, and her two daughters Nabough Abu Al Qoumsan and Abrar Abu Al Qoumsan.

He also recorded the deaths of Umayya Abu Al Qoumsan (Mahmoud Abu Al Qoumsan’s sister), and of his sister-in-law, described as the wife of his big brother Thib Abu Al Qoumsan. While her name was not provided, the names of her children were: two daughters Rahaf  Abu Al Qoumsan and Layan  Abu Al Qoumsan, and three sons Abdullah  Abu Al Qoumsan, Mohammed  Abu Al Qoumsan, and Aboud  Abu Al Qoumsan.

Imam Abu Al Qoumsan (Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan’s sister), and her three sons Yamen, Zain and Yazeed were also reportedly killed. Um Mohammed Abu Al Qoumsan, an Abu Al Qoumsan relative, said that her sister “Jamila Yusef Abu Al-Qumsan, mother of Rami Ahjazi” was also killed in the incident. It is unclear if she is one of the wives unnamed previously.

Ra’ed Abu Al Qoumsan announced the deaths of his father, of his uncle Abu Firas, of his uncle’s wife and children – (the uncle, his wife and children have already been included above), of his sisters and their children, of his brother’s wife and her children. No names or ages were provided by this source, and it was unclear whether all of those victims have also been listed above.

One additional woman from Al Qoumsan family unit, Marwa Basil Abu Al Qoumsan was identified killed by Al-Jazeera staff on social media. It was unclear whether Marwa was an additional victim, or whether her identity matched one of the women reportedly killed but whose name had not been provided.

To avoid double counting the deaths of members of Abu Al Qoumsan family, where names were not provided by other sources, Airwars has considered these individuals were already named in the sources above in minimum estimates, though have been considered as additional family members in our maximum estimate.

The Siraj family

A man identified as Abdul Salam Siraj was reportedly killed alongside all the members of his family. Ismail Mohammad Foda posted on Facebook: “My friend Abdul Salam Siraj, his entire family was exterminated in Jabalia… his mother, his wife, his two daughters, two sisters, three brothers, and his uncle’s entire family”. Airwars has been unable to separately identify the uncle’s family, and so has counted these as at least two individuals in our minimum range.

The Khudair Ali family

Muhammad Ali announced on Twitter/X the deaths of nine of his relatives that he described as “my beloved ones, my heart and my soul, my support in my country, my cousins and my sisters, in the treacherous massacre in Jabalia camp”.

He identified the victims as Fadi Khudair Ali and his wife (name not provided), Muhammad Khudair Ali, Malak Khudair Ali (described as his cousin), Khadra Jaber Ali (his aunt), and Khadra’s children: Ahmed, Zainab and Muhammad. He also named his cousin’s sons Haidar and Kanan Al-Daour. Another source said that “Umm Fadi” was grieving her sons and daughters, all killed in the Jabaliya bombing.

The Masoud family

A friend of Omar Masoud “Al-Abeka” announced Omar’s death, alongside the deaths of his wife Donia Bashir and their four children (a son and three daughters). The source described Omar as a former prisoner who was detained for twenty years for killing an Israeli, before he got released, getting married and having children. The names of Omar’s family members were not provided by the source. Sources did not explain if Omar Masoud was imprisoned for being a member of a militant group, and also did not state if Masoud was a member of a militant group at the time of his death.

The Abu Sultan family

Nine members were reportedly killed from the Abu Sultan family, which one source said was killed in its entirety.

Omar Mustafa Abu Sultan and his wife Sahar Abu Sultan (Al-Hoor), and their five children (four sons and one daughter) Mahmoud Omar Abu Sultan, Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan, Muhammad Omar Abu Sultan, Abdullah Omar Abu Sultan, and their daughter named Shahd Omar Abu Sultan. Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan’s wife, and his daughter were also reportedly killed (though names were not provided by the source). On the deaths of the Abu Sultan family, on Facebook, Suhil Yahya posted: There are no relatives or loved ones left, they are all gone”.

The Hamad Family

Medhat Khalil and two other sources reported the death of Kamal Hamad “Abu Diaa” and his son (unnamed) in the Jabalia bombing.

The Al-Tanani family

Two children from the Al-Tanani family were reported killed by one source, namely Ahmed Salah Dhiyab Al-Tanani and Mahmoud Muhammad Dhiyab Al-Tanani. Their age was not provided by the source.

The Okasha family

At least 26 members of the Okasha family were reported killed in the strikes. This includes husband and wife Rawand Okasha Umm Kinan and Belal Okasha, alongside their three children, as reported by their relatives Mohammad Okasha and Abood Okasha. The children’s uncle Ziad Okasha Abu Iyad and his wife Manal Okasha “Al-Najjar” were also reported killed alongside their son Youssef Ziad Okasha and sons of their late uncle Naeem Abu Raed.

Another cousin, Raed Okasha, his children, and his wife, their cousin Muhammad Okasha and his three children Rakan, Amid, and Masa were also listed among the fatalities, alongside their cousin Yasser Okasha, his children and his wife, their cousin Nael Okasha, his children and his wife Islam Muhammad Al-Kafarna Okasha. A video posted on Facebook by Mohammed Okasha showed Yasser Okasha in combat gear wearing weapons, suggesting he may have been a militant. 

A post from Mona Sahle added additional names and offered her condolences to her cousin Nasser Okasha Abu Muhammad for the loss of Nasser’s daughter, her husband, and their children. Muhammad Okasha and his three children are survived by their wife and mother Samah Abu Saltah who was born in the Balata camp, and moved between Gaza and Nablus. Mohammed Okasha added the names Thaer Naeem Okasha and his family, and Muhammad Fayez Al-Zwaidi.

The Alyan family

Jehad Al Sharawi posted a memorial to her uncle Muhammad, uncle Hussein, and the Alyan family for the loss of: Youssef Muhammad Alyan, Mahmoud Jabr Alyan, Karim Majid Alyan. Ziad Alyan also posted a memorial for his brother Mahmoud Jabr Alyan.

The Omrain family

Faraj Abo Mohammed announced five deaths from Abu Al-Omrain family : Ahmed Akram Abu Al-Omrain, Reem Muhammad Al-Firi (Abu Al-Amrain), Muhammad’s wife, and of three children: Rital Youssef Abu Al-Amrain, Abdul Karim Youssef Abu Al-Amrain and Zaher Ramadan Abu Al-Amrain.

The Rayyan family

Reuters published a video of a Jabaliya resident, identified as Abdel Kareem Rayyan, holding a paper listing the names of the 15 family members that he claimed were killed in the Israeli strikes. Abdel Kareem Rayyan declared to Reuters: “I lost my whole family, 15 of them. They were innocent, just staying in the camp. What wrong did they do? All of them were killed. My sister’s house with her children, my brother’s house with his children, all of my siblings, no one left except me and my younger brother. Fifteen people, these are their names – they are innocent an kind, it’s literally a massacre, complete destruction. All of the alley, 20 houses were demolished”.

Airwars was able to identify the following names from the list he showed to Reuters: Raed Ahmad Rayyan, Hanna Rayyan, Sa’ed Rayyan, Maher Rayyan, Anwar Rayyan, Jannah RayyanRaed Sa’ed Rayyan, Hanaa Sa’ed Rayyan, Mahmoud Sa’ed RayyanGhassan Mohammed Rayyan, Israa Mohammed Rayyan, Mujahid Mohammed Rayyan, Masa Mohammed RayyanIman Saed Abou Hamdan, Karam Abdulkarim Rayyan.

Another man identified as Hassan Ahmed Rayan told Reuters in the same video “The house had 15 people in it, until this moment we cannot reach any of them. Since yesterday, we’ve been trying to find anyone, but we couldn’t. There is no equipment, no civil defense teams, it’s all personal efforts to remove the rubble”.

On social media, Ahmad Abi Ibrahim announced the deaths of his relatives his cousin and brother in law Raed Rayan Abu Saed, his “beloved sister Hanna”, described as Saed’s mother, Saed’s sister identifed as Anwar, and her sons. Janna is referred to as a younger sister with who they “recently celebrated her success in high school”.

Maher is described as a ” decent young man, [who] spent his life in obedience to God, between the mosque and the university. He completed his education as a doctor and volunteered to treat the wounded in the Indonesian Hospital at the beginning of the outbreak of the current war on Gaza.” Nassma Jamal published on Facebook: “May God have mercy on the martyrs of the Rayyan family, relatives and cousins, who were martyred while they were steadfast and sitting in their homes in the Jabalia camp massacre. The martyr Abu Saed Raed Rayan, his wife, children and some of his grandchildren, his son Saed Rayan, his wife and children, and the wife of cousin Abu Ghassan Rayan and her children. Fifteen people, most of them children.” Airwars has estimated the minimum number of children killed in the Rayan family to be six, though the exact number is not yet clear.

In addition to the victims identified alongside other family members outlined above, Airwars also identified an individual named Juma Muhammad Al-Shaarawi, whose death was announced by Baraa Samir describing Al-Shaarawi as a “good and decent young neighbor”.

Unnamed victims

As in many incidents of civilian harm, not all victims were named by sources.

The Izz Al Din Al Qassam brigade official page posted that seven civilian hostages taken from Israel by Hamas militants, including three holders of foreign passports, were killed. The identity of the hostages was not provided.

Airwars also archived a number of videos where relatives or friends spoke about their losses surrounded by scenes of desolation.

In one video published by @Roaastudies and by Middle East Eye, an unnamed Palestinian man present at the scene of the incident was recorded explaining to the camera that he had three children and “not one has survived”. He is seen collapsing at the site of the bombing screaming: “My three children are all gone! My three children, Oh God! My three children! That other day, he told me to come, he told me “Come Dad””. A man holding him replies “Maybe we’ll find one, maybe we’ll find one alive”. The camera holder then says, “this is my friend, he just lost his family”.

@ramiaalibrahim published a video including another Palestinian man whose name was not identified, was filmed walking around the rubble screaming “my son is a martyr, oh God!”, while an additional video published by @Yasser_Gaza on Twitter/X showed a grieving mother who reportedly “lost all of her children“.

On social media, one video released by @Palestinealaa19 showed a father and his son at the scene of the bombing – the young adolescent was crying over bodies in plastic bags of members of his family lined up on the street. The father can be heard telling his son “you can’t collapse, you can’t cry, this is our destiny, we are not better than them, look they are all around us, we don’t forget them and the other 8,000 people – without counting those under the rubble, at least we got out, at least we knew who they are”.

In one video published by @AJArabicnet, a child critically injured in the bombing asked his relative to give him water, while another video released by @Ahmed_GR00 shows a young girl injured with blood on her clothes. The source alleged that she lost the sight of her eyes but at the time of the recording was not aware of her fate.

@shamel__news published a video of two young girls and one young boy rescued from the rubble from Jabalia. @visegrad24 mentioned on Twitter/X the case of a young boy rescued from the rubble by rescuers at the site but no further information was provided regarding the child’s identity. Documenting similar scenes, AP recorded “Young men [carrying] the limp forms of two children from the upper floors of the crumbling frame of one damaged apartment building, while helping down another child and woman. It was unclear whether the children were alive or dead. Gray dust, apparently left by pulverized concrete, seemed to coat nearly everything.”

One Twitter/X the user @Mohammed78990 published a video of a baby followed by this comment: “painful scene from the Jabaliya massacre”. The same source explained that the mother was killed in the bombing. In another video released by @AJA_Palestine, a young man and his young sister were filmed sitting on the rubble crying over the death of their father. 

Overall casualty estimates provided by sources

Initial reporting following the first Israeli bombing on October 31st recorded “a number of martyrs” and “dozens” injured, with Bellingcat setting the initial death toll at “at least 40 killed”, followed by the Guardian which initially reported that “47 bodies were “recovered from the rubble after an explosion in several houses in Jabalia camp”, analysing video footage published by Agence France-Presse.

The director of the Indonesian hospital, Mohamed el-Ron, told the BBC that the hospital recorded 400 casualties, “including 120 dead”, the majority being “women and children”. In a press conference held at that hospital on October 31st, doctors announced that “at 4pm the Indonesian hospital received a high number of killed and injured after an attack on residential block in Jabaliya camp”. The medical staff stated that “one staff member lost four members of his family during the strike.” The same source added that the number of civilian casualties was bigger than their capacity. A number of sources reported “hundreds of injured and killed” following the two declared rounds of strikes on Tuesday and Wednesday. – with @ajmubasher reporting “more than 400 martyrs and wounded”, without further details.

On October 31st, the Palestinian Ministry of Health initially counted “50 martyrs and around 150 wounded and dozens under the rubble in a heinous Israeli massacre that targeted a large area of homes in Jabalia camp”. Later in the day, the MoH said it feared at least 100 had been killed in the bombing, and hundreds others injured, according to @ariel_oseran.

Airwars’ civilian fatality range reflects the number of individuals identified by local sources (both named and unnamed). As per our methodology, where specific numbers of civilians were not explicitly mentioned (such as reference to ‘multiple’ children), we have counted these as at least two casualties. Very few sources were able to report on exact numbers of those injured in the first strike, so Airwars has taken the number originally shared by the Indonesian Hospital of 280 injured civilians.

Israel Defense Forces statements on civilian harm

IDF spokesperson Lt Col Richard Hech acknowledged the Israeli strike had “destroyed a big chunk” of the Jabaliya camp. Hech declared that Israeli forces were aware that the area they targeted was an area where many civilians lived but refused to comment on any civilian casualties resulting from their actions. He justified the strike saying that their focus was on “a senior Hamas commander” who “sadly…was hiding again as they do behind the [sic] within civilians. And that’s all I can say at this point. (…)”.

Similarly, The Guardian reported that according to the IDF “some cavities seen in images of destroyed camp buildings were created by the collapse of tunnels that had been dug by Hamas, which [IDF spokesperson Daniel Hagari] said chooses to put key military infrastructure below areas where many civilians gather.”

Military spokesman Jonathan Conricus quoted by AP News stated that the apartment buildings collapsed “only because the vast underground Hamas complex had been destroyed.” Similarly, AP News reported that “Brig. Gen. Daniel Hagari said an underground Hamas installation beneath a targeted building collapsed, toppling other nearby buildings. Conricus later said the main strike had hit between buildings. “We don’t intend for the ground to collapse,” he told reporters. “But the issue is that Hamas built their tunnels there and that they’re running their operations from there.”

Though the IDF did not confirm the exact numbers of civilian casualties, interviews conducted with IDF spokespeople indicate that Israeli forces have acknowledged civilian harm as a result of their strikes on Jabaliya camp. Airwars has therefore graded the civilian harm status of this incident as “confirmed”, and archived relevant excerpts from interviews in the ‘strike report’ section at the end of this assessment.

Combatant fatalities

The October 31st strike was reportedly intended to target Ibrahim Bari, described as a top commander of Hamas’s central Jabalia battalion, and a key commander during the deadly attack inside Israel on October 7th. Israeli forces believed that Biari had also been “leading fighting in northern Gaza from a network of tunnels under the camp,” according to The Guardian.

According to The Guardian, Daniel Hagari announced Biari’s death alongside “scores” of Hamas militants – without providing the total number of combatants killed. He added that the strike on the building Biari was in “led to the collapse of other things because there was a very extensive infrastructure there.”

@AvichayAdraee on Twitter/X released an IDF video in Arabic where Israeli forces claimed to have killed Hamas leader Ibrahim Al Bayari on October 31st in middle of Jabalia, alongside “many elite members” of Hamas. During a briefing (quoted by The Guardian), IDF spokesperson Hagari declared that “There are dozens of terrorists that have been killed with [Bayari], and the ‘metro’ underneath has collapsed, so it made this hole that you see in the area. We are dealing with terrorists that build the system of infrastructure of terror underneath the Jabalia refugee camp for a big reason. They want this picture of destruction.”

Hamas militants “strongly denied the presence of one of its leaders in the refugee camp” according to CNN, with AP adding that “Hamas spokesman Hazem Qassem denied the military’s claim, saying it was trying to justify “its heinous crime” against civilians.”

With ambiguity around the exact number of militants killed, Airwars has applied a 12-24 combatant casualty range to account for comments such as ‘dozens’ of targets killed.

Munitions used

While a video of the moment of the bombing was released by IDF forces on social media, the IDF spokesperson reportedly refused to comment on the number of munitions used or their types or identify “which craters were caused by tunnel collapses” – indicating that Israel would provide information at a later stage, according to The Guardian.

The Guardian reported “at least five craters in the densely populated refugee camp, which weapons experts said were left by the use of multiple JDAMs – joint direct attack munitions – in the airstrike.” Former Pentagon munitions expert Marc Garlasco also told The Guardian that “the biggest crater at the site looked like a hit with a GBU-31.” “There are other bombs it could be. That one just fits best with all the evidence. The estimated crater is around 40 ft [12 metres]””.

A former United Nations weapons inspector Chris Cobb-Smith, told The Guardian, “The munition is almost certainly JDAM, either a GBU 31 (Warhead Mark 84) general purpose bomb or possibly a GBU 56 (Warhead BLU 109) bunker buster. Both about 2,000lb [900kg].”

According to The Guardian: “The GBU (guided bomb unit) is a precision-guided air-to-surface weapon system. It is part of the Israeli arsenal provided by the US and also manufactured by Israel under contract. These Boeing-manufactured GBUs use a tritotal, which is an explosive mix of TNT and aluminium powder, used commonly in air-dropped bombs. The Israeli air force recently posted images of dozens of GBU-31 being loaded on planes. “This fits our analysis. You can see the size of the bomb and guidance straps, which are the signature of the GBU-31,” added Garlasco.””

Garlasco also told The Guardian that “the type of munitions he believes were used would have met stated Israeli military goals of hitting underground tunnels, but also caused extensive damage above ground. If they are set to have a delayed detonation, which is one of three options on the bomb, they cause an earthquake-like phenomenon when they do explode. “JDAMs will burrow through the ground, and have a delayed detonation, causing the building to collapse on itself. This explains the extent of the damage,” he said. “Buildings also collapse due to the blast wave, not just tunnels”.

According to Bellingcat, on October 31, “Reports began to appear online about 2:30 pm local time (…) A Reuters live stream filming towards Jabalia and Gaza City appears to have captured a large explosion at approximately 2:24pm local time, consistent with the earliest reports of the strike on Jabalia.” This observation matched The Guardian’s findings, which noted that “The first online reports of Tuesday’s attack came at about 2.30pm local time. A Reuters live stream captured the moment of impact a few minutes earlier.” According to The Guardian, relying on Reuters video footage and other media content, the exact location of the strike was narrowed to buildings at the intersection of Al Mouhawel and Al Almey streets.

Note that at the time of publication of this assessment, the Ministry of Health had not yet released an update to the list of named fatalities originally published on October 26th.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at 14:30:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (21)

Abu Al Thib Abo Al Qoumsan أبو الذيب أبو القمصان
Adult male Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan's father killed
Abu Anas Abo Al Qoumsan أبو أنس أبو القمصان
Adult male killed
Abo Firas Abo Al Qoumsan أبو فراس أبو القمصان
Adult male killed
Abo Firas Abo Al Qoumsan's wife زوجة أبو فراس أبو القمصان
Adult female killed
Wasel Abo Al-Quoumsan واصل أبو القمصان
Child male Abo Firas's son killed
Mohannad Abo Al Qoumsan مهند أبو القمصان
Child male Abo Firas's son killed
Nabough Abo Al Qoumsan نبوغ أبو القمصان
Child female Abo Firas's daughter killed
Abrar Abo Al Qoumsan أبرار أبو القمصان
Child female Abo Firas's daughter killed
Umayya Abo Al Qoumsan أمية أبو القمصان
Adult female “Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan”'s sister killed
Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's wife زوجة ذيب أبو القمصان
Adult female killed
Rahaf Abo Al Qoumsan رهف أبو القمصان
Child female Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's daughter killed
Layan Abo Al Qoumsan ليان أبو القمصان
Child female Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's daughter killed
Abdullah Abo Al Qoumsan عبدالله أبو القمصان
Child male Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's son killed
Mohammed Abo Al Qoumsan محمد أبو القمصان
Child male Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's son killed
Aboud Abo Al Qoumsan عبود أبو القمصان
Child male Thib Abo Al Qoumsan's son killed
Iman Abo Al-Qoumsan أيمان أبو القمصان
Adult female Mahmoud Abo Al Qoumsan's sister killed
Yamen Abo Al-Qoussan يامن أبو القمصان
Child male Imam's son killed
Zain Abo Al-Qoussan زين أبو القمصان
Child male Imam's son killed
Yazeed Abo Al-Qoussan يزيد أبو القمصان
Child male Imam's son killed
Jamila Yusef Abu Al-Qumsan جميلة يوسف أبو القمصان
Adult female mother of Rami Ahjazi killed
Marwa Basil Abu Al-Qumsan مروة أبو القمصان
Adult female killed

Family members (12)

Abdul Salam Siraj عبد السلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's mother أم عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's wife زوجة عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's daughter ابنة عبدالسلام سراج
Child female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's daughter ابنة عبدالسلام سراج
Child female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's sister أخت عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's sister أخت عبدالسلام سراج
Adult female killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's brother أخ عبدالسلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's brother أخ عبدالسلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's brother أخ عبدالسلام سراج
Adult male killed
Abdul Salam Siraj's uncle عم عبدالسلام سراج
male killed
Another family member of Abdul Salam Siraj's uncle عم عبدالسلام سراج
(source mentions all of his uncle's family were killed - no number provided) killed

Family members (10)

Fadi Khudair Ali فادي خضير علي
Adult male killed
Fadi Khudair Ali's wife زوجة فادي خضير علي
Adult female killed
Muhammad Khudair Ali محمد خضير علي
Adult male killed
Malak Khudair Ali ملاك خضير علي
Adult male killed
Khadra Jaber Ali خضرة جابر علي
Adult female killed
Ahmed Jaber Ali أحمد جابر علي
Child male Khadra's son killed
Zainab Jaber Ali زينب جابر علي
Child female Khadra's daughter killed
Muhammad Jaber Ali محمد جابر علي
Child male Khadra's son killed
Haidar Al-Daour حيدر الداعور
Child male Muhammad Ali's cousin's son killed
Kanan Al-Daour كنان الداعور
Child male Muhammad Ali's cousin's son killed

Family members (6)

Omar Mas’oud عمر مسعود
Adult male former prisoner - civilian status unclear killed
Donia Bashir دنيا البشر
Adult female killed
Son of Omar and Dunya
Child male killed
Daughter of Omar and Dunya
Child female killed
Daughter of Omar and Dunya
Child female killed
Daughter of Omar and Dunya
Child female killed

Family members (9)

Omar Mustafa Abu Sultan عمر مصطفى أبو سلطان
Adult male killed
Sahar Al-Hoor سحر الهور
Adult female Omar's wife killed
Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan أحمد عمر أبو سلطان
Adult male Omar and Sahar's son killed
Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan's wife زوجة أحمد عمر أبو سلطان
Adult female killed
Ahmed Omar Abu Sultan's daughter ابنة عمر أبو سلطان
Child female killed
Muhammad Omar Abu Sultan محمد عمر أبو سلطان
Child male Son of Omar and Saher, killed
Abdullah Omar Abu Sultan عبدالله أبو سلطان
Child male Son of Omar and Saher killed
Mahmoud Omar Abu Sultan محمود أبو سلطان
Child male Son of Omar and Saher, killed
Shahd Abu Sultan شهد أبو سلطان
Child female Daughter of Omar and Saher killed

Family members (2)

Ahmed Salah Dhiyab Al-Tanani أحمد جمعة صالح ذياب الطناني
Child male killed
Mahmoud Muhammad Dhiyab Al-Tanani محمود محمد صالح الطناني
Child male Ahmed's brother killed

Family members (5)

Ahmed Akram Abu Al-Omrain أحمد أكرم أبو العمرين
Adult male killed
Reem Muhammad Al-Firi ريم محمد الفيري
Adult female Ahmed's wife killed
Rital Youssef Abu Al-Omrain ريتال يوسف أبوالعمرين
Child female Ahmed and Reem's child killed
Abdul Karim Youssef Abu Al-Omrain عبدالكريم يوسف أبوالعمرين
Child male Ahmed and Reem's child killed
Zaher Ramadan Abu Al-Omrain زاهر رمضان أبو العمرين
Child male Ahmed and Reem's child killed

Family members (15)

Raed Ahmad Rayyan رائد أحمد ريان
Adult male killed
Hanna Rayyan هناء ريان
Adult female wife of Raed Rayyan "Abu Saedd" killed
Sa’ed Rayyan سائد ريان
Child male Hanna and Raed's son killed
Maher Rayyan ماهر ريان
Adult male Doctor killed
Anwar Rayyan أنوار ريان
Child female Hanna and Raed's daughter killed
Jannah Rayyan جنة ريان
Child female killed
Raed Sa’ed Rayyan رائد سائد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Hanaa Sa’ed Rayyan هناء سائد ريان
Age unknown female killed
Mahmoud Sa’ed Rayyan محمود سائد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Ghassan Mohammed Rayyan غسان محمد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Israa Mohammed Rayyan سراء محمد ريان
Age unknown female killed
Mujahid Mohammed Rayyan مجاهد محمد ريان
Age unknown male killed
Masa Mohammed Rayyan ماسة محمد ريان
Age unknown female killed
Iman Saed Abou Hamdan يمان سائد ابو حمدان
Age unknown female killed
Karam Abdulkarim Rayyan كرم عبدالكريم ريان
Age unknown male killed

Family members (3)

Mahmoud Jabr Alyan محمود جبر عليان
Age unknown male killed
Youssef Muhammad Alyan يوسف محمد عليان
Age unknown male killed
Karim Majid Alyan كريم ماجد عليان
Age unknown male killed

Family members (26)

Rawnd Okasha روند عكاشة
Adult female killed
Bilal Okasha بلال عكاشة
Adult male Rawnd's husband killed
Child of Bilal and Rawnd Okasha طفل بلال وروند
Child killed
Child of Bilal and Rawnd Okasha طفل بلال وروند
Child killed
Child of Bilal and Rawnd Okasha طفل بلال وروند
Child killed
Ziad Okasha زياد عكاشة
Adult male killed
Manal Al-Najjar منال النجار
Adult female Ziad's wife killed
Youssef Ziad Okasha يوسف زياد عكاشة
Child male Son of Ziad and Manal killed
Raed Okasha رائد عكاشة
Adult male killed
Raed Okasha's child
Child killed
Raed Okasha's child
Child killed
Raed Okasha's wife
Adult female Raed's wife killed
Nael Okasha نائل عكاشة
Adult male killed
Islam Mohammed al Kafarna اسلام محمد الكفارنة
Adult female Nael's wife killed
Nael Okasha's child
Child killed
Nael Okasha's child
Child killed
Yasser Okasha's child
Child killed
Yasser Okasha's child
Child killed
Yasser Okasha's wife
Adult female killed
Thaer Naeem Okasha ثائر نعيم عكاشة
Adult male killed
Thaer Naeem Okasha's relative
Age unknown killed
Muhammad Fayez Al-Zwaidi. محمد فايز الزويدي
Age unknown male killed
Muhammad Okasha محمد عكاشة
Adult male killed
Masa Okasha ماسة عكاشة
Child female Daughter of Mohammed killed
Rakan Okasha راكان عكاشة
Child male Son of Mohammed killed
Ameed, Okasha عميد عكاشة
Child male Son of Mohammed killed

Family members (2)

Kamal Hamad "Abu Diaa" كمال حمد
Adult male killed
Kamal Hamad's son
Child male killed

The victims were named as:

Jumaa Mohammed Al Sharawi جمعة محمد الشعراوي
Adult male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    126 – 136
  • (69 children22 women28 men1 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    280
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    Israeli Military
  • Known target
    Palestinian Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    12–24

Sources (106) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (152) [ collapse]

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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @TheUKAr
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    Source: @TheUKAr
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    Source: @alyredaa
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    Source: @WaheidiSaad
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    Source: Anas Al Sharif
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    Source: Anas Al Sharif
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    Source: Anas Al Sharif
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    Source: Anas Al Sharif
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    Source: Anas Al Sharif
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    Source: @alyelbassel
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    Source: @alyelbassel
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    Source: @alyelbassel
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    Source: @alyelbassel
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    Source: @Jales_tinian2
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Ziad Emad
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    Source: Mohammed Ali
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    Source: Mohammed Ali
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    Source: Rami Aroki
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    Source: Rami Aroki
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    Source: Rami Aroki
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    Source: Um Mohammed Abo Al Qoumsan
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    Source: Palestine voice radio
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    Source: Palestine voice radio
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    Source: Palestine voice radio
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    Source: Palestine voice radio
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    Source: Alaraby television
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    Source: Alaraby television
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    Source: Alaraby television
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    Source: Alaraby television
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    Source: Khader Sultan
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    Source: Khader Sultan
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    Source: Khader Sultan
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    Source: Khader Sultan
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    Source: Khader Sultan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Suhil Yahya
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    Source: Suhil Yahya
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    Source: Suhil Yahya
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abdullah Al Hor
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    Source: Abdullah Al Hor
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    Source: Abdullah Al Hor
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    Source: Raed Abo Al Qoumsan
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    Source: Ra’ed Abo Al Qoumsan
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    Source: Mohammed Okasha
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Jehad Al Sharawi
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    Source: Jehad Al Sharawi
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    Source: Ziad Alyan
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    Source: Baraa Samir
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Abood Okasha
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    Source: Mais Al Reem
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    Source: Mohammed Okasha
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    Source: Mohammed Okasha
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    Source: Hamouda Abo Malek
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    Source: Hamouda Abo Malek
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    Source: Khaled Abo Al Hour
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    Source: Salah salama
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    Source: Salah salama
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    Source: Salah salama
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    Source: Journalist Adel Za’rab
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    Source: Faraj Abo Mohammed
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    Source: Faraj Abo Mohammed
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    Source: Faraj Abo Mohammed
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    Source: Bellingcat Report
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    Source: Bellingcat Report
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    Source: Bellingcat Report
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    Source: Bellingcat Report
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs Statement
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: The Guardian News
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    Source: @Reuters
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    Source: @trbrtc
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    Source: @trbrtc
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    Source: CNN News
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    Source: CNN News
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    Source: CNN News
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    Source: @UNHumanRights
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Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention strikes on the Jabalia camp (مخيم جباليا). Satellite imagery shared by Christiaan Triebert (@trbrtc) shows the strike location at the following exact coordinates: 31.533320, 34.499070.

  • Imagery:
    @trbrtc

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Israeli Military

CNN Wolf Blitzer Interview w/ IDF Spokesperson Richard Hecht

WB
Back now to our breaking news here in the Middle East. A massive explosion at the largest refugee camp in Gaza. Joining us now is Lieutenant Colonel Richard Hecht. He's the international spokesperson for the Israel Defense Forces. Thanks so much for joining us. I want to ask you first about this massive blast that we all just saw. We saw the video at the Jabalya refugee camp in Gaza. Is there anything more you can, first of all, tell us about how this explosion happened?

RH
Hi Wolf. Thanks for having me. So we'll be coming out in the next hopefully hour with more data. But I can update you now that there was a very senior Hamas commander in that area. Sadly, he was hiding again, as they do behind the [sic] within civilians. And that's all I can say at this point. We're looking into it and we'll be coming out with more data as we learn what happened there.

WB
So can you confirm it was an Israeli attack that destroyed a big chunk of that Jabalya refugee camp?

RH
Yes, I can. We when we were focused on the target, a senior commander, Wolf, I will be updating you with more data as the hour moves ahead.

WB
But even if that Hamas commander was there, amidst all those Palestinian refugees who are in there in that Jabalya refugee camp, Israel still went ahead and dropped a bomb there attempting to kill this Hamas uh this Hamas commander. Knowing that a lot of innocent civilians, men, women and children, presumably would be killed, is that what I'm hearing?

RH
That's not what you're hearing, Wolf. We again, we're focused on this commander, again, who you'll get more data who this man was, killed many, many Israelis. And we're doing everything we can. These are, it's a very complicated battle space. That could be infrastructure there. There could be tunnels there. And we're still looking into and we'll give you more data as the hour moves ahead.

WB
But you know that there are a lot of refugees, a lot of innocent civilians, men, women and children in that refugee camp as well. Right?

RH
This is the tragedy of war, Wolf. I mean, we as you know, we've been saying for days, move south. If civilians are not involved with Hamas, please move south.

WB
I’m just trying to get a little bit more information. You knew there were civilians there.
You knew there were refugees, all sorts of refugees. But you decided to still drop a bomb on that refugee camp attempting to kill this Hamas commander. By the way, was he killed?

RH
I can't confirm yet. There will be more updated. Yes, we know that he was killed and about the civilians there, we're doing everything we can to minimize. I'll tell you, I'll say again, sadly, they are hiding themselves within the civilian population. And again, we are doing this stage by stage, and we're going to go after every one of these terrorists who was involved in that heinous attack on the 7th of October Wolf.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Declared strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    126 – 136
  • (69 children22 women28 men1 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    280
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Confirmed
    A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for civilian harm.
  • Known attacker
    Israeli Military
  • Known target
    Palestinian Forces
  • Belligerents reported killed
    12–24

Sources (106) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0587

Incident date

October 25, 2023

Location

بمحيط برج التاج 3, Vicinity of Al Taj Tower 3, Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.521604, 34.460559 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On October 25, 2023, an alleged Israeli strike on the Al-Taj building and surrounding areas killed at least 101 people, including 44 children and 37 women, and injured “hundreds” of others.

Lower initial death tolls were reported in the immediate aftermath of the strike, with casualty counts challenged by so many individuals trapped underneath the rubble. Members of the Ramlawi family were found alive after being able to send a call for help underneath the rubble of the fourth floor of the Al Taj 3 building. Survivors Khaled Saed Al Ramlawi, Osama Al Daki, Saeed Amer Al Ramlawi, Hamoud Ahmad Al Ramlawi lost 19 family members in the strike.

The Israel Defense Forces published a video of what it said were strikes on a “Hamas terror tunnel,” without further details. In the footage a large building and its surrounding area is struck multiple times within a second, with a number of what are potentially secondary explosions occurring six seconds later. Airwars was able to geolocate the footage and confirm the large building in the frame was the Al-Taj. There was no further details on the damage to the alleged tunnel network.

@ShehabAgency initially reported that 40 bodies were recovered from the rubble alongside dozens of wounded people following the Israeli airstrike on Al-Taj Building 3 and Yarmouk and Al-Jalaa Streets. @naveedmarfani put the number of killed at 25, adding that “hundreds” were injured, while Al Bawaba News quoting the Palestinian Ministry of Interior reported more than 100 people had been wounded. The day after the incident, @d_f115 reported that the death count had reached 61 and the search was still going on for other missing people under the rubble. @QamareAlam21 specified that more than 120 people, including “8 entire families” were buried under the rubble.

The Sharaf family

At least 37 members of the Sharaf family across three generations were reported killed in the strike. Omar Sharaf (Abu Ismail) and his wife Umm Ismail Sharaf lost at least six of their children and children-in-law, as well as 16 grandchildren. Omar’s two brothers and their families were also killed in the strike: Abu Osama Sharaf, Osama’s wife, three children and grandchild, and Dr Khaled Sharaf, his wife and their three children.

The names of those killed were mostly identified by relatives on social media, and are identified below.

Omar and Ismail Sharaf’s children and grandchildren

Omar and Ismail’s Sharaf’s daughter-in-law Islam Baalousha (wife of their surviving son Yousef) was reportedly killed alongside her three daughters Malak Sharaf*, Yasmine Sharaf*, Nour Sharaf* and son Malik Sharaf*. A video posted by a cousin, named Yousef Sharaf, shows Yousef Sharaf Abu Malik mourning for his wife Islam and four children who were all killed. @Mansorryaan tweeted the day after the incident that their colleague Yousef’s wife, children, and other relatives were still under the rubble. Yousef Sharaf, a program producer at Shehab News Agency, tweeted that “my father, my mother, my wife, my children, and most of my brothers and their families were martyred” and described his son Malik as “The son of my heart, my darling, my successor, and my heir, like the breeze, he lived among us, flying with joy and spreading love, just like his features in this picture, and in all the pictures!” @ShehabAgency also tweeted a condolence message for their journalist Yousef.

Omar and Umm Ismail’s son Ismail Sharaf, his wife and their son Omar Sharaf* were also killed. Ismail’s brother Yousef (@_Ysharaf) described Omar as Ismail’s “first joy, his great redress, and his great compensation”, and that Omar “came carrying joy on the day of Tarwiyah, which preceded the last Eid al-Adha, and he left life with his father, mother, and my family during the Battle of Al-Aqsa Flood”.

Omar and Umm Ismail’s son Abdul Rahim Sharaf, his wife Aliaa Ramzi Al Hinawi, their son* and their three daughters* were killed. Nermin Hinawi posted a condolence message for his cousin Dr. Aliaa Ramzi Al Hinawi, her husband, and her four children. Images show the parents and four children, including an infant, with all of the children looking to be under the age of 10.

Omar and Umm Ismail’s son Salah Sharaf and his son Hamza Sharaf* were also all killed. Omar and Umm Ismail’s daughter Asma Sharaf, her daughter Hala Dawoud*, her daughter Sama Dawoud*, her daughter Jour Dawoud*, and her daughter Lana Dawoud* were killed. A post by Sereen Daoud described Lana as “her father’s firstborn and his first joy. Lana is the superior, ambitious, dreamer; She used to stay up with me and sit with me during the war nights, telling me about her hopes and dreams. She competed with me in memorizing the Qur’an.”

Hala was described as “the spontaneous, kind, and innocent woman…She would ask me every night to comb her hair and play with her so she would forget the nights of terror we lived through. She stood next to me in the kitchen while I was preparing food and whispered in my ear: “Auntie, I make you the best food ever.” On the last night she spent at my house, she woke up to the sound of bombing and panic filled her heart, asking me; Auntie, do your feet hurt from fear as much as they hurt me?”

Sama was described as “the energetic and responsible one (the logistics person in charge at home), as her father calls her. She was older than her age and saw more of life than she could bear. During the hours of bombing and evacuation, she was the one who packed bags.”

Jour was described as “the love of the house, her mother’s darling, and my daughter Sandy’s companion in kindergarten. They always shared a lunch box in kindergarten. They played together and quarreled innocently over a piece of candy or a toy. Jour left, leaving her friend Sandy alone.” Asma was described as “We used to share together in making bread and preparing food during the war days… She would stand next to me in the kitchen, we would prepare food and talk together, and every night she would prepare the pot of tea that my son Ahmed loved from under her hands”.

Omar and Umm Ismail’s other daughter Alaa Sharaf and her daughters* were killed. @_Ysharaf refers to his sister Alaa as “the apple of my heart” and only mentions that her “daughters” were killed, which Airwars has quantified as two casualties.

Abu Osama Sharaf’s family

Omar Sharaf (Abu Ismail)’s brother Abu Osama Sharaf, his wife, his daughter Wissam, his daughter Israa, his daughter Doaa, and Doaa’s child Obaida* were killed. Fatma Mohammed referred to Doaa Sharaf as a media personality, adding that she was killed along with her child and that some of her family members were still under the rubble.

Dr. Khaled Sharaf’s family

Omar Sharaf’s brother Dr. Khaled Sharaf, his wife, his son Abdullah, his son Karim, and his daughter Jodi were killed. Family member @_Ysharaf identified Khaled Sharaf as a “doctor and lecturer at Al-Aqsa University”. A nephew of Omar Sharaf (Abu Ismail) stated that approximately 50 members of the family had been killed and that “All the words of the Arabic language cannot describe the sadness and oppression in our hearts over this great affliction”. Other family members, including @_Ysharaf, identified 37 members of the family killed.

The Radwan family

At least 15 members of the Radwan family were reportedly killed in the strike, across three generations.

Hassan Radwan and other members of the Al-Mahlawi family provided the names of the family members killed: grandmother Buthaina Radwan (Al-Mahlawi), killed alongside her son Mahmoud Awni Al-Mahlawi, her son Osama Awni Al-Mahlawi, her daughter Faten Awni Al-Mahlawi, her son Muhammad Awni Al-Mahlawi, Muhammad’s wife Asmaa Jihad Abu Al-Amrain (Al-Mahlawi), Muhammad and Asmaa’s child Rawad Muhammad Al-Mahlawi*, their daughter Habiba Muhammad Al-Mahlawi*, their son Abd al-Rahman Muhammad Al-Mahlawi*.

Buthaina’s daughter Mona Aouni Al-Mahlawi was also killed alongside her husband Walid Abdel Haq Al Mahlawi, their daughters Nagham Walid Al Mahlawi*, Nada Walid Al Mahlawi*, Hoda Walid Al-Mahlawi*, and son Moaz Walid Al-Mahlawi*.

Hassan Radwan Posted a condolence message for his wife’s aunt, Buthaina, along with her children “the friend Muhammad” and his wife and three children, “the lawyer Mahmoud”, and Mona and her husband Walid and their four children. Early reports noted that two of Buthaina’s other children Osama and Faten were still under the rubble, though they were later reported killed.

The Al-Banna family

Mufid Fayez Al-Banna and his wife Nourhan Nour Al-Din (Al-Banna) were killed and their daughter Asmaa Al Banna was injured. Mahmoud Hamada described Mufid Fayez as his “dear uncle, my father-in-law, my friend, and my brother” adding that “eyes shed tears and the heart grieves, and we are saddened by your departure, our dear martyr.” Asmaa Al Banna was rescued from under the rubble after four days, and one source described it as “Asmaa is living with a divine miracle”. Asmaa’s brother Mohammad Al Banna mourned for his parents and reported that as of November 6th Asmaa was still being treated in intensive care.

The Jarada family

At least 17 members of the Jarada family were reported killed across three generations. Their names were identified by family members on social media.

Marwan Al Maidana was among those posting condolence messages for the following family members: the father Nasr Rabah Jarada (Abu Tamer), his wife Naama Abu Al-Ezz (Jarada), their daughters Nisreen Nasr Jarada, Haneen Nasr Jarada, and Tamer Nasr Jarada.

Nasr and Naama’s grandchildren were also killed, identified as Nasr Mahmoud Jarada* and Abdullah Mahmoud Jarada*.

Nasr’s brother Harbi Rabah Jarada (Abou Rabah), Harbi’s wife Fawzia Abu Al-Auf (Jarada), their son Rabah Harbi Jarada (Abu Omar), Rabah’s wife Ruba Al-Qaisi (Jarada), Rabah and Ruba’s sons Harbi Rabah Jarada*, Karim Rabah Jarada*, and Muhammad Harbi Jarada (Abu Yusef) were all also killed. Their daughter in law, wife of Muhammad, Hala Saleh (Jarada), was also reported killed alongside her daughtersHabiba Muhammad Jarada* and Maymana Muhammad Jarada* were killed. In the post by Marwan Al Maidana, Rabah Harbi Jarada (Abu Omar) is referred to as a “retired Colonel”, Harbi Rabah Jarada (Abou Rabah) is referred to as “retired Major General” and Muhammad Harbi Jarada (Abu Yusef) as “Colonel”. As a retired member of armed forces, Rabah would not be classified as a combatant.

Reem Jawad EL-samouni expressed sympathy to Marwa N. Jarad, head of her family who lost 17 members of her family, adding that at the time of posting, the day after the attack, other members of her family were still under the rubble.

The Muhanna family

At least five members of the Muhanna family were reportedly killed in the strike. A post by Yousif A Muhanna mourned the loss of his family members: his father Adnan Muhanna, his mother Ibtisam Hosni Muhanna, his sister Dima Adnan Muhanna, his wife Rawand Al-Banna, and his son Adnan Youssef Adnan Muhanna*. Yousif also posted a picture of his son Adnan describing him as “My son, the lover of my soul (Adnan). All I know is that in losing you, I lose myself.”

A tweet from @fidaazaanin told the story of someone from the “Muhanna’s house” (seeming to indicate the family above) who lost their whole family in the bombing – mother, father, brother, nephew, except for one of their brothers who went out to the store to get food just before the bombing, and was the only one to survive. At the time, 120 people were still reportedly under the rubble.

The Mahdi family

At least seven members of the Mahdi family were reportedly killed in the strike. A post from Abd Rahim Mahdi memorialized members of his family killed: Khalil Akram Mahdi, Khalil’s wife Sali Ibrahim Mahdi (Labed), Khalil and Sali’s daughter Nesreen Khalil Mahdi*, Khalil and Sali’s daughter Talin Khalil Mahdi*, Khalil and Sali’s son Akram Khalil Mahdi*. Khalil and Sali’s daughter Loreen Khalil Mahdi, 6 months old, was also injured. Khalil’s cousins Ahmad Zakariya Mahdi and Hind Mahdi were also killed. ABO MANAR posted a condolence message for his brother-in-law “Ibrahim Labad” Abu Muhammad” whose daughter Sali, her husband Khalil, and their four children were killed. However according to the brother of Khalil, his 6-month-old daughter (Loreen) survived the attack and was found in her mother’s arms. A cousin of Khalil, Ahmed, and Hind (mother of Ibrahim Al-Zant) named Abd Rahim Mahdi posted a condolence message for the Mahdi family.

The Ramlawi family

Khaled posted a memorial for his family members killed, identifying them as: his father Saeed Al-Ramlawi (Abu Amer), his mother Masara Al-Ramlawi (Umm Amer), his daughter Alina Al-Ramlawi (3 years old), his brother Amer Al-Ramlawi (Abu Al-Saeed), Amer’s son Ibrahim Al-Ramlawi (12 years old), Amer’s daughter Ruba Al-Ramlawi (17 years old), killed, Khaled’s brother Muhammad Al-Ramlawi (Abu Al-Baraa), Muhammad’s wife Heba Al-Ramlawi (Umm Al-Baraa), Khaled’s sister Rami Al-Ramlawi (14 years old), Khaled’s sister Rana Ramlawi, Khaled’s sister Ritaal Ramlawi (6 years old), Khaled’s brother Ahmed’s wife Abeer Al-Ramlawi (Umm Yahya), Ahmed and Abeer’s daughter Nour Al-Ramlawi (19 years old), Ahmed and Abeer’s daughter Malak Al-Ramlawi (10 years old), Khaled’s brother Hazem’s wife Yasmine Al-Ramlawi (Umm Anas), Hazem and Yasmine’s son Anas Al-Ramlawi (12 years old), Hazem and Yasmine’s son Saeed Al-Ramlawi (5 years old), Hazem and Yasmine’s daughter Judy Ramlawi (7 years old), killed, and Etaf Al-Ramlawi. Khaled’s daughter, Sham Al-Ramlawi, was also injured.

According to @nanouhnm, members of the Ramlawi family placed a distress call from under the rubble and were then rescued by the defense crews. Flowra Nu’man Al Masri posted the voice call from the family, where they said “We are sending a call for help from under the rubbles of 4th floor of Al Taj 3 building and our names are Khaled Saed Al Ramlawi, Osama Al Daki, Saeed Amer Al Ramlawi, Hamoud Ahmad Al Ramlawi.” The source added that the survivors were recovering well, while another source added that the family members had been under the rubble for 8 hours before they were rescued.

Soha Mohamedeen posted a condolence message for his colleague and brother Amer Al-Ramlawi (Abu Al-Saeed) who described as being “respected, able, and wise”. Khaled Al Ramlaw mourned “the martyrdom of my sister, the love of my heart and the joy of my eyes (Yasmine Ahmed Al-Ramlawi) and her eldest son, the martyr (Anas Hazem Al-Ramlawi)”.

Khaled Al Ramlawi wrote about spending the morning of the strike with Alina Al-Ramlawi: “I woke up and found Sham and Alina playing, so I called Sham, and Alina came with her, as if she was telling me these are my last hours in this world. I want to play with you, because you will never see me again. Alina went as a martyr to a merciful and kind God, and was buried in the same red clothes of hers. As for Sham, she remained alive as a witness to the crime. She was injured in the face and foot, after thousands of tons of explosives were thrown at us… Will Sham remember her sister, Alina, when she grows up?”

The Bakhit family

A post by Majid Said memorialized Mr. Saeed Bakhit “Abu Osama” and his sons and Dr. Muhammad Bakhit *Abu Yasser* and his family.

An additional victim was mentioned by Mohmmad Shabir, who posted a condolence message for his uncle, Sakhr Yahya Shabir, who was killed.

The Mansour family also put out an appeal to have their family members rescued the day after the bombing noting that members of their family were still missing under the rubble.

Images posted by @Yasser_Gaza show men, women, and children being treated for their injuries in Al-Shifa hospital. Medical services – Gaza Strip posted images of the ambulance and emergency crews at the General Directorate of Ansar Station pulling killed and injured civilians from the rubble. According to @alyredaa, more than 500 people were in the residential tower when the bombing occurred.

The location of the strikes was identified by @MOHGaza1994 as being the Al-Taj building, Al-Yarmouk Street, Al-Jalaa Street, and Al-Sharq Bakery, as well as the houses around them, resulting in the destruction of dozens of homes, with one source mentioning that the “Al Yarmouk residential neighborhood” was completely destroyed. A tweet from @Osint613 mentioned the strike appeared to target an alleged tunnel network.

Yasmin Hasweh reported that the Taj Residential Towers, which is 12 floors, was flattened by more than 30 bunker-buster bombs which struck the residential square in less than five minutes. The source, along with many others including @OrientNews, specified that the strike occurred without prior warning. Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

This incident occurred the day before the Palestinian Ministry of Health published its list of nearly 7,000 names on October 26th; none of those killed in this strike could be identified among the MoH list.

*Airwars has quantified the youngest generation of each family as children based on available images due to the lack of ages found for the victims.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured in the afternoon.

The victims were named as:

Family members (37)

Omar Sharaf (Abu Ismail) عمر شرف (أبو إسماعيل)
Adult male killed
Umm Ismail Sharaf أم إسماعيل
Adult female killed
Islam Baalousha إسلام بعلوشة
Adult female killed
Malak Sharaf ملك شرف
Child female killed
Malik Sharaf مالك شرف
Child male killed
Yasmine Sharaf ياسمين شرف
Child female killed
Nour Sharaf نور شرف
Child female killed
Ismail Sharaf إسماعيل شرف
Adult male killed
Wife of Ismail Sharaf زوجة إسماعيل شرف
Adult female killed
Omar Sharaf عمر شرف
Child male killed
Abdul Rahim Sharaf عبدالرحمن شرف
Adult male killed
Aliaa Ramzi Al Hinawi علياء رمزي الحناوي
Adult female killed
Son of Abdul Rahim Sharaf ابن عبد الرحمن شرف
Child male killed
Daughter of Abdul Rahim Sharaf ابنة عبد الرحمن شرف
Child female killed
Daughter of Abdul Rahim Sharaf ابنة عبد الرحمن شرف
Child female killed
Daughter of Abdul Rahim Sharaf ابنة عبد الرحمن شرف
Child female killed
Salah Sharaf صلاح شرف
Adult male killed
Hamza Sharaf حمزة شرف
Child male killed
Asma Sharaf أسماء شرف
Adult female killed
Hala Dawoud هلا داود
Child female killed
Sama Dawoud سما داود
Child female killed
Jour Dawoud جوري داود
Child female killed
Lana Dawoud لانا داود
Child female killed
Alaa Sharaf علاء شرف
Adult female killed
Daughter of Alaa Sharaf بناتها
Child female killed
Daughter of Alaa Sharaf بناتها
Child female killed
Abu Osama Sharaf أبو أسامة شرف
Adult male killed
Wife of Abu Osama Sharaf زوجته
Adult female killed
Wissam Sharaf وسام شرف
Adult female killed
Israa Sharaf اسراء شرف
Adult female killed
Doaa Sharaf دعاء شرف
Adult female killed
Obaida Sharaf عبيدة شرف
Child female killed
Dr. Khaled Sharaf خالد شرف
Adult male killed
Wife of Dr. Khaled Sharaf زوجة خالد شرف
Adult female killed
Abdullah Sharaf عبدالله شرف
male killed
Karim Sharaf كريم شرف
male killed
Jodi Sharaf جودي شرف
female killed

Family members (15)

Buthaina Radwan (Al-Mahlawi) بثينة رضوان
Adult female killed
Mahmoud Awni Al-Mahlawi محمود عوني المحلاوي
Adult male killed
Osama Awni Al-Mahlawi أسامة عوني المحلاوي
Adult male killed
Faten Awni Al-Mahlawi فاتن عوني المحلاوي
Adult female killed
Muhammad Awni Al-Mahlawi محمد عوني المحلاوي
Adult male killed
Asmaa Jihad Abu Al-Amrain (Al-Mahlawi) أسماء جهاد أبو العمرين
Adult female killed
Rawad Muhammad Al-Mahlawi رواد محمد المحلاوي
Child male killed
Habiba Muhammad Al-Mahlawi حبيبة محمد المحلاوي
Child female killed
Abd al-Rahman Muhammad al-Mahlawi عبدالرحمن محمد المحلاوي
Child male killed
Mona Aouni Al-Mahlawi بثينة منى عوني المحلاوي
Adult female killed
Walid Abdel Haq Al Mahlawi وليد عبدالحق المحلاوي
Adult female killed
Nagham Walid Al Mahlawi نغم وليد المحلاوي
Child female killed
Nada Walid Al Mahlawi ندى وليد المحلاوي
Child female killed
Hoda Walid Al-Mahlawi هدى وليد المحلاوي
Child female killed
Moaz Walid Al-Mahlawi معاذ وليد المحلاوي
Child male killed

Family members (3)

Mufid Fayez Al-Banna مفيد فايز البنا
Adult male killed
Nourhan Nour Al-Din (Al-Banna) نورهان نور الدين
Adult female killed
Asmaa Al Banna أسماء البنا
female injured

Family members (17)

Nasr Rabah Jarada (Abu Tamer) نصر رباح جرادة
Adult male killed
Naama Abu Al-Ezz (Jarada) نعمة عبدالعزيز
Adult female killed
Nisreen Nasr Jarada سرين نصر جرادة
female killed
Haneen Nasr Jarada حنين نصر جرادة
female killed
Nasr Mahmoud Jarada نصر محمود جرادة
Child male killed
Abdullah Mahmoud Jarada عبدالله محمود جرادة
Child male killed
Harbi Rabah Jarada (Abou Rabah) حربي رباح جرادة
Adult male killed
Fawzia Abu Al-Auf (Jarada) فوزية ابو العوف
Adult female killed
Rabah Harbi Jarada (Abu Omar) رباح حربي جرادة
Adult male killed
Ruba Al-Qaisi (Jarada) ربى قيس
Adult female killed
Harbi Rabah Jarada حربي رباح جرادة
Child male killed
Karim Rabah Jarada كريم رباح جرادة
Child male killed
Muhammad Harbi Jarada (Abu Yusef) محمد حربي جرادة
Adult male killed
Hala Saleh (Jarada) هالة صالح جراده
Adult female killed
Habiba Muhammad Jarada حبيبة محمد جرادة
Child female killed
Tamer Nasr Jarada أم تامر جرادة
female killed
Maymana Muhammad Jarada ميمونة محمد جرادة
Child female killed

Family members (5)

Adnan Muhanna عدان مهنا
Adult male killed
Ibtisam Hosni Muhanna ابتسام حسني مهنا
Adult female killed
Dima Adnan Muhanna ديمة عندان مهنا
Adult female killed
Rawand Al-Banna راواند البنا وجنينها
Adult female killed
Adnan Youssef Adnan Muhanna عدنان يوسف عدنان هنا
Child male killed

Family members (23)

Saeed Al-Ramlawi (Abu Amer) سعيد الرملاوي
Adult male killed
Masara Al-Ramlawi (Umm Amer) مسرة الرملاوي
Adult female killed
Khaled Saed Al-Ramlawi خالد سعيد الرملاوي
Adult male injured
Alina Al-Ramlawi الينا الرملاوي
3 years old female killed
Amer Al-Ramlawi (Abu Al-Saeed) عامر الرملاوي
Adult male killed
Ibrahim Al-Ramlawi ابراهيم الرملاوي
12 years old male killed
Ruba Al-Ramlawi ربى الرملاوي
17 years old female killed
Muhammad Al-Ramlawi (Abu Al-Baraa) محمد الرملاوي
Adult male killed
Heba Al-Ramlawi (Umm Al-Baraa) هبة الرملاوي
Adult female killed
Rami Al-Ramlawi رامي الرملاوي
14 years old male killed
Rana Ramlawi رنا الرملاوي
12 years old female killed
Ritaal Ramlawi
6 years old female killed
Abeer Al-Ramlawi (Umm Yahya) عبير الرملاوي
Adult female killed
Nour Al-Ramlawi نور الرملاوي
19 years old female killed
Malak Al-Ramlawi ملاكل الرملاوي
10 years old male killed
Yasmine Al-Ramlawi (Umm Anas) ياسمين الرملاوي
Adult female killed
Anas Al-Ramlawi أنس الرملاوي
12 years old male killed
Saeed Al-Ramlawi سعيد الرملاوي
5 years old male killed
Judy Ramlawi حازم الرملاوي
7 years old female killed
Etaf Al-Ramlawi عطاف الرملاوي (أم رامي
Adult female killed
Osama Delki أسامة دلكي
male injured
Amer Al Ramlawi عامر الرملاوي
male injured
Hamoud Ahmad Al Ramlawi حمود أحمد الرملاوي
male injured

Family members (8)

Khalil Akram Mahdi خليل اكرم مهدي
Adult male killed
Sali Ibrahim Mahdi (Labed) سالي ابراهيم مهدي
Adult female killed
Nesreen Khalil Mahdi نسرين خليل مهدي
Child female killed
Talin Khalil Mahdi تالين خليل مهدي
Child female killed
Akram Khalil Mahdi أكرم خليل مهدي
Child male killed
Loreen Khalil Mahdi لورين خليل مهدي
6 months years old female injured
Ahmad Zakariya Mahdi أحمد زكريا مهدي
male killed
Hind Mahdi هند مهدي
female killed

Family members (6)

Mr. Saeed Bakhit “Abu Osama” سعيد بخيت "أبو أسامة"
Adult male killed
Son of Mr. Saeed Bakhit “Abu Osama”
male killed
Son of Mr. Saeed Bakhit “Abu Osama”
male killed
Dr. Muhammad Bakhit *Abu Yasser* محمد حسن بخيت
Adult male killed
Wife of Dr. Muhammad Bakhit *Abu Yasser* زوجة محمد حسن البخيت
Adult female killed
Yasser Bakhit ياسر بخيت
male killed

The victims were named as:

Sakhr Yahya Shabir يحيى صخر شبير
Adult male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    101
  • (44 children37 women26 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    100–200
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Known attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (86) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (99) [ collapse]

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    Source: @AnonOzzyDude
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    Source: @AnonOzzyDude
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Anadolu Agency News
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Geolocation notes (1) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention Al Taj Tower 3 (بمحيط برج التاج 3) in Gaza city (غزة). Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to the following exact coordinates: 31.521604, 34.460559.

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  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    IDF

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Known belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Israeli Military

Madhath Mubashar—Commander of Hamas' Western Khan Yunis Battalion—was eliminated by an IDF aerial strike.

Furthermore, the IDF struck 250+ Hamas targets including a terrorist tunnel network in Gaza that detonated the secondary explosions.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    101
  • (44 children37 women26 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    100–200
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Known attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (86) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0419

Incident date

October 21, 2023

Location

خربة العدس , Khirbat Al Adas, Rafah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.286310, 34.271887 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Between six and ten civilians were reported killed, including at least one member of the Palestinian Civil Defense and five children, when alleged Israeli missiles struck a Palestinian Civil Defense facility alongside the Dahir family home on October 21st, 2023. A number of other civilians, including Palestinian Civil Defense members, were also injured.

The incident took place near the Khirbet Al-Adas junction, east of Rafah, in the southern part of the Gaza Strip on Saturday morning.

Muhammad Fawzi Qtait also known as Abu Jazar (father of Jazar) was named as the Palestinian Civil Defense paramedic and firefighter killed in the strike. He was reported to be from Ma’an, Khan Yunis.

In a post from the Dhuhair family, it was reported that eight members of the family were killed including five children. The names were identified as: Ayman Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir, Iman Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir, Andalus Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir, Aws Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir and another child Elias Anas Muhammad Hamad Dhahir.

Family members named as mourning the victims – though not present during the strike – included grandmother Nabila, Elias’ parents, Anas Dhahir and Hanin Saleh Zorob, and Ayman, Iman, Andalus and Aws’ father Islam Muhammad Hamad Duhair. Aws’ kindergarten, Baraem Al Tofoula Model Kindergarten, made a post announcing his death and expressing their deep sorrow.

The Ministry of the Interior and the Directorate of the Civil Defense in Gaza reported the death of Muhammad Qtait and the injury of at least four other Civil Defense members, while source Adnan Ghanima reported in a tweet that six members were seriously injured. According to Masdar Al Akhbariya, 11 Civil Defense workers were injured and three were in serious condition. A post from the Rafah Municipality reported several deaths and injuries among Civil Defense members and civilians. The casualty range for those injured is therefore put at 4-11.

Where possible, Airwars has matched names with the Palestinian Ministry of Health list of nearly 7000 victims’ names and ID numbers released on October 26th.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli airplanes.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured in the morning.

The victims were named as:

Family members (5)

Ayman Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir أيمن إسلام محمد حمد ضهير
13 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 429423221
Iman Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir إيمان إسلام محمد حمد ضهير
12 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 430509919
Andalus Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir أندلس إسلام محمد حمد ضهير
10 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 434448718
Aws Islam Muhammad Hamad Dhahir أوس إسلام محمد حمد ضهير
5 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 440694404
Elias Anas Muhammad Hamad Dhahir إلياس أنس محمد حمد ضهير
5 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 440596930

The victims were named as:

Muhammad Fawzi Qtait محمد فوزي قطيط
39 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 800322224

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    6 – 10
  • (5–8 children1 woman2 men1 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–11
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (21) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (20) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: The journalist Adel Al Zaab
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Tabarbour
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rafah Municipality
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rafah Municipality
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rafah Municipality
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rafah Municipality
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Rafah Municipality
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Adnan Ghanima
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Adnan Ghanima
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahali Maan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahali Maan
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    Source: Ahali Maan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahali Maan
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    Source: Ahali Maan
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    Source: Ahali Maan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Omar Mahmoud Brhoum Zaraab
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Baraem Al Tofoula Model Kindergarten
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @SerajSat
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Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the area of Khirbat Al Adas ( خربة العدس ), within the Gaza strip (قِطَاعُ غَزَّةَ), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.2863108, 34.271887. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.  

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Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    6 – 10
  • (5–8 children1 woman2 men1 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–11
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (21) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0417

Incident date

October 21, 2023

Location

عائلة المطوق, جباليا, Al-Moutawaq family, Jabalia, Beit Hanoun, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

Alleged airstrikes from Israeli military aircraft killed between 23 and 35 civilians, including members of three generations of the Al-Moutawaq family, on Saturday, October 21, 2023, in the middle of the night on Masoud Street and Old Gaza Street in the Tal Al-Zaatar area in the east of Jabalia in Gaza. The number of injured civilians remains unknown.

The lowest casualty report came from Almayadeen News within an hour of the strike, although this number continued to rise with other reports throughout the night. The highest civilian death toll was reported in a post on Twitter/X by Ahmed who reported that more than 34 members of the Al-Moutawaq family had been killed.

23 victims’ names were identified by Airwars. The strike reportedly killed 35-year-old Sheikh Ibrahim Maher Sabri Al-Moutawaq, the imam of the Quba Mosque, who was a widely respected and known figure in the north of Gaza. Ibrahim’s three sisters 39-year-old Kafa Maher Sabri Al-Moutawq, 26-year-old Heba Maher Sabri Al-Moutawq, and Khadra Maher Al-Moutawq were also among those killed.

A 19-year-old girl named Tasneem Saeed Yousef Al-Moutawaq was killed alongside her younger sister and brother, 14-year-old Rawan Saeed Yousef Al-Moutawaq and 12-year-old Yousef Saeed Yousef Al-Moutawaq – as well as another brother, whose age is unknown, called Moatasem Saeed Al-Moutawaq.

Three brothers, 35-year-old Sabri Muhammad Sabri Al-Moutawaq, 30-year-old Ismail Muhammad Sabri Al-Moutawaq and 28-year-old Ahmed Muhammad Sabri Al-Moutawaq were killed alongside their sister 44-year-old Amira Muhammad Sabri Al-Moutawaq. Ismail is possibly the father of a 1-year-old girl called Celine Ismail Muhammed Al-Moutawaq, who was killed in the incident.

Three siblings, an eight-year-old girl called Raneen Abdul Rahman Maher Al-Moutawaq, a six-year-old boy called Hamza Abdul Rahman Maher Al-Moutawq and a three-year-old girl called Maryam Abdul Rahman Maher Al-Moutawaq, were killed.

Another set of young siblings, 9-year-old Zakaria Khabab Muhammed Al-Moutawaq and his 3-year-old sister Enas Khabbab Muhammed Al-Moutawaq, were also killed.

Other family members were also identified but couldn’t have their exact relationships verified. Two male family members called Kholoud Al-Moutawaq and Abdul Muti Yousef Al-Abd Al-Moutawaq (aged 49) were killed. Three female family members 63-year-old Etidal Ali Muhammed Al-Moutawaq, Naima Al-Abd Al-Moutawaq and Afnan Muhammad Al-Moutawaq (Nasr), were also reported killed.

Safa News referred to the incident as having killed Ibrahim and “all his family members.”

Quba Mosque posted a condolence message for their Sheikh, Ibrahim Maher Al-Mutawaq – Abu Maher saying, “We knew him in the prayer niche of the mosque, committed to his imamate, diligent in reciting the Qur’an during prayer, adhering to the Sunnah, following the guidance of the beloved Muhammad….We will miss you in every prayer, every Friday, every visit, and every activity.”

A video posted by @AJArabicnet showed the bodies of the dead and wounded being brought to the hospital, including a wounded infant. Multiple other sources mentioned wounded from the strike but none provided a toll.

Dr. Tariq Suleiman noted that the strike took place at 1:15 am with “American barrels and missiles” that were fired by Israeli planes.

The majority of names of victims identified by sources have been reconciled to the Palestinian Ministry of Health list of fatalities published on October 26, 2023, except for Kholoud Al-Moutawaq and Moatasem Saeed Al-Moutawaq.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 1:00 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (23)

Ibrahim Maher Sabri Al-Moutawaq إبراهيم ماهر المطوق
35 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 801876798
Kafa Maher Al-Moutawq كفى ماهر المطوق
39 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 800352791
Heba Maher Al-Moutawq هبة ماهر المطوق
26 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 403241532
Khadra Maher Al-Moutawq خضرة ماهر المطوق
Age unknown female killed
Maryam Abdul Rahman Al-Mutawaq مريم عبد الرحمن المطوق
3 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 443195896
Hamza Abdul Rahman Al-Mutawq حمزة عبد الرحمن المطوق
6 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 438921553
Raneen Abdul Rahman Al-Mutawq رنين عبد الرحمن المطوق
8 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 436029185
Youssef Saeed Al-Mutawq يوسف سعيد المطوق
12 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 432334399
Tasneem Saeed Al-Mutawq تسنيم سعيد المطوق
19 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 420450819
Rawan Saeed Al-Mutawq روان سعيد المطوق
14 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 427442777
Moatasem Saeed Al-Mutawq معتصم سعيد المطوق
Age unknown male killed
Ahmed Muhammed Al-Mutawq أحمد محمد المطوق
28 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 400954731
Amira Mohammed Al-Mutawq أميرة محمد المطوق
44 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 903611978
Ismail Muhammad Sabri Al-Mutawq إسماعيل محمد صبري المطوق
30 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 804424190
Sabri Muhammad Sabri Al-Mutawq صبري محمد صبري المطوق
35 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 801913542
Celine Ismail Al-Mutawq سيلين اسماعيل المطوق
1 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 445496565
Enas Khabbab Al-Mutawq إيناس خباب المطوق
3 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 442986410
Zakaria Khabbab Al-Mutawq زكريا خباب المطوق
9 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 434323481
Abdul Muti Yousef Al-Mutawaq عبد المعطي يوسف المطوق
49 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 900336694
Kholoud Al-Mutawq خلود المطوق
Age unknown male killed
Naima Al-Abd Al-Mutawq نعيمة العبد المطوق
24 years old female possible match with MoH ID 405182916 killed Matched to MoH ID 405182916
Afnan Muhammad Al-Mutawq أفنان محمد المطوق
20 years old female Possible match with MoH ID 409311883 killed Matched to MoH ID 409311883
Itidal Ali Al-Mutawq إعتدال علي المطوق
63 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 915846950

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    23 – 35
  • (8–13 children5–8 women5–6 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (32) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (19) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Royanews news
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @sabrifarra24
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    Source: Qobaamosque
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    Source: Ameer
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    Source: Ameer
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    Source: Elham
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    Source: Abu alhareth
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    Source: Tawfiq
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Fathy Hegazy
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    Source: Permalink
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Safiruh Al Salam
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    Source: Safiruh Al Salam
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Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    23 – 35
  • (8–13 children5–8 women5–6 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (32) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0422b

Incident date

October 21, 2023

Location

جوار مستشفى النجار, Vicinity of al Najjar Hospital, Rafah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.297044, 34.243538 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Eleven members of the Khader family were reportedly killed and at least one other person, a woman, was injured in an alleged Israeli airstrike on their home behind Al-Najjar hospital in the Al-Geneina neighbourhood in Rafah, at dawn on October 21st 2023.

Khader family members were killed across three generations. Surviving family member Khalil Khader lost his four children: Ibrahim, aged nine; Amal, aged five; Kenan, aged two-and-a-half; and Rosa, 18 months. His 72 year-old father Ibrahim Shukri Suleiman Khader was also killed, alongside 23 year-old Mona Ibrahim Khader, 29 year-old Samar Abdullah Ali Khader (Al-Atrash) and Samar’s two daughters, Masa, aged two, and Lina, aged four. Initial reports claimed there were nine victims of the airstrike, as they did not account for the death of 33 year-old Louay Ibrahim Khader, husband to Samar and father to their children, who died on 25 October as a result of injuries sustained during the strike, as well as his 30 year-old sister Maysa Ibrahim Khader, whose body was not found until 24 November, on the roof of a neighbour’s house.

Asad Asad shared photos of the bodies of four children at the hospital, draped in white shroud, following the airstrike: “We will not apologize for the ugliness of the scenes! This is what happens in Gaza every moment / The photo is from the Khader family massacre in Rafah at dawn today.”

In a Facebook post, Khalil Khader shared photos of his family, with the caption, “My moons, if I had my hand, I would hide you in my heart, but God’s will is for you to be martyrs.. The meeting place is heaven. May God have mercy on you and forgive you. We belong to Allah and to Him we shall return.. Allah suffices me and He is the best disposer of affairs.”

Speaking to the BBC, Khalil recalled the events of the night of the airstrike, as he was working at nearby Al-Najjar hospital as a computer engineer: “A massive bomb exploded (…) my neighbours were coming to the hospital. So I asked ‘Where was the bombing?’ And they told me, ‘It was around your house.’ I had to run to the location to check on the family. I tried calling but no one was answering. And as you can see… the whole house was bombed.” According to the article published on October 31st, in the place of the house “is now a mound of masonry and metal, household objects and some children’s toys. A small drum. A toy piano.”

Khalil added that in 2014, the neighbours’ house was bombed while his wife was pregnant “in her seventh month and almost fell down the stairs from the blast. And I was thinking, how can I bring children into this life? (..) I had a dream for each of my kids. Ibrahim was first in his school and I dreamed about seeing him as a doctor one day. Amal was very creative, she loved drawing. And she used to show me her drawings, and sometimes I would draw with her. Kenan was very playful – everyone loved him. And he used to take care of his little sister. He was always there to protect Rosa, and would say, ‘Don’t touch her, she’s my baby!’ And now they are all gone.” At the time of the interview, Khalil’s wife was being treated in hospital for her injuries sustained in the airstrike, and he was still searching for the body of his sister, Maysa.

Where possible, Airwars has matched names with the Palestinian Ministry of Health list of nearly 7000 victims’ names and ID numbers released on October 26th

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured around dawn.

The victims were named as:

Family members (12)

Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim Khader إبراهيم خليل ابراهيم خضر
9 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 435223094
Amal Khalil Ibrahim Khader آمال خليل ابراهيم خضر
5 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 440596864
Kenan Khalil Ibrahim Khader كنان خليل ابراهيم خضر
2.5 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 445246135
Rosa Khalil Ibrahim Khader روزا خليل ابراهيم خضر
1.5 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 444819692
Ibrahim Shukri Suleiman Khader إبراهيم شكري سليمان خضر
72 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 929380152
Mona Ibrahim Khader منى ابراهيم خضر
23 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 405939588
Maysa Ibrahim Khader ميساء ابراهيم شكري خضر
30 years old female killed
Louay Ibrahim Khader لينا لؤي ابراهيم خضر
33 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 802781187
Samar Abdullah Ali Khader (Al-Atrash) سمر عبدالله علي خضر
29 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 804523090
Lina Louay Ibrahim Khader لينا لؤي ابراهيم خضر
4 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 441212081
Masa Louay Ibrahim Khader ماسا لؤي ابراهيم خضر
2 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 445254816
Wife of Khalil Khader
Adult female injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    11
  • (6 children3 women2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (22) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Al Jazeera Net
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Suleiman Khader
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Suleiman Khader
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Asad Asad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hisham Abu Asaker
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hisham Abu Asaker
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hisham Abu Asaker
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hisham Abu Asaker
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hisham Abu Asaker
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khalil E. green
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khalil E. green
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khalil E. green
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khalil E. green
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khalil E. green
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Khalil E. green
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ibrahim Shaheen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ibrahim Shaheen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ibrahim Shaheen
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Asad Asad
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    BBC
  • BBC
  • BBC

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the vicinity of al Najjar hospital (مستشفى النجار) to the west of Rafah (رفح), for which the generic coordinates are: 31.297044, 34.243538. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    11
  • (6 children3 women2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0405

Incident date

October 20, 2023

Location

محيط المستشفى الأوروبي, Vicinity of the European Hospital, Khan Younis, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.303534, 34.320700 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Nearby landmark level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Around 5pm on Friday October 20th 2023, an alleged Israeli airstrike on the Al-Aqad family house located near the European Hospital in the Al-Manara neighborhood south to the town of Khan Yunis killed a Palestinian poet and novelist Heba (Hiba) Kamal Saleh Abu Nada alongside her son and ten identified members of the Al-Aqad family, the majority of whom were women and children, among them one infant, and at least six others were wounded.

Initially Shehab Agency correspondent reported about five civilians killed in the strike and a number of wounded and missing ones, but later Alqhad.tv, Almayadeen.net and Watan news reported that the death toll rose to seven. Alqhad.tv also mentioned that six people were injured, with Almayadeen.net mentioning that “children” were among the injured.

The Facebook testimony by Ahmed Ismael Al-Akkad helped to identify ten members of the Al-Aqad family who were killed in the strike alongside the poet and novelist Hiba Abu Nada who apparently had been displaced and had been staying in that house as a guest together with her son who had also been reportedly killed. Thus, the number of the victims killed in the attack reached twelve people.

A 52-year old woman Nahed Qasim Abdullah Al-Aqad Safi was killed alongside her son, her two daughters, her sister, and her grandchildren. It was written in Alakaad Family Pace post that she was a widow of Yahya Muhammad Abdullah Al-Aqqad “Abu Al-Nour” who was called a “martyr”. Nahed’s son, a 29-year old Muhammad Yahya Abdel al-Aqad was killed alongside his wife, a 23-year old Deena Dhafer Hamdi Al-Aqad, and their daughter Nevin Muhammad Yahya Al-Aqad who was only one year and three months old when she was killed. Nahed’s 33-year old daughter Nevin Yahya Muhammad Al-Aqad lost her life together with her son 13 year old Ahmed Salah Selim and her 25-year old sister Nidaa Yahya Muhammad Al-Aqad.

Nahed’s 27-year old sister Reham Mahmoud Qasim Al-Aqad Safi was killed alongside her 5-year old son Yahya Nour El-Din Yahya Al-Aqad and her infant son Muhammad Nour al-Din Yahya al-Aqad who was only two months old.

A Facebook post by Alakaad Family Pace contained images of the corpses of the family members wrapped in cloth as well as a graphic image of a dead woman embracing her dead child entitled “Eternal sleep”. A Twitter/X user @Mustafa3Ahed shared a graphic image of a dead body of an infant arriving to the morgue after the airstrike on Al-Aqad family house.

As mentioned above, among the victims was a Palestinian poet and writer Hiba (Heba) Abu Nada who was killed with her son. The Palestinian Ministry of Culture published an official condolence statement dedicated to her, describing the deceased woman as  “a creative writer who wrote stories, novels, and poetry.”

The 32-year-old Hiba Abu Nada was born in 1991 in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, to a Palestinian family from the village of Beit Jarjah. She studied biochemistry and educational rehabilitation, worked in education and won several awards for her writing. Abu Nada published collections of poetry and a novel “Oxygen is Not for the Dead” which won second place at the Sharjah Awards for Arab creativity in 2017.

Her last poem was published on the social platform X/Twitter just a few days before her death:

“Gaza’s night is dark apart from the glow of rockets,

quiet apart from the sound of the bombs,

terrifying apart from the comfort of prayer,

black apart from the light of the martyrs.

Good night, Gaza”

The legacy of Hiba Abu Nada was mentioned in an article by the British media outlet The Guardian which emphasized that before the war, Gaza had a “huge arts community”, that was now being destroyed by the war. Images of the late Hiba published by The Guardian and social media accounts show a young woman in a beige and red hijab.

Her friend Mohammad Ziyad Shawdab shared an image of her holding a book, and wrote about his loss: “My friend, the novelist, poet, and human being Heba Abu Nada rises as a martyr from the Al-Aqsa Flood. They were difficult days, Heba. You told us the story as best you could. Go up to Gaza, the sky.”

Where possible, names have been matched with the Palestinian Ministry of Health list of fatalities in Gaza released on October 26th, 2023.

Where sources identified the belligerent, all sources attributed the strikes to Israeli forces.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 5:00 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Heba (Hiba) Kamal Saleh Abu Nada هبة كمال ابو ندى
32 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 803079631
Son of Hiba ابن هبة
Child male killed

Family members (10)

Nahed Qasim Abdullah Al-Aqad Safi ناهد قاسم عبدالله العقاد صافي
52 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 916580046
Muhammad Yahya Abdel Aqad محمد يحيى عبد العقاد
29 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 400045472
Deena Dhafer Hamdi Al-Aqad دينا ظافر حمدي العقاد
23 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 407142363
Nevin Muhammad Yahya Al-Aqad نفين محمد يحيى العقاد
1.5 years old female killed
Nidaa Yahya Muhammad Al-Aqad نداء يحيى محمد العقاد
25 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 403717580
Nevin Yahya Muhammad Al-Aqad نفين يحيى محمد العقاد
33 years old female killed
Ahmed Salah Selim أحمد صلاح سليم
13 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 429379332
Reham Mahmoud Qasim Al-Akkad Safi ريهام محمود قاسم العقاد صافي
27 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 402158224
Muhammad Nour al-Din Yahya al-Aqqad محمد نور الدين يحيى العقاد
Less than 1 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 444650097
Yahya Nour El-Din Yahya Al-Aqad يحيى نور الدين يحيى العقاد
5 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 439026527

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12
  • (5 children6 women1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    6
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (33) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alakaad Family Pace
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alakaad Family Pace
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Alakaad Family Pace
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Mustafa3Ahed
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: D. Amina Hazmoun
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammad Ziyad Shawdab
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.