Investigations

Investigations

Palestinians inspect the ruins of Watan Tower destroyed in Israeli airstrikes in Gaza city, on October 8, 2023 (Palestinian News & Information Agency (Wafa) in contract with APAimages, reproduced under Creative Commons).

Published

November 21, 2023

Written by

Sanjana Varghese

Assisted by

Rowena De Silva

Header Image

Palestinians inspect the ruins of Watan Tower destroyed in Israeli airstrikes in Gaza city, on October 8, 2023 (Palestinian News & Information Agency (Wafa) in contract with APAimages, reproduced under Creative Commons).

At least 127 civilian harm allegations in 'safe zone' in first week after evacuation order

Airwars’ investigator Sanjana Varghese spoke to NPR’s Ruth Sherlock about this investigation. You can read the article here.

On October 12th, the Israeli military issued a blanket call for all Palestinians living in the north of the Gaza strip to move south, saying it was “for your own safety”. More than one million people were told to flee, ahead of an expected ground invasion.

The evacuation zone started at Wadi Gaza, which runs through the centre of the Gaza Strip. In theory, civilians fleeing south of that line should have been safer, but Palestinians have reported extensive attacks in civilian areas in the central and southern parts of Gaza.

In the first seven days after the warning – from October 14th to 21st – Airwars’ investigation team tracked and geolocated at least 127 separate allegations of civilian harm from explosive weapons in this southern zone.

Amongst these strikes were many that allegedly hit densely populated neighbourhoods and civilian objects such as schools, hospitals and restaurants. The frequency of these allegations in this supposed safe zone suggests that there was no safe place for civilians in Gaza, despite assurances from Israeli authorities.

Safe to flee?

On October 7th, 2023 Hamas militants broke through the fence that separates Gaza from Israel and killed more than 1,000 people, according to Israeli authorities. In retaliation Israel has dropped thousands of bombs on Gaza ahead of a ground invasion, killing more than 10,000 people, according to Palestinian authorities.

Since October 7th, Airwars’ research team has been tracking every public allegation of civilian harm in order to provide an independent assessment of civilian casualties.

We have already tracked more than 1,000 separate allegations across the Gaza Strip alone; each allegation represents the death or injury of at least one civilian resulting from explosive weapons use. For the most part, these allegations are still being fully assessed by our research team – with additional sources identified, casualty ranges produced, and where possible details on civilian names and biographies captured. You can find full details of the around 40 published incidents here, and more about our methodology here.

But we have also been able to use these allegations to understand overall patterns of harm. By geolocating each harm claim from the week following the IDF’s instructions for civilians to move south, we have been able to pull together a comprehensive database of 127 likely Israeli strikes leading to allegations of civilian harm that occurred the week following the evacuation order. An allegation of civilian harm does not mean that just one civilian was injured or killed; these allegations often involve multiple people, as well as damage to buildings or family homes.

Map of civilian harm allegations, south of Wadi Gaza, between 14-21 October 2023. The red dotted line refers to the Wadi Gaza. Many locations include more than one alleged civilian harm incident. Sanjana Varghese / Airwars. Images via Maxar Technologies / Airbus / Google Earth.

Map of civilian harm allegations, south of Wadi Gaza, between 14-21 October 2023. The red dotted line refers to the Wadi Gaza. Many locations include more than one alleged civilian harm incident. Sanjana Varghese / Airwars. Images via Maxar Technologies / Airbus / Google Earth.

We relied on news reporting, humanitarian agencies and organisations, open source documentation and relevant footage where necessary. We geolocated allegations to six levels of accuracy: area/region, neighbourhood, landmark/building, hospital, street, and an exact location. Any alleged civilian harm incident that we couldn’t geolocate was discounted from our dataset.

The distance from the Wadi Gaza to the Rafah Border Crossing on the southern border of the Gaza strip is roughly 27 kilometres. From east to west across the Gaza strip, the distance is around 6 kilometres at the narrowest point, and 12 kilometres at its widest point.

We found harm allegations on every day following the evacuation order. Just four days after the south was declared to be a safe area, the most civilian harm allegations were documented: twenty four allegations, suggesting at least twenty strikes in an area little longer than Manhattan.

In incidents that have been fully researched by Airwars’ research team, we found that in some cases strikes affected whole families as they sheltered together. In one incident, on October 21st, 2023, an alleged Israeli strike hit a Palestinian civil defence facility, alongside the Dahir family home, in Khirbet-al-adas, Rafah. Between six and ten people were likely killed in this strike and up to 11 injured. Of those killed, at least five were children from the same family, all aged 13 and under. Airwars assessors were able to cross-reference six of the individuals in this assessment with the dataset of names and individual ID numbers released by the Palestinian Ministry of Health (MoH).

In another incident on October 15th, in the al-Geneina neighbourhood in Rafah, the home of a doctor, Dr. Salah al-Din Zanoun, was hit. There were likely seven to eight people killed, all of whom were from the same family.  Of those killed, Airwars assessors were able to cross-reference five of the individuals in this assessment with the dataset of names and individual health ID numbers released by the MoH.

We also found that multiple civilian objects – such as hospitals and schools – were hit in the south of Gaza. As people were told to move south – and around 700,000 people, according to the New York Times, did so initially – many took shelter in buildings such as hospitals and schools. In a number of cases large numbers of civilians were crowded together when strikes hit this infrastructure, such as a strike on a UNRWA school in al-Maghazi refugee camp, on October 17th. UNRWA said that around 4,000 people were sheltering at this school. The next day, an alleged airstrike hit another UNRWA school in Khan Younis –  footage from the immediate aftermath clearly showed that groups of people had been using the school as a home, with clothes laid out over external railings around the school.

The scale of this campaign in Gaza makes this one of the most intense conflicts that Airwars has ever monitored – in just the first three weeks of the war, we monitored more individual incidents of harm than in any given month of any conflict Airwars has monitored: including deadly campaigns such as the war against ISIS. Our data also suggests that civilian harm is being compounded by the deteriorating conditions for civilians in Gaza, which is already one of the most densely populated areas in the world.

Clarifying note

Airwars uses a grading system to assess our allegations of civilian harm (you can read more about this here). Our assessments are being published in batches once they have been through the full review process.

Airwars has only tracked allegations of civilian harm – this means that there may be attacks with no public allegations of civilian harm which we haven’t included in our dataset.

Incident Code

ISPT1135a

Incident date

November 15, 2023

Location

شارع المغربي في حي الصبرة مدينة غزة, Al Maghrabi street in Al Sabra neighborhood, Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.521939, 34.476714 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

At least one man and his daughter were reportedly injured by a bombing on the morning of Wednesday, November 15th 2023, while standing on Al Moghrabi Street (also known as Moneer al-Rayees Street) in the Al Sabra neighbourhood, of Gaza City, in the northern Gaza Strip. The father Bilal Al-Ashram reportedly died of his injuries later the same day.

It is not clear if the alleged bombing took place on Al Moghrabi Street or close by. A relative of the victims reported the strike taking place before noon.

The daughter, five-year-old Jewan Al-Ashram, was reportedly injured in the incident. A private source told Airwars that Bilal had been carrying Jewan when they were injured. Jewan was hit on her left thigh by shrapnel and Bilal was hit in the stomach or kidney area.

In a series of three short videos posted on Facebook by her care-giver or guardian, named Naba’ al-Amal, Jewan could be seen sitting in a hospital bed, a blue blanket over her lap, telling the story of what happened to the camera in a quiet voice.

In the first video, she said her father was called Bilal Al-Ashram and that he had been killed. She described the incident, saying that, when the bomb struck, she and her father were thrown to one side and her mother was thrown further away from them.

According to the private source, Bilal and Jewan were taken to al-Ahli hospital by Jewan’s uncles. Jewan received minor treatment and had a plaster cast put over her thigh.

There were no doctors available to treat Bilal at al-Ahli on the day of the incident. Jewan’s uncles then took him to the Indonesian Hospital where he was unable to receive treatment as the hospital had just run out of fuel. The uncles took Bilal – pushing him in a wheelchair – south on the Salah Al-Din road through the Israeli checkpoint, just south of the Kuwaiti roundabout. While queueing for the checkpoint, Bilal reportedly bled out and died, just 10 meters from the checkpoint.

After receiving treatment in al-Ahli Hospital on November 15, 2023, Jewan was returned to her mother, who was sheltering in a cement factory in Gaza City, later the same day. She stayed with her for three days until her wound “began to fester”.

In the second video, she said she was taken from Gaza (City) to the south of the Gaza Strip as there were “no hospitals in the north” and that she had spent two months being treated at the European Hospital.

This is corroborated by the private source who reported that Jewan’s uncles and an aunt took her south on Salah al-Din Road on Saturday, November 18th 2023 to receive treatment for her leg.

In the third video, she spoke about a man named Ibrahim Walie, saying that she loved him because he would “play with us and bring us things and he didn’t let us be afraid” and expressed that she wished he would come to visit her in hospital.

Her aunt and uncle are a couple named Abu Salman Al Ashram and Umu Al Ashram, and her younger paternal uncle is called Hisham Al Ashram. She was seen in Al-Aqsa Hospital on November 18th, 2023.

According to the private source, Jewan is a middle child with two older brothers and two younger sisters.

Neither the videos of Jewan, nor the private sources explicitly name a belligerent therefore, in line with Airwars’ methodology, this incident has been marked as contested between the two groups active in the Gaza Strip, the Israeli Military and Hamas militants.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured in the morning.

The victims were named as:

Family members (2)

Jewan Al-Ashram جوان الأشرم
5 years old female injured
Bilal Al-Ashram بلال الأشرم
Adult male killed

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the neighbourhood of al Sabra (الصبرة) to the south of Jabalia (غزة). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for al Sabra are: 31.521939, 34.476714.

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Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Causes of injury / death
    Denial of access to/destruction of objects indispensable to survival, Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @marypgkeating
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @marypgkeating
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @marypgkeating
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Palestinian Militants Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Palestinian Militants
  • Palestinian Militants position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Causes of injury / death
    Denial of access to/destruction of objects indispensable to survival, Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Published

October 2023

Overview

This overview is intended to accompany the publication of our incidents of civilian harm related to the use of explosive weapons in the Gaza Strip since October 7, 2023.

Airwars applies the same general methodology to all conflicts monitored, which is available on our website here. This methodology has been assessed as highly conformant with Every Casualty’s Standards for Casualty Recording.

This methodology note explains in detail how we are applying our standard approach to monitoring civilian harm incidents in Gaza from explosive weapons use. Additional methodology notes will be released tailored to each other monitoring area, such as civilian harm in Israel from the actions of Hamas militants.

Read more about our casualty recording work

In June 2023, at the Human Rights Council’s 53rd session, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) presented its report on the impact of casualty recording on the promotion and protection of human rights, which included a number of references to Airwars’ casualty recording efforts.

Our work has also been researched by academics at the University of Sydney, Heather Ford and Michael Richardson, in their paper: Framing data witnessing: Airwars and the production of authority in conflict monitoring. You can read an executive summary of their findings here.

Dataset overview

All incidents are an aggregate of all open source accounts alleging civilian harm occurred in a particular moment in space and time. We consider our incidents as ‘live’, and should be updated over time to account for new information that may come to light, or may not have been identified by Airwars during the original research.

Defining an incident

Airwars uses an incident-based approach to document harm to civilians from explosive weapons use: each incident is defined as a moment in time and space where sources alleged that an explosive weapon led to the fatality or injury of civilians. This does not include incidents where only militants were killed or injured, however we do capture the details of militants killed or injured in events alongside civilians.

Airwars assumes civilian status unless otherwise specified. Any ambiguity on civilian status is captured within our casualty and belligerent ranges (see below).

Where the exact time of an incident is unknown, deaths and injuries may be aggregated under one event until more information comes to light.

Each incident is geolocated to the highest possible degree of accuracy by trained geolocation teams. Airwars additionally cross-checks existing geolocation efforts from the wider open source community, and includes credit to such work where applicable. Airwars also encourages feedback from open source experts on each assessment, and incorporates updates and feedback where possible.

Where locations cannot be identified, incidents will be aggregated until more information is known.

Source identification

As an all source aggregate, Airwars treats all sources as relevant to an incident depending on their proximity to the harm event and the level of detail available about the event. Airwars includes all sources regardless of political or ideological affiliation. Inclusion of sources in the archive should not be taken as an endorsement of the source.

All our sources for harm events in Gaza are identified by our trained team of Arabic-language researchers; we primarily identify sources in the language local to the area where the harm has occurred. Additional English-language sources are added depending on their relevance to the harm event. As we also evolve our focus to harm events reported by Hebrew-language resources, we will also mobilise our Hebrew language teams and apply the same local-language led approach.

All information is assessed, written up and archived within each assessment in order to allow users to conduct further investigation.

As we also work to identify attribution of harm, names of victims and victims demographics where known, we are reconciling names and other information published by official channels, such as the Palestinian Ministry of Health, with our incidents.

Information categorisation

Attribution

Strike status (while we use the term ‘strike’ here, this should also be taken to mean any action involving the use of an explosive weapon, including, for example, a VBIED). All incidents are cross-checked with official statements from the Israel Defense Forces, militant wings of Hamas and other Palestinian military groups, and are included as follows:

Declared: The declared strike classification applies to incidents in which a belligerent has accepted responsibility explicitly for carrying out a strike on a specific location or specific target. This includes any statement made by an official from the Israeli government or from official channels or websites linked to Palestinian militant groups (Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas).

Likely: The likely strike classification applies to incidents in which at least two or more sources that reported on the incident explicitly attributed the strikes to a belligerent. In Gaza, Airwars’ Arabic-language researchers take typical local references and language used to describe Israel Defense Forces to identify local attribution, as the term ‘Israeli state’ is rarely explicitly referenced.

Contested: The contested strike classification includes incidents in which attribution of the strike to one belligerent was not agreed upon by all sources reporting on the incident, specifically when sources attribute a strike to both Palestinian forces (Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas) and Israeli forces. Incidents where no sources attribute a strike and the resulting civilian harm to a specific belligerent are graded as contested until more information comes to light.

Single source claims: only one source was found with an explicit allegation of harm from a belligerent.

Civilian harm status

Confirmed: A specific belligerent has accepted responsibility for the killing or injuring of non-combatants or allied forces in a particular incident.

Fair: Where, in the view of Airwars, there is a reasonable level of public reporting of an alleged civilian casualty incident from two or more sources which includes attribution to a specific belligerent. In the context of reporting in the Gaza Strip, Airwars has found that explicit attribution to Israeli forces is rare, and instead is assumed by sources given the intensity of bombardment. Incidents are therefore assessed as ‘fair’ if at least one source mentions a belligerent in a credible harm incident. Incidents will be updated to reflect alternative attribution should that come to light at a later stage. In our ‘strike status’ category, as mentioned above, we will still refer to incidents with only one source explicitly attributing the harm to a belligerent as ‘single source claims’ to reflect the information environment.

Weak: These are presently claims seen by Airwars as ‘place-holder’ incidents until more information comes to light, given a lack of corroborating sources on either civilian harm or likely belligerent.

Contested: These occur where there are competing claims of responsibility within the sources: for example, sources may both attribute the harm to misfire from a Hamas rocket, or to an Israeli airstrike. There may also be inconclusive evidence supporting attribution to both belligerents, for example competing interpretations of munition fragments or blast impacts.

Discounted: This criteria is often applied to incidents that may have at first fallen into one of the above categories, but new information came to light since publication that suggests the original source material was incorrect. For example, more information may come to light about the identities of victims initially classified as civilians, that strongly suggests such individuals were combatants. Airwars researchers judge this information objectively and on a case by case basis.

Casualty ranges

As with all assessments, Airwars presents casualty figures recorded in an incident within a range.

All assessments include a minimum and maximum for both civilians and, if applicable, militants (‘belligerents’) injured and killed, taking the most recent figure from unique sources. For example, a source may initially say five civilians were killed. As more information on the incident becomes available, the same source may then say that the number rose to 10. In this case we would take the ‘10’ as this reflects the source’s updated understanding of events.

In the assessment summary, an explanation is offered as to the rationale behind the casualty range.

In cases where civilian status is contested, Airwars applies the minimum casualty range ‘0’ to both the civilian casualty field and to the belligerent field.

Information related to missing individuals, or civilians buried under the rubble following an attack is recorded in Airwars’ summary. The number of missing individuals would only be added to our death toll ranges if sources specified that those civilians have been killed. When new information comes to light regarding the fate of these victims, we would update the assessment accordingly, as well as our ranges.

Images and media referenced

As we are uploading images at pace for this project, all images have been automatically blurred to warn for graphic content given the high volume of graphic material. Less graphic images will be unblurred in due course.

Please also note that we include all images related to the sources identified, which can include images of militants.

All images are used under fair use as archival material. If you would like us to take down any images, please contact us at the info email listed below, using the subject line ‘Image use’.

Identification of victims

Airwars is also matching names of civilians identified through open source investigation with official names and IDs released by the Palestinian Ministry of Health where possible. As in other conflicts monitored, Airwars also records incidents of civilian harm where not all victims were named by sources, or where sources did not provide the victim’s full family name.

Impact

Airwars is tracking the reported impact of the use of explosive weapons on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See below for more details on what is being included in each category:

    Education – Reported damage or destruction to education infrastructure (school, university, etc.) and/or injured or killed education staff Health – Reported damage or destruction to healthcare infrastructure or vehicles (ambulance, hospital, clinic, etc.), and/or healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, rescuers, etc.), killed or injured Food – reported damage or destruction to food infrastructure (food markets, agricultural land, food factory, water infrastructure, etc.) or machinery (tractor, etc.), and/or injured or killed civilians working in the food or agricultural sector, and/or livestock killed or injured

Updating our assessments

If you have lost loved ones in an incident listed on the Airwars site and would like to get in touch – or would like to ask us to remove a photo or to add another – then please also contact us at the info email listed below.

Errors and corrections

We strive for accuracy and transparency of process in our reporting and presentation. Our casualty monitoring is continually evolving, representing our best current understanding of any alleged incidents.

If you have new information about a particular event, or details we haven’t included; if you find an error in our work; or if you have concerns about the way we are reporting our data, then do please reach us at the info email listed below with the subject line ‘Assessment update’.

Contact: info [at] airwars [dot] org

▲ Satellite imagery, screenshot from Google Earth, October 2023

Israel and Gaza 2023

Incident Code

ISPT0551

Incident date

October 24, 2023

Location

منزل عائلة عبد النبي في شمال القطاع, Abdel Nabi family’s house in the northern Gaza Strip, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

On October 24th, 2023 it was reported that two civilians were killed and a number of others were injured by a bombing of the Abdel Nabi family home in the Northern Gaza strip, Gaza. No names were included within the reporting.

The only detail on the identity of some of the casualties was Shadi abd alnabi who added the two martyrs were from the Abdel Nabi family which the house which was reportedly struck belonged to.

Shehab Agency, Maher al hijazi and Marwan zolm corroborated on the reported number of casualties and the location of the alleged strike however no further detail of the casualties was given in their accounts.

The account from Marwan zolm included pictures which depict a large crater in the ground in between standing but damaged buildings which appear to be residential. It is unclear if a building stood in the space that the crater now takes up. The photos are taken in the middle of the day with the sun high in the sky which may suggest the reported strike took place in the morning.

Sources did not name the belligerent who carried out the strike, therefore this incident has been graded as contested as per Airwars’ methodology, as the strike could be attributed to either conflict party.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (4) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Marwan zolm
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Marwan zolm
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Marwan zolm
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Marwan zolm

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attacker
    Israeli Military

Sources (4) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0560

Incident date

October 24, 2023

Location

طلال السلطان, Tal al Sultan, Rafah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.310318, 34.241843 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Neighbourhood/area level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

Around 10:45 in the evening of Tuesday, October 24, 2023, the home of the Musa family in the Tal Al-Sultan neighbourhood in Rafah, south of Gaza Strip, was allegedly bombed, resulting in at least three people killed and one injury.

Safa News reported that three martyrs and a wounded civilian were recovered “as a result of the bombing of the Musa family’s home in the Tal Al-Sultan neighbourhood in Rafah.”

The source for the incident did not attribute the strike to any one belligerent, therefore Airwars has classified the strike status and civilian harm status as ‘contested’ (meaning it could be attributed to either conflict parties), though the civilian harm claim is considered ‘fair’ given multiple corroborating sources.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at approximately 10:45 pm local time.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the neighbourhood of Tal al Sultan (طلال السلطان) to the west of Rafah (رفح). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Tal al Sultan are: 31.310318, 34.241843.

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Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Palestinian Militants Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Palestinian Militants
  • Palestinian Militants position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (6) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0279

Incident date

October 17, 2023

Location

مخيم البريج, Bureij camp, Deir Al Balah, the Gaza Strip

Geolocation

31.437934, 34.403857 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Town level. Continue to map

Airwars assessment

On October 17th 2023, an unknown number of casualties were reported in a possible strike on the family home of Lal Al-Salhi in Block 2 of the Al-Bureij camp in Gaza.

While numerous sources reported the strike on the Al-Salhi home, few details are available regarding the number of those injured or killed. No names of victims are offered, and no sources include photos of the aftermath of the strike.

Most accounts simply state: “Injuries in the bombing of the Al-Salhi family’s house in Block 2 of the Bureij camp.” Only one source, a Facebook post by Khamis, offers something like a numerical figure, stating that there were attempts to remove “dozens of wounded and martyrs” from the rubble of the home, which Airwars has quantified as 12-24 in both the fatality and injury range. Given the lack of specificity in reporting, Airwars has graded the harm status as “weak” until further information comes to light.

Due to none of the accounts directly naming Israel as the belligerent, the strike status has been graded as “contested”. However, a tweet by @quds_yu references the strike on the Al-Salhi home, and mentions, separately, Israeli bombing of Khan Yunis.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention Block 12 being struck, allegedly located within Bureij camp (مخيم البريج). Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further. The generic coordinates for Bureij camp are: 31.437934, 34.403857.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12 – 24
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (13) [ collapse]

Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Palestinian Militants Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Palestinian Militants
  • Palestinian Militants position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian infrastructure
    IDP or refugee camp, Residential building
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    12 – 24
  • Civilians reported injured
    12–24
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Weak
    Single source claim, though sometimes featuring significant information.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (13) [ collapse]

Incident Code

ISPT0278

Incident date

October 17, 2023

Location

مستشفى الأهلي المعمداني, al Ahli Al Mamadani hospital, Gaza strip, Gaza, the Gaza Strip

Airwars assessment

In perhaps the most well-known, and hotly debated, incident from the war in Gaza, civilians were killed while sheltering at the Al Ahli hospital on October 17th 2023.

The incident was widely-reported, with a fierce dispute as to whether the civilian casualties were caused by a Palestinian militant rocket fired at Israel that fell short or an Israeli air or artillery strike. The Israeli army claimed to have evidence that the explosion was caused by a misfiring Palestinian rocket, but Palestinian officials disputed this.

Airwars’ research focussed primarily on identifying the victims of the strike and our researchers did not conduct an in-depth analysis of the evidence of what caused the harm. Multiple investigations focussed on the likely perpetrator, including Human Rights Watch, CNN and The New York Times. Most concluded that the strike was likely the result of a rocket fired by a Palestinian militant group, though there remains no definitive conclusion as no munition fragments were recovered. As the event remains debated, Airwars has marked this incident as ‘contested’ in line with our methodology.

Using open source testimony, Airwars identified at least 63 known civilians killed in the attack, including as many as 27 children. Among those identified, Airwars researchers found the names of 30 individuals, found familial names or references to another eight civilians, and found reference to, but no names of, another 25 individuals killed. This includes one child referenced widely as the ‘unknown martyr’ in local testimonies, as well as 24 members of the Toteh family referenced through relatives’ accounts.

In this event as in many others Airwars has documented, the named casualties are likely to present just a proportion of those harmed in an incident. Especially in urban environments where bodies are often trapped under rubble, civilians cannot be identified for some time. This is exacerbated in areas like Gaza where civilians are under constant bombardment.

Airwars considers all incidents ‘open’, which means we will update this case as further information comes to light. We encourage anyone with additional information relating to any case to contact us. See our methodology page for details on how to reach us with information on errors or corrections.

Our breakdown of the family units below detail how we came to these casualty figures, which we calculated in line with our standard methodology.

The death toll for the incident remains contested, with the Ministry of Health initially releasing a death toll of 500 individuals killed, which was then revised to 471 the following day. US intelligence analysts estimated that 100-300 individuals were killed in an unclassified report released to AFP, according to The Guardian. Airwars has put the total upper fatality range at 471 to reflect the highest casualty death toll reported for the incident, in line with our standard methodology. Casualty ranges per family and demographic have otherwise been referenced below.

Airwars was also able to find the identity of at least six people who were injured, two women and at least four children. Images shared by local sources also showed eight wounded children being treated for their injuries. The health spokesman Dr. Ashraf Al-Qudra, initially put the injury toll at 600, while Palestinian officials, later quoted by The Guardian, reported that 314 were injured. Other social media sources said either “hundreds” or “dozens” were wounded in the attack. Airwars’ injury toll reflects the minimum and maximum ranges based on the consensus among sources.

Named Victims

Family units identified

TheTotah Family

Based on testimonies posted online, Airwars identified seven members of the Totah family by partial demographic detail who were killed in the attack, for example, individuals who were identified as a surviving relative’s brother. Another three individuals were identified by name who were injured. Other testimonies put the death toll as much higher, with the highest estimated toll from the Toteh family Airwars identified as ‘more than 30’ fatalities, as reported by a surviving relative on Facebook. To avoid duplication, Airwars has estimated a minimum casualty range of 24 civilians killed and an upper casualty range of 31 civilians killed within the Toteh family – in case those we have been able to identify are also included in the higher death tolls posted by other family members.

A post from Hanan Faysal described how the story of a two-year-old girl named Siwar Totah (Toutah) was circulating online. She was reportedly being treated at Al-Ahli hospital for severe wounds after her home in the Zaytoun neighborhood was bombed, and then was again injured in the attack on Al-Ahli. Following the attack, “the child “Siwar” was transferred to Al-Shifa Hospital to receive treatment, and her health condition is stable so far, but a number of her family members were martyred”. A post from the El Zaytoun neighborhood family Facebook page reported that a member of the Totah family, opposite the Salah al-Din Mosque, was killed. A member of the Totah family, Mohammed Totah, stated that “more than 30 were martyrs from my cousins, sons of the Hamdan Totah, and their sons”. Aljazeera spoke with someone who is likely a member of the Totah family whose “cousins and their sons, and his mother-in-law and her daughters” were among the 31 members of his family killed, and he is seen holding up a book and school bag from a girl in his family, saying “Why did the bombing target this child? Was she hiding explosives and weapons in her bag?”.

The Guardian spoke with Rushdiyya Toutah, a 43-year-old wheelchair user from Gaza City who was sheltering at al-Ahli with other displaced people and lost every adult member of her family. Nearly 40 members of her family headed to the hospital because of airstrikes near their home and “We felt safe,” Toutah said. “There were thousands of people and kids.” Her brothers set up tents for everyone in the yard, and they settled in as they listened to Israeli warplanes fly overhead.” When the explosion occurred, “All I remember is that the kids said that they were hungry, so their mothers started making sandwiches for them after asking them to go to play in the yard. I saw them laughing and playing while their mothers were happy, preparing the food. Then I found myself covered in others’ blood in al-Shifa hospital, where the rescuer and the paramedics took me.” Rushdiyya Toutah’s parents, her two brothers, their wives, and her disabled sister were all killed. Rushdiyya Toutah also sustained significant injuries: “I felt pain in all my body parts, and I could barely even see, as my eyes were hurting.” A nephew named Yamen, who was injured, also survived.

Esbeita Family

Ahmed Abed posted a condolence message to his cousin, “the sister of the martyrs Fares and Munir Mansour Esbeita,” who was killed in the attack, adding that her children were injured.

Jarada Family

A woman named Safaa Harb, her husband Muhammad Jarada and their children were killed according to Mohammed Ibrahim Harb, describing himself as Safaa’s brother. It is unclear how many children were killed or their names. A Facebook account of Dana Barakat also said that the Jarada family was entirely killed, alongside the video of a man with a child stating that he was the only surviving member of the Jarada family.

Ajour Family

A Facebook post from “Palestine Woman” identified their aunt (Hama’s sister) Maha Ajour (43) and her children as among those killed. Mohammad Hani identified Maha’s two sons as Muhammad Ajour (21) and Mahmoud Ajour (19), and referred to Maha as “Umm Mutasim”. Their ages were identified by Airwars researchers among the Ministry of Health list of casualties published on October 26th.

Abu Al-Aoun Family

Mahmoud Abd Al Wahan Mahmoud posted a condolence message for his brother Hassan’s children Adam Hassan Abdel Wahab Abu Al-Aoun (14) and Muhammad Hassan Abdel Wahab Abu Al-Aoun (13). Their ages were identified by Airwars researchers among the Ministry of Health list of casualties published on October 26th.

Qariqa Family

From the Qariqa family, Sohaib Mohammed posted that their aunt Anam Salman Qariqa, their cousin Maryam Ahmed Qariqa (30), their sister Duha Bassam Qariqa, their sister Saji Bassam Qariqa (23), their cousin Mohamed Sami Qariqa (24), and the beloved child Mohamed Ghassan Qariqa (9) were killed and their beloved mother Umm Jabr was injured and “is in dire need of prayers”. Their ages were identified by Airwars researchers among the Ministry of Health list of casualties published on October 26th.

@Layann1948 identified Muhammad Sami Qariqa as a civilian killed at the hospital while he was volunteering to raise the spirits of children and injured: “The martyr Muhammad Sami could not bear to sit and watch videos of children and the wounded. He went to the hospital to play with the children, raise their morale, and treat them psychologically.”

Aslim Family

A post from Osama Aslim spoke for the family of Islim Shahd in mourning Mansoura Ali Aslim, Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel”, and “eight members of his family (including his sons, daughters, and grandchildren)”.

Members of the Khalaf family named Abo Mamdouh Khalaf and Tariq Khalaf posted condolence messages for Nabil Khalaf’s wife, who was pregnant, and described her as the daughter of Mohammad Aslim, and added that her three children Lara Khalaf, Joan Khalaf, and Jumana Khalaf were also killed. To account for risks of duplication with the unnamed family members referenced in the post from Osama Aslim, Airwars has kept a minimum casualty range of eight for this family, though does account for these additional three casualties in our upper family range.

Muhammed Al Manasra added that Abu Adel was one of the doves of Al-Islah Mosque and “Every Ramadan … he used to offer sweets as a sign of honor for the soul of his dear son” Hamed who reportedly died in the 2014 Israel-Gaza war.

Abu Massi Family

BBC News spoke with a father named Arafat Abu Massi whose two sons, Mazen (17) and Ahmed (13) were killed in the explosion at al-Ahli. Arafat described his sons as “very close to each other” but had very different personalities. He told BBC that his wife had undergone IVF therapy for eight years to have children. Mazen was described as “the brightest of all my children” and Ahmed was described as “the strongest and bravest in the family” and that “he used to sell toys and school supplies in a small booth near our house”. Their only surviving brother, three-year-old Farah “keeps crying and asking where his siblings are. [Arafat] told him that God has chosen them to stay in heaven. That is a better place for my two young smart gentlemen.”

Airwars identified the ages of the children by finding their names among the Ministry of Health list of names released on October 26th.

Other named victims identified

Aïcha Ahlem Abdelwahed identified their friend Hasnat Murtaja, a volunteer in the rescue and first aid crew, as one of the victims killed in the explosion. Aïcha wrote that “Hasnat has been my friend since 2012 and we studied together at Olivet… an English for non-native speakers training center in Brighton, Britain.”

Abo Obaida offered their condolences to the Anqar family for the loss of their son Mahmoud Nasr Al Anqar (33) “Whose soul rose to heaven last night in the Baptist Hospital massacre”.

Mohand Saber Al-adailh offered condolences for their friend Ahmed Hamdan, a volunteer at the hospital, who was killed.

Tala Yassen identified Khalil Maher Yassin as a victim killed at the hospital. Airwars researchers found his name amongst the Ministry of Health list, indicating that he was 16 years old.

Raneen Al Roz identified their cousin Muhammad Mahmoud Al-Raz as among those killed, writing “what a heartache, may God have mercy on you, Muhammad”, posting a picture of the young boy. Airwars researchers found his name among the Ministry of Health list, indicating he was 15 years old.

Abo Mustafa Al Sawalhi posted that their cousin Muhammad Adel Muhammad Mustafa Al-Sawalhi (23) was killed. His age was also identified by Airwars researchers among the Ministry of Health list.

A post from Nour Al Din Amin announced that “it is with great sadness that we received the news of the martyrdom of my uncle Jamal Khalaf“. Jamal was not mentioned by other posts in reference to the Aslim family mentioned above, despite relatives of the Aslim family sharing the same name. He has therefore not been counted in the Aslim toll detailed above.

A post from Anas Abo Thouraya identified their aunt Nisreen Abuthria as among those killed.

Mouayed Wehdi posted a memorial for their cousin Shadi Al-Wahidi (32) who was killed. His age was also identified by Airwars researchers among the Ministry of Health list.

@GazaMartyrs posted a message from Maram Shaqeela on her five month old daughter Yumna’s death, “I carried her with fear and concern. In the ninth month, they told me there was a lack of amniotic fluid, and there was a possibility she might not survive. I rushed to the hospital, screaming that I wanted to save her, and I gave birth by cesarean section to ensure she survived. After two weeks, her father named her. He woke me up from sleep, and she was sucking her fingers, hungry. I forgot my pain, embraced her, and started breastfeeding her. I love her so much…The day she left me was a nightmare. I was dressing her in white, spraying her with perfume, breastfeeding her, and giving her biscuits with milk. I didn’t know I was preparing her for death. This is Yumna, the light of my eyes and the joy of my heart. I slept beside her when she was martyred.”

A Twitter/X post from @al3rab963sy identified a child named “Kamal“, identified as the brother of Firas and Ahmed, as among those killed. The post included a video of a young child in a wheelchair with an injury to his arm, making it possible he was being treated at the hospital before the attack.

Unnamed victims

One social media source posted a picture of a dead young child alleging that he was killed in the hospital bombing, but had not been identified and was known as “unknown martyr “5309””.

Another source posted a graphic picture of a dead infant covered in black and claimed that he/she was among “the martyrs.” An image posted by Abo Mohammed Al Maghribi shows the bodies of at least seven children. Many videos were posted, including by @waleedsharkawy1 and @mohammadalqaesi, of people saying goodbye to their loved ones and burying their family members killed in the attack.

Images posted by @aboyahyaalshami and @Zuheir_shammasi show at least three different injured children covered in blood and debris. Additional images posted by Al Rai News include at least five other injured children.

Airwars researchers gathered an approximate death toll of unidentified bodies pictured in various sources from the immediate aftermath of the incident, however as a conservative approach these bodies have been incorporated into our minimum death toll based on those identified in social media posts outlined above to avoid for duplication.

The area surrounding the hospital was reported by many local sources as being an area where civilians were congregating, given the intensity of the on-going Israeli bombardment of the Gaza Strip. The Washington Post noted that first responder groups said that ‘hundreds’ had been sheltering there.

Dr. Ashraf Al-Qudra, health spokesman in Gaza, said that “many” were still missing under the rubble.

Attribution

Immediately following the blast, the Israeli military released statements through their Arabic language spokesman that “The IDF confirmed that the Islamic Jihad terrorist organization was responsible for a failed rocket launch that hit the #Baptist_Hospital in the Gaza Strip” and that “After analyzing the operational systems in the IDF, the enemy in Gaza fired a heavy missile salvo towards Israel, which passed in the vicinity of the Baptist Hospital the moment it was hit.”

The next day, October 18th, the Arabic spokesman @AvichayAdraee added that “We can confirm that the area did not witness any Israeli air, land or sea raid that hit the hospital.” @AvichayAdraee also alleged that the IDF had a recording of “a phone call between a former Hamas activist and a resident of the Gaza Strip, during which they talked about a failed rocket launch that took place specifically at #Baptist_Hospital. We have corroborated this testimony with additional intelligence sources to confirm its authenticity.”

This version of events was challenged by a series of investigations. The New York Times pointed out that the footage highlighted by the Israeli military as evidence of the missile falling short was actually not the strike that hit the hospital. Forensic Architecture also pointed out a number of apparent gaps in the Israeli version of events.

A Human Rights Watch report on the other hand found that the explosion “resulted from an apparent rocket-propelled munition, such as those commonly used by Palestinian armed groups, that hit the hospital grounds.” The organisation also called for a full investigation, saying definitive answers would be impossible without one.

Much of the debate revolved around the supposed lack of physical evidence of munition remnants from the site. Hamas officials argued that there had been no remnants of the munition. “The missile has dissolved like salt in the water. It’s vaporised. Nothing is left,” Ghazi Hamad, a senior Hamas official, told The New York Times.

Marc Garlasco, a former UN official who has investigated civilian harm incidents across the globe for decades, told CNN that this version of events was not credible.

“When I investigate a site of a potential war crime the first thing I do is locate and identify parts of the weapon. The weapon tells you who did it and how. I’ve never seen such a lack of physical evidence for a weapon at a site. Ever. There’s always a piece of a bomb after the fact. In 20 years of investigating war crimes this is the first time I haven’t seen any weapon remnants. And I’ve worked three wars in Gaza.”

The BBC highlighted images of Palestinian police combing through the blast site.

As per its methodology, Airwars has classified the incident as contested. This will be updated should more information come to light.

Due to the scale and urgency of Airwars’ assessment process, all images have been automatically uploaded to each assessment with the graphic filter applied to protect users. We have also included all images identified from the sources, which may also include any imagery of combatants.

The incident occured at 19:00:00 local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (4)

Safaa Harb صفاء حرب
Adult female killed
Muhammad Jarada محمد جرادة
Adult male killed
Child of Muhammad and Safaa طفل محمد و صفاء
Child killed
Child of Muhammad and Safaa طفل محمد و صفاء
Child killed

Family members (3)

Maha Ajour مها عجور
43 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 905393369
Muhammad Ajour محمد عجور
21 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 407914712
Mahmoud Ajour محمود عجور
19 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 421062613

Family members (2)

Adam Hassan Abdel Wahab Abu Al-Aoun أدم حسن عبدالوهاب ابو العون
14 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 426416418
Muhammad Hassan Abdel Wahab Abu Al-Aoun محمد حسن عبد الوهاب ابو العون
13 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 429717010

Family members (7)

Anam Salman Qariqa انعام سلمان قريقع
Adult female killed
Maryam Ahmed Qariqa مريم أحمد قريقع
30 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 804464535
Duha Bassam Qaraqi ضحى بسام قريقع
female killed
Saji Bassam Qariqa سجى بسام قريقع
23 years old female killed Matched to MoH ID 406019505
Mohamed Sami Qariqa محمد سامي قريقع
24 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 404748402
Mohamed Ghassan Qariqa محمد بسام قريقع
9 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 433811155
Umm Jabr أم جابر قريقع
Adult female injured

Family members (3)

sister of Fares and Munir Mansour Esbeita امرأة من عائلة اسبيته
Adult female killed
Child
Child injured
Child
Child injured

Family members (10)

Mansoura Ali Aslim منصورة علي إسليم
killed
Nabil Khalaf's wife زوجة نبيل خلف
Adult female Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel”'s daughter killed
Lara Khalaf لارا خلف
Child female killed
Jumana Khalaf جمانة خلف
Child female killed
Joan Khalaf جوان خلف
Child male killed
Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel's son
Adult male killed
Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel's son
Adult male killed
Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel's daughter
Adult female killed
Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel”'s son or daughter or grandchild
killed
Muhammad Ali Aslim “Abu Adel” محمد علي إسليم
Adult male killed

Family members (2)

Ahmed Abu Massi أحمد عرفات مازن ابو عاصي
13 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 432484426
Mazen Abu Massi مازن عرفات مازن ابو عاصي
17 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 421691932

Family members (9)

Rushdiyya Toutah
43 years old female injured
Mother of Rushdiyya Toutah
Adult female killed
Father of Rushdiyya Toutah
male killed
Brother of Rushdiyya Toutah
Adult male killed
Brother of Rushdiyya Toutah
Adult male killed
Sister in law of Rushdiyya Toutah
Adult female killed
Sister in law of Rushdiyya Toutah
Adult female killed
Sister of Rushdiyya Toutah
Adult female Disabled killed
Yamen
Child male injured

The victims were named as:

Hasnat Murtaja حسنات مرتجى
Age unknown killed
Mahmoud Nasr Al Anqar محمود نصر الأنقر
33 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 802876359
Ahmed Hamdan أحمد حمدان
Age unknown killed
Khalil Maher Yassin خليل ماهر ياسين
16 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 423693894
Jamal Khalaf جمال خلف
years old male killed
Muhammad Mahmoud Al-Raz محمد محمود الرز
15 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 426347803
Muhammad Adel Muhammad Mustafa Al-Sawalhi حمد عادل محمد مصطفى الصوالحي
23 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 405887282
Nisreen Abuthria نسرين أبوثريا
Adult female killed
Siwar Toutah سوار طوطح
2 years old female injured
Shadi Al-Wahidi شادي الوحيدي
32 years old male killed Matched to MoH ID 803017490
Yumna, daughter of Maram Shaqeela
0.5 years old female killed
Kamal
Child male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    63 – 471
  • (12–27 children11–16 women16–19 men3 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    14–314
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (113) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (117) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
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    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @ShehabAgency
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @OlaAlfares
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @WLbir
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @WLbir
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Layann1948
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @waleedsharkawy1
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @HmedMeahy90483
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Zuheir_shammasi
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Zuheir_shammasi
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @aboyahyaalshami
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @AvichayAdraee
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @AvichayAdraee
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammad Hani
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammad Hani
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @alrayps
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abo Mohammed Al Maghribi
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Sair
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Sair
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Sair
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @PalestineRCS
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Radio Al Zaiytouna fm
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Abo Obaida
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Gurbtwatan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Gurbtwatan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Gurbtwatan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @Gurbtwatan
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Hanan Faysal
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Ahmed Ajjur
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    Source: Mouayed Wehdi
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Israeli Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Israeli Military
  • Israeli Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Palestinian Militants Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Palestinian Militants
  • Palestinian Militants position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    63 – 471
  • (12–27 children11–16 women16–19 men3 healthcare_personnel)
  • Civilians reported injured
    14–314
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Israeli Military, Palestinian Militants

Sources (113) [ collapse]