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The SNP Foreign and Defense front bench launch the new policy approach, "A Scottish approach to the protection of civilians in conflict" in Westminster on November 22nd 2022 (Image via Airwars staff)

Published

November 23, 2022

Written by

Airwars Staff

Header Image

The SNP Foreign and Defense front bench launch the new policy approach, "A Scottish approach to the protection of civilians in conflict" in Westminster on November 22nd 2022 (Image via Airwars staff)

The Scottish National Party launched a protection of civilians paper on Tuesday, becoming the largest European party to have such plans. The paper was written with significant civil society input, coordinated and led by Airwars.

The newly-launched paper dictates how a future independent Scotland would conduct conflict and protect civilians before, during, and after Scottish operations.

It includes a pledge to introduce oversight of special forces, a strong focus on the importance of tracking civilian harm and being transparent about the findings, as well as a commitment to limit the use of explosive weapons in populated areas.

As SNP Spokesperson for Foreign Affairs, Alyn Smith MP said during the launch, “making these points isn’t just about an independent Scotland but it’s about what we can all do to get the world to a better place than where we are now. The protection of civilians needs to be higher up the agenda.”

The SNP currently controls Holyrood, the devolved Scottish parliament, and is the third largest party in the UK national parliament. It advocates for an independent Scotland and is campaigning for a fresh Scottish independence referendum in the coming years.

A small, but growing number of countries have declared civilian harm mitigation policies. In response to civil society and media pressure, the United States recently rewrote its entire policy to try and reduce the number of civilians it kills. The Netherlands is undergoing a similar process through its Roadmap Process.

Yet the UK has not kept up with allies and lacks a detailed, transparent policy on how it will mitigate harm, and respond when it does occur. With this paper, the SNP distances itself from this approach. As well as dictating how a future independent Scotland would engage in conflict, the policy also outlines the key beliefs of the SNP in regard to how the UK should fight wars. These include a firm commitment to monitoring the civilian impact of conflicts, as well as to transparency about where and when strikes are committed.

It also commits the party to a UN-backed declaration to limit the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, which disproportionately kill civilians who make up more than 90% of those killed when such weapons are used. Last week, delegates from over 80 countries, including the US and the UK, signed an agreement committing to limit their use in Dublin.

🌎Today @ChrisLawSNP, @AlynSmith & I have published a new policy paper on the protection of civilians in conflict. UN Security Council Resolution 1265 was adopted more than 20 years ago, but the failure to protect civilians in conflict is stark. The world needs a fresh approach. pic.twitter.com/HNJDxClzs8

— Stewart McDonald MP (@StewartMcDonald) November 22, 2022

Airwars coordinated the extensive civil society input into the policy, ensuring that each section was written – and reviewed – by experts on the respective areas covered in the paper, such as women, peace, and security, climate change and atrocity prevention.

“With the release of their paper, Scotland is joining others in setting a new standard for how to protect civilians caught in conflict,” said Megan Karlshoej-Pedersen, Policy Specialist at Airwars. “The policy is unique in the extent to which it has allowed for meaningful civil society engagement, and its focus on civilian harm tracking is a nod to the vital importance of acknowledging when harm has occurred and learning important lessons.

While the ongoing war in Ukraine has brought civilian harm to the forefront of news outlets and political debate, such harm is not new. Over the last eight years, the US-led coalition against ISIS in Iraq and Syria caused 8,197–13,252 deaths, yet contributors to the coalition have all failed to account for these. To date, the UK acknowledges only a single civilian casualty from its own contribution. With their new paper, SNP are outlining that an independent Scotland would distance itself from this approach and instead become a leader on the protection of civilians.

Read the full policy approach here.

▲ The SNP Foreign and Defense front bench launch the new policy approach, "A Scottish approach to the protection of civilians in conflict" in Westminster on November 22nd 2022 (Image via Airwars staff)

Incident Code

RUK200

Incident date

May 13, 2022

Location

Леб’яже, Lebyazhe, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

49.802959, 36.906444 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On 13 May 2022, 4 civilians were reportedly wounded, including which a 15 year-old boy, by Russian shelling in Lebyazhe village, Kharkiv.

Sources, quoting the press service of the Kharkiv Regional Prosecutor’s Office, reported that Russian forces shelled twice the area. The first attack was conducted in the morning at around 11 am, and “as a result of the shelling, a fire broke out in the garage.” A second shelling followed, according to most sources, at around 5 p.m., and led to 4 civilians harmed, among which a child. Prokuratura_kharkiv added on Telegram that “Under the procedural leadership of the Kharkiv Regional Prosecutor’s Office, a pre-trial investigation has been launched into the fact of violation of the laws and customs of war (Part 1 of Article 438 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine).”

This incident has ACLED’s reference code: UKR78910

The incident occured at approximately 5:00 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Lebyazhe (Леб’яже), for which the generic coordinates are: 49.802959, 36.906444. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (11) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK199

Incident date

May 13, 2022

Location

Лозівська громада, Lozova Community, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

49.02256, 36.33518 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Subdistrict level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On May 13rd 2022, a civilian described as a woman, was reportedly injured by a Russian rocket attack in Lozivska (Loziv) community, Kharkiv. Sources quoted Loziv City Mayor Serhii Zelenskyi who said that “a dozen private houses were damaged, windows in multi-storey buildings were broken. A cultural center and a critical infrastructure object were damaged.”

The incident has ACLED’s reference code: UKR57787

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • "One of the Starostyn districts of the Loziv community was shelled. A dozen private homes, a critical infrastructure facility, a cultural center were affected, windows were broken in several apartment buildings. There are casualties among civilians. One woman was injured. We calculate and record the consequences. For security reasons, I will provide more information tomorrow. The enemy continues to fight the civilian population, directing rockets at our cities and villages. But don't be intimidated. Despite everything, we will win! Everything will be Ukraine!" Source: @SergiySelenskyy
  • Liveuamap reporting shelling in Lozova community on May 13rd. Source: Liveuamap

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the Lozova community (Лозівська громада), for which the generic coordinates are: 49.02256, 36.33518. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

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Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK198

Incident date

May 12, 2022

Location

Балаклія, Balakliya, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

49.462248, 36.857606 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Two civilians were injured by alleged Russian shelling of Balakliia on May 12, 2022.

The Head of the Kharkiv Regional State Administration Oleg Synegubov posted on Telegram that “2 people were also injured in Balaklia.”

This incident has reference to ACLED code UKR57686.

No other information is available for this incident.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Balakliya (Балаклія), for which the generic coordinates are: 49.462248, 36.857606. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK197

Incident date

May 12, 2022

Location

Шебелинка, Shebelynka, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

49.45265, 36.51992 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Three civilians were killed and five others were injured by alleged Russian shelling of Shebelynka on May 12, 2022.

The head office of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine in Kharkiv posted on Telegram that an enemy projectile hit a “hangar building” at 4:35pm causing a fire to break out on the roof of the building and catching 10 trucks on fire. Oleg Sinegubov, head of the Kharkiv Regional State Administration, added that as a result, three people died and five more were injured.

Images posted by Kharkiv Life on Telegram show extensive damage internally and externally to a building.

No other information is available at this time.

This incident has reference to ACLED code UKR57695.

The incident occured at 16:35:00 local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Shebelynka (Шебелинка), for which the generic coordinates are: 49.45265, 36.51992. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Single source claim
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (5) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK196

Incident date

May 12, 2022

Location

Дергачі, Derhachi, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

50.11087, 36.11149 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

During the second reported Russian shelling of the village of Derhachi on May 12th, two medics were injured.

Kharkiv Today reported that a total of two civilians were killed and four were wounded, including two medics. Two civilian deaths and two injuries were accounted for in RUK0230 as occurring during the first shelling of the day, therefore this incident corresponds to the two medics injured.

Kharkiv Today also reported on infrastructure that was damaged by the shelling: ” A civil registry office, the catering unit of the district hospital, part of the polyclinic along with the x-ray room were destroyed and the building of the ambulance department was damaged by the blast wave. Shells destroyed the building of the House of Culture, where the humanitarian aid distribution centre was located.” It is unclear whether this damage occurred in the first (RUK0230) or second shelling during the day.

Due to the shelling Dergachyovo city council announced that there would be no humanitarian aid distribution: “Tonight the occupants have completed their work and destroyed the Dergachy culture house, and at the same time our humanitarian headquarters, with a missile strike. In this regard, there will be no distribution of humanitarian aid today.” In a video posted by Truexa News UA, the damage to the humanitarian aid center was described as “The roof was smashed, a hole was punched in the concrete floor, three floors were destroyed.”

No Russian state-run sources were found related to this incident.

This assessment has reference to ACLED code UKR57687 and Attacks on health dataset code 34172.

The incident occured at approximately 12:30 pm local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility, Humanitarian aid distribution
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (15) [ collapse]

  • Screenshot of Facebook post by Viacheslav Zadorenko
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Truexa News UA via Telegram)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Viacheslav Zadorenko)
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Truexa News UA via Telegram)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the town of Derhachi (Дергачі), for which the generic coordinates are: 50.11087, 36.11149. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility, Humanitarian aid distribution
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK195

Incident date

May 12, 2022

Location

Дергачі, Derhachi, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

50.112255, 36.092360 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Exact location (via Airwars) level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

A report of alleged Russian shells struck the village of Derhachi on May 12th, killing two civilians and wounding two others.

Hromadske and RBC News reported a shelling of Derhachi by Russian forces that left one civilian dead and three wounded. Writing for RBC News, author Maria Kucheryavets quoted Kharkiv Regional State Administrator Oleg Sinegubov as noting that the previous twenty-four hours in the region had been “quiet”, but he urged citizens to “never relax and neglect your own safety”.

A video released by Radio Svoboda stated that the bombs used were “Uragan missiles”, and the video captured the destruction of homes in a dense residential area. The voiceover in the clip also detailed the victim as 46 year old woman who was killed in her backyard cooking over a fire due to a lack of electricity. The Victims Memorial website (victims.memorial) also stated that her husband, initially wounded in the blast, died later as well.

The brother of the husband who died said that the husband and the wife were “a model of married life. They complemented each other. They were always together and did everything together. They are kind, sensitive, fair. They helped everyone, in word, in deed, or just by listening to them. You could recharge your batteries with the positive energy they radiated.”

This assessment has reference to ACLED code UKR77864 and Attacks on health dataset code 34172.

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 woman1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (3) [ collapse]

  • Screenshot of Facebook post by Viacheslav Zadorenko
  • Damage caused by alleged Russian shelling of Dergachi on May 12, 2022. (Image posted by Truexa News UA via Telegram)

Geolocation notes (3) [ collapse]

Reports of the incident mention a strike outside of a house in the town of Derhachi (Дергачі). Analysing audio-visual material from sources, we have narrowed the location down to the following exact coordinates: 50.112255, 36.092360.

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  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    Radio Svoboda

  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    Radio Svoboda

  • Tagged visual material from sources

    Imagery:
    Radio Svoboda

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 woman1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RUK194

Incident date

May 11, 2022

Location

Новий Мерчик, Noviy Merchyk, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Geolocation

49.973204, 35.655624 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On the morning of 11th May 2022 at 10:45 am, a 26yr old civilian tractor driver from Gadyach was allegedly struck with a guided missile launched from a low-flying Russian aircraft whilst working in a field in the village of Novy Merchik. The attack caused multiple burns and leg injuries to the tractor driver and left them hospitalised in a serious condition according to Head of the Kharkiv OVA Oleg Sinegubov.

Witnesses at the scene stated the Russian plane flew at a low altitude when it launched the missile and had come past for a second lap, resulting in Oleksandr Osetrov, director of Nika, the injured worker’s employer to vehemently declare that “we can assume that the enemy clearly saw and understood that they were aiming a missile at civilians, which is unacceptable”.

As a result, Sergei Bolvinov, head of the Investigation Department of the National Police in Kharkiv, specified as a result of this alleged targetted attack, the Bohodukhiv District Police Department of the Kharkiv Regional Police along with prosecutors of the Kharkiv Regional Prosecutor’s Office, both of whom had members examine the scene, have launched Criminal proceedings under Article 438 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (Violation of laws and customs of war). The pre-trial investigation is being conducted by the SBU Office in the Kharkiv region.

The State Emergency Service units worked at the scene and extinguished the fire caused by the missile at 12:21.

This assessment has reference to ACLED code UKR57622.

The incident occured at approximately 10:45 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (21) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (13) [ collapse]

  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Kharkiv Regional Prosecutor's Office via Telegram)
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Kharkiv Regional Prosecutor's Office via Telegram)
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Kharkiv Regional Prosecutor's Office via Telegram)
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Suspilne News via Telegram)
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Suspilne News via Telegram)
  • Screenshot of Facebook post by DSNS in Kharkiv region
  • Screenshot of Facebook post by Kharkiv City Council
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by the National Police via Facebook)
  • Screenshot of Facebook post by the National Police
  • Screenshot of Facebook post by Bohodukhiv district state administration
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Hromadske News)
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Hromadske News)
  • Damage to a tractor in Novyi Merchyk village caused by alleged Russian airstrikes on May 11, 2022. (Image posted by Hromadske News)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Noviy Merchyk (Новий Мерчик), for which the generic coordinates are: 49.973204, 35.655624. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Military

Sources (21) [ collapse]