Russian Military in Syria

A Russian combat aircraft at Khmeimim airbase in Syria being prepared for action. (Russian Ministry of Defence)

Belligerent
Russian military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Contested
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

RS055

Incident date

October 18, 2015

Location

بزينة, Bazeena, Damascus, Syria

Geolocation

33.48288, 36.44022 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A seven year old girl and two civilian adults were killed and a dozen injured in an airstrike on the town of Bazeena – though reports were conflicted as to whether the attack was the work of Russia or the Assad regime.

The dead child was named as Ghazal Al Tokhi [pictured below], with one tweet reporting that “She was getting water for her parents who were caught in the middle of the siege, when the Russian planes killed her.” Another tweet (below) noted that “Only in the time of oppressors do fathers bury their children.” An entire family was reported to be among those injured.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Ghazal Al Tokhi Child female killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • "In the time of oppressors only - fathers bury their children. The chidl martyr Ghazal Al Tokhi who was martyred yesterday in Douma." (via @revolutionSyria)
  • "She was getting water for her parents who are in the middle of the siege when the Russian planes killed her. The martyr child Ghazal Al Tokhi, Douma - yesterday." (via @revolutionSyria)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

The Kremlin has confirmed strikes in Damacus governorate for October 18th-19th 2015, noting: “Russian aviation performed 33 combat sorties from the Hmeymim airbase engaging 49 ISIS facilities in the Aleppo, Damascus, Idlib, Lattakia and Hama provinces… Precision strikes of the Russian combat aviation in the Damascus province have crucially changed the operational situation in this region.”

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • (1 child)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS856

Incident date

June 5, 2016

Location

إدلب, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

35.93062, 36.63393 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

Between five and 50 non-combatants including two women died and up to 150 more were injured in multiple airstrikes on different targets in the city of Idlib, according to local media – though reports were conflicted as to whether this was the work of Russia or the Syrian regime.

LCCSY attributed the incident to Russia, with dozens of civilians killed and wounded. It listed the struck areas as: “Shamaat roundabout, Shuaib Mosque, Amn Dawla roundabout, Yehia Dahnin school, vegetables marketplace, Mujamaa region, and Carlton Hotel.”

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights did not initially identify the “warplanes” responsible, but said that nine civilians including two women died in “about 10 strikes targeting the Shoaib mosque area and several other areas in the city of Idlib”. It added that the death toll was expected to rise because some of the wounded were in a critical condition.

However, a subsequent SO4HR video report said that the warplanes were “believed to be Russian”.

A later report said that there had been “some 10 strikes targeting Shoaib mosque” alone.

The Shaam News Network referred only to “warplanes” carrying out “tens of strikes with cluster bombs“, putting the death toll at at least five with many more wounded.

According to the Syrian Network for Human Rights, the regime was to blame – killing three civilians when warplanes fired on a “grocery and carpet market.

The Syrian network for Human Rights blamed the “regime and its allies”, adding that one of the targets was “Yahya Dehneen school”, with the strike partially destroys the fence”.

Syria Direct put the death toll as high as 50, with 150 others injured, though it didn’t identify the warplanes responsible. It reported that “the raids targeted civilian sites, including residential buildings and a mosque and a football stadium, in addition to the two main hospitals.”

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5 – 50
  • (2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–150
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Unknown, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (25) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (13) [ collapse]

  • A burnt out car on the streets of Idlib following alleged Russian airstrikes (via Orient News)
  • Destruction after alleged Russian strikes in Idlib (via Orient News)
  • Destruction after alleged Russian strikes in Idlib (via Orient News)
  • A fire blazes in the city of Idlib following an alleged Russian raid, June 5th (via LCCSY)
  • A fire blazes in the city of Idlib following an alleged Russian raid, June 5th (via LCCSY)
  • A fire blazes in the city of Idlib following an alleged Russian raid, June 5th (via LCCSY)
  • "12 raids by Russian and regime warplane on Idlib and tens of martyrs and wounded in conjunction with heavy raids in Aleppo" (Tweet by @News4Syria)
  • "Regime and its allies warplanes shelling on Yahya Dehneen school which partially destroys the fence on the 5th of June" (Tweet by @SN4HR)
  • "Video shows the destruction of Idlib in Russian warplanes. Wounded and the reporter confirm there are no militant in Idlib and they are all civilians" (Tweet by @RevolutionSyria)
  • "tens were killed and dozens wounded in shelling with cluster bombs in Idlib" (Tweet by @akhbar)
  • "7 civilians were killed in Russian raids in Idlib north of Syria" (Tweet by @aa_arabic)
  • "tens of victims in Russian aerial shelling on Idlib, Syria" (Tweet by @SMARTNewsAgency)
  • "A video by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights ‪#‎SOHR‬ shows the destruction caused by bombing by warplanes believed to be Russian, which targeted areas in ‪#‎Idlib‬ city" (via SOHR Facebook)

Unknown Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Unknown
  • Unknown position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Unknown

Russia has not reported any strikes between June 1st – 31st 2016.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5 – 50
  • (2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–150
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Unknown, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (25) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS899

Incident date

June 14, 2016

Location

حي ‫‏صلاح الدين, Salahudin (Aleppo), Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.1874206, 37.1204853 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Neighbourhood/area

Airwars assessment

Between one and three civilians including a woman died and up to 17 more were injured in an airstrike on Salahudin, though reports were conflicted as to whether Russia or the Assad regime was to blame.

Orient, LCCSY, the Syrian Network for Human Rights and the Syrian Press Cente all blamed Russia.

Ara News said that the regime was responsible, citing three strikes with cluster bombs killing three non-combatants.

Many other sources didn’t identify the warplanes responsible.

@AlQanatTV and @RadioAlKul also said the regime was responsible.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

  • Mrs. Fatima Al Hamoud Al Alawi 60 years years old female killed
  • Muhammad Bakri Douji 40 years years old male killed
  • Ismaeil Muhammad 45 years years old male killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 3
  • (1 woman2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–17
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (34) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (1) [ collapse]

  • One of the children injured following strikes on Sallahudin (via Aleppo White Helmets Facebook) [Page unavailable accessed via Airwars archive]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between June 1st – 31st 2016.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 3
  • (1 woman2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4–17
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (34) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS238

Incident date

December 7, 2015

Location

الناجية, Najieh, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

35.7894815, 36.2177181 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Three related civilians including two women were killed in a pair of airstrikes on Najieh village, according to the Violations Documentation Centre and the Syrian Network for Human Rights. One source claimed an additional two people died.

The Syrian Network blamed the regime for the attack, while the VDC and Idlib Civil Defence said the civilians died due to attacks by Russian warplanes.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (4)

  • Hsain Sami Shawar Adult male killed
  • Wife of Hsain Sami Shawar Adult female killed
  • Wife of Hasan Shawar Adult female killed
  • Nabeil Shawar Age unknown male VDC claims he died from his wounds.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 5
  • (2 women1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Father cries over his injured child who became one of the victims of a contested airstrike. (via, JISRTV tweet)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    One of the victims of Najieh. (via, Event Coast News)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has published no known record of its strikes in Syria between December 4th-8th.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 5
  • (2 women1 man)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (14) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS015

Incident date

October 3, 2015

Location

عقيربات, Akeerbat, Hama, Syria

Geolocation

35.041132, 37.463935 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

A reported airstrike on the sheep market at Akeerbat village killed six civilians, including a child. While some blamed Russia, others such as the Syrian Network initially held the Syrian regime responsible.

Five victims were later named.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

  • Zakaria Mamdouh Innad Al Jarro Child male killed
  • Hassan Al Ahmad Adult male From the village of Tahmaz killed
  • Ayoub Hassan Al Ahmad Adult male From the village of Tahmaz killed
  • Izzedine Al Ali Al Sheikh Adult male From the village of Soha killed
  • Fawaz Al Ghazi Adult male From the village of Dakila killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    6
  • (1 child4 men)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    6
  • (1 child4 men)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (9) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS914

Incident date

June 17, 2016

Location

عطشان, Al Atshan, Hama, Syria

Geolocation

35.406297, 36.823819 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Reports said that five civilians including three children and two women died in a refugee camp for displaced persons near A’tshan in the northern Hama countryside. The majority of sources including numerous independent tweets have attributed this offensive with Russia.

Aljazeera said that Moscow was responsible, reporting that victims were “killed in a Russian aerial bombardment on a camp for displaced people near the village of parched countryside of Hama”.

Smart News blamed both the regime and Russian for the strikes and alleged “Military aircraft Regime and the Russian Air Force, launched cluster bombs”.

A number of other sources which reported the incident did not identify the warplanes.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (3 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (15) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

Russia has not reported any strikes between June 1st – 31st 2016.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    5
  • (3 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    4
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (15) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS285

Incident date

December 17, 2015

Location

الرقة‎, Ar Raqqah, Syria

Geolocation

35.949949, 39.007363 Note: The accuracy of this location is to City level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

City

Airwars assessment

21 civilians were killed including two women and four children and 11 wounded in airstrikes on residential neighbourhoods in the centre and north and south of the city of Raqqa, according to multiple sources –  though it is unclear whether regime or Russian warplanes or shelling by the Assad regime were responsible for the casualties.

According to the IS news agency Al A’maq, Russian raids targeted a residential neighbourhood in the north of the city and also targeted the abandoned former Islamic Court building near the old bridge south of the city and the firefighting and rescue building.

The Shaam News Network also quoted the Al A’maq coverage.

Al Raqqa is Being Slaughtered silently also reported on the incident, listing the dead and adding that Russian raids after midnight targeted the finance building (leading to its total destruction), the train station (also completely destroying it) and burning out three fire fighting cars. They stated that six members of the fire fighting team were amongst those killed, while an entire family also died when their house was struck.

But the Syrian Network for Human Rights blamed the Assad regime for the shelling, which they said killed 12 civilians including two women and four children.

 

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Family members (6)

  • Mohammad Abdullah al Ali Adult male named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • His daughter Wala’a Al Ali Child female named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • His son Hassan al Ali Child male named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • His son Mohannad Al Ali Child male named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • His son Fadi Al Ali Child male named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • His wife Wissal Al Hajji Adult female named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed

Family members (4)

  • Nasser Ibrahim Al Abd Adult male named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • Wife of Nasser Ibrahim Al Abd Adult female named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • Daughter 1 of Nasser Ibrahim Al Abd Child female named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • Daughter 2 of Nasser Ibrahim Al Abd Child female named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • Omar Ibn Ibrahim Al Hajj Ahmad Al Saeed Age unknown male named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • Ismail Al Hamdi Age unknown male from Al Suwaida village, named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed
  • Maher al Abid Al Hajji Adult male a fireman from from the Al Assadiya farm area, named by Al Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered killed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    21
  • (4 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    11
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (14) [ collapse]

  • The martyred family of Mohammad Abdallah Al Ali, killed in alleged Russian raid on their house in Raqqa, December 17th. (via, Al Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Graphic image of a deceased male adult and a child. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A graphic image of a deceased male. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A graphic image of a deceased male who appears to be burnt. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A graphic image of a decapitated deceased male. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • A hole in the ground formed by an airstrike. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • The underside of a hole. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • Some damaged infrastructure. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • A child's bike buried under the rubble. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • Some more damaged infrastructure in Raqqa. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • Civilians amongst the rubble in the aftermath of an alleged contested airstrike. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • Damaged vehicles in the aftermath of an airstrike in Raqqa. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • Entire roads have been uprooted by airstrikes in the neighbourhood. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)
  • Maher al Abid Al Hajji, a fireman killed by alleged Russian and Syrian Regime airstrikes. (via, Al Raqqa is being slaughtered silently)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

No Russian reports were published for December 16th-18th 2016.

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    21
  • (4 children2 women)
  • Civilians reported injured
    11
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (16) [ collapse]

Incident Code

RS559

Incident date

February 7, 2016

Location

كفر حمرة, Kafr Hamra, Aleppo, Syria

Geolocation

36.252649, 37.079115 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Two children, displaced from Anadan, were killed in an airstrike on Kafr Hamra, according to local sources. All reports but one blamed Russia. However the Syrian Network for Human Rights pointed to the regime (see also event below.)

An eyewitness told Shahed Ayyan Halab: “A family from Anadan decided to flee to the town of Kafr Hamra to escape the intense shelling in the Anadan City, the Russian Aviation targeted Kafr Hamra. There were two  martyrs – children from the families from Kafr Hamra. The family returned to Anadan to bury their children and were targeted again by Russian airstrikes. The rest of the family were among the dead and wounded.”

Alethiad Press reported the same, explaining that Russian warplanes struck Kafr Hamra with two vacuum missiles, killing two children displaced from Anadan. Shahba Press also said that Russia was responsible.

But the Syrian Network for Human Rights blamed the Assad regime. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “warplanes” (it did not say who they belonged to) killed two children when they targeted Kafr Hamra.

Two victims (both male children) were named by the Violations Documentation Center.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 children)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • A report on the strike on Anadan Feb 7th
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    One of the alleged victims (Aletihad Press)

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Original strike reports

Russian Armed Forces

From February 4th – February 11th, Russia reported: “In the course of the last week, February 4-11, aircraft of the Russian aviation group in the Syrian Arab Republic have performed 510 combat sorties engaging 1,888 terrorists’ objects in the provinces of Aleppo, Latakia, Hama, Deir ez-Zor, Daraa, Homs, Hasakah and Raqqah.” It added: “Two powerful field commanders were liquidated in the Aleppo province.In the suburbs of Kalaz-Tahtani, a large illegal armed group with its commander, “Abu Maher” (“Farid Al-Misri”) was eliminated by an airstrike.The field commander “Abu Anas Al-Sham” from the Jaysh al-Sham terrorist group was liquidated in the territory of the same province.” It also said that “Russian aviation eliminated open ISIS oil storages in the Aleppo province.“

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (2 children)
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (12) [ collapse]