Russian Military in Syria

A Russian combat aircraft at Khmeimim airbase in Syria being prepared for action. (Russian Ministry of Defence)

Belligerent
Russian military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Airwars Grading
Confirmed
Fair
Belligerent Assessment

Incident Code

R4302

Incident date

March 21, 2021

Location

أطراف بلدتي صلوة وقاح, Vicinty of Qah and Salwa towns, Idlib , Syria

Airwars assessment

At least one civilian was killed and between one and two civilians were injured in an alleged Russian missile strike in the vicinity of Qah and Salwa towns the afternoon of March 21, 2021.

Multiple sources, including Syrian Civil Defense and Reuters, reporting that the strike was ” a surface-to-surface missile.” Idlib EMC stated that “Russian battleships on the Syrian coast, with a ground-to-ground missile, targeted the town of Qah.” Other sources referred to the strike as a ballistic missile or a long-range missile. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that at the time, “it is not known yet if the missile was fired by a warship near the Syrian coastline or from the Russian base in Hmeimim.”

The location struck was identified as being near internally displaced persons camps and Jisr Press specifically reported that the missile landed near Atmeh Camp. Step News reported that ” a long-range ballistic missile fell on the headquarters of the 23rd of the Sham Legion,” a Syrian opposition faction, and the civilian and animals injured and killed were close to the vicinity. The area struck was also identified by Syrian Observatory for Human Rights as being “a military headquarters of opposition faction”  but that the area contains “a large number of refugee camps which host displaced people” and is near the “Syria border with Iskenderun region.”

According to Syrian Civil Defense, the strikes resulted in ” the serious injury of a civilian and the death of a number of livestock.” Jisr Press reported “the death of a large number of livestock and the injury of a shepherd in the aforementioned area. It is reported that he later died of his injury.” A tweet from @dr_aalassad identified two civilians as being injured and Al Modon news reported that the strike “resulted in the injury of a child who was grazing sheep in the area.”

Images posted by SCD Idlib show animals that were killed in the airstrike and White Helmets inspecting the area. A video posted by @Step_Agency and images posted by other sources show the smoke cloud in the sky following the strike.

Syrian Civil Defense attributed the strike to regime and Russian forces, while all other sources identified the strikes as being Russian, from the Russian base in Hmeimim, or from Russian battleships.

The incident occured in the afternoon.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Naval bombardment
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery, Naval bombardment
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4298

Incident date

March 5, 2021

Location

معرة الإخوان, Maaret Al Ikhwan, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

36.064641, 36.672084 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

One civilian was reported injured as a result of an alleged Russian airstrike on Ma’aret Al Ikhwan in Idlib on March 5th.

@jisrtv tweeted “Russian bombing raids with cluster rockets on the outskirts of the town of Maarat al-Ikhwan, northwest of the city of Maarat Misrin in the northern countryside of Idlib.”

Edlib Media Center posted images showing destruction in the area as a result of the Russian strikes.

Syrian Civil Defence said that their volunteers evacuated some civilians from the area to a safe place because of fears of renewed bombing.

No further information is available.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Translation of second tweet: Meanwhile a civilian was injured as a result of two raids by the Russian warplanes on Ma'aret Ikhwan village in Idlib's northern countryside. Our teams checked the area for injured civilians, and evacuated a number of civilians to a safe place.
  • A Syrian Civil Defence volunteers on the rubble of a destructed building in Ma'aret Ikhwan that was earlier allegedly bombed by Russian warplanes. (via @SyriaCivilDefe)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention the village of Maaret Al Ikhwan (معرة الإخوان), for which the generic coordinates are: 36.064641, 36.672084. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (7) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4289

Incident date

November 4, 2020

Location

أريحا, Ariha, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

At least four civilians, including a child, were killed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime artillery strikes on the city of Ariha, Idlib governorate, on November 4th, 2020, according to local sources. Among the victims were two men working for the Ihsan Relief and Development Organization. Up to six others were reportedly wounded.

Nors for Studies reported that four civilians were killed and five others were injured as the result of artillery shelling on the city. The Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) wrote: “At least four civilians, including a girl, were killed when Syrian regime forces artillery fired dozens of shells on Ariha city in the southern suburbs of Idlib governorate in the morning of November 4. SNHR notes that this bombardment is a breach of the ceasefire agreement reached following consultations between the Turkish and Russian presidents, which came into effect on March 6, 2020.”

In another post, the SNHR reported that one of the shells fell on the schoolyard of the Martyr Zakariya Saedou school, partially destroying the yard and damaging furniture in the school. The source added that the school is located within a residential area.

The Syrian Civil Defence reported that the girl Rimas Hindawi was killed while being at school. It is unclear if this is the same school that the SNHR reported as damaged. Eye on Al Hassaka posted a photo of the body of the girl but however wrote as a caption that “a mother of a child” was killed in the strikes. Other sources do not report an adult woman among the fatalities.

Among the victims were Ibrahim Al Younes, a psychological support worker at Ihsan Relief and Development Organization, and Raghid Zakariya Al Jasri, a driver for the same organisation. According to SNHR, the men died when a shell fell on their car in Al Midan neighbourhood.

The fourth fatal victim was identified as Samer Madi.

Step News Agency reported that six civilians were injured. The Syrian Civil Defence posted a video of their volunteers helping victims, including at least two injured women.

While nearly all sources blamed the Syrian regime for the heavy shelling on the city, Eye on Al Hassaka blamed both the Syrian regime and Russia.

The incident occured in the morning.

The victims were named as:

Family members (
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Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4 – 5
  • (1 child1 woman3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (5) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    The child Rimas Hindawi was killed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime artillery strikes on the city of Ariha, November 4th, 2020 (via Eye On Al Hassakah).
  • Injured civilians being brought to an ambulance after alleged Russian or Syrian regime strikes on Ariha on November 4th, 2020 (via SNHR).
  • Two employees of Ihsan Relief and Development Organization, named as Ibrahim al Younes (pictured right) and Raghid Zakariya al Jesri (left) were killed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime artillery strikes on Ariha on November 4th, 2020 (via SNHR).
  • Aftermath of alleged Russian or Syrian regime strikes on Ariha on November 4th, 2020 (via Syrian Civil Defence).
  • The child Rimas Hindawi was killed in alleged Russian or Syrian regime artillery strikes on the city of Ariha, November 4th, 2020 (via Eye On Al Hassakah).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Syrian Regime Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    4 – 5
  • (1 child1 woman3 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5–6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Armed Forces, Syrian Regime Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (17) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4287

Incident date

October 31, 2020

Location

نحلية, Nahliya, Idlib, Syria

Geolocation

35.847491, 36.600351 Note: The accuracy of this location is to Village level. Continue to map

Geolocation accuracy

Village

Airwars assessment

Three civilians including an elderly woman were reported injured after an alleged Russian suicide drone struck a car in Nahla/Nahlia village in Idlib on October 31st, 2020.

Shaam Agency reported that the drone targeted a gathering of civilians and left several injuries, pointing out the use of this new weaponry by Russian forces. @Step_Agency said that the civilians, who worked in olive harvest, were seriously injured.

Local sources showed images of the car targeted and also the civilians injured and shared images from the hospital, and Syrian Civil Defense response to the incident.

No further information is available at the moment.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (11) [ collapse]

  • Translation: Three civilians, including a woman, were injured after being targeted by a drone while they were working in the olive fields in the village of Nahle, south of the city of Ariha in the southern countryside of Idlib.
  • A woman was injured in an alleged Russian suicide drone on Nahla village on October 31st, 2020. (via SCD).
  • A woman injured in an alleged Russian suicide drone on Nahla village on October 31st, 2020 is assisted by SCD members. (via SCD).
  • SCD volunteers seen next to a car after it was struck by a Russian suicide drone in Nahla, Idlib on October 31st, 2020. (via SCD).
  • The woman who was injured in an alleged Russian suicide drone on Nahla village on October 31st, 2020. (via @IdlibPlus)
  • The woman who was injured in an alleged Russian suicide drone on Nahla village on October 31st, 2020. (via MMC)
  • The car that was struck by a Russian suicide drone in Nahla village on October 31st, 2020. (via MMC)
  • An image shared by MMC Facebook page of the suicide drone allegedly used by Russia on October 31st, 2020 on a car in Nahla village.
  • An image from the hospital after an alleged Russian attack with a suicide drone on Nahla village. (via MMC)
  • An image from the hospital after three civilians were injured in alleged Russian suicide drone attack on Nahla village in Idlib. (via SY24)
  • Three civilians were injured in alleged Russian suicide drone attack on Nahla village in Idlib. (via SY24)

Geolocation notes

Reports of the incident mention a vehicle being struck in the village of Nahliya (نحلية), for which the generic coordinates are: 35.847491, 36.600351. Due to limited satellite imagery and information available to Airwars, we were unable to verify the location further.

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike, Drone Strike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    3
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4286

Incident date

October 26, 2020

Location

منطقة الدويله في كفرتخاريم في ريف ادلب, Al Dwailah in Kafar Takhareem in Idib, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Civilians were reported killed and injured when an alleged Russian forces warplane struck a training camp for Sham Legion of the Syrian National Army which is affiliated by Turkey in Al-Duwailah in Kafr Tkharim, Idlib, leading also to the killing of a media activist.

Local sources identified the killed journalist as Rashid Al-Bakr who died as a result of injuries he sustained as a result of the airstrike.

Step Agency said the attack targeted a training camp on the Syrian-Turkish border which is also close to IDPs camps.

The airstrike is also believed to have killed up to 50 militants and injured dozens from Sham Legion fighters. Reports said that 200 militants were in the camo at the time of the airstrike.

Local sources blamed Russia for the incident saying a Russian warplane flew from Hmeimem base to undertake the attack which was done with highly explosive weapons.

The US embassy published a statement by Special Representative for Syria Ambassador James Jeffrey on Idlib airstrike by what it described as pro-regime forces. @TRTWorldNow tweeted that Erdogan referred to the attack saying that “Russian attack in Idlib shows lasting peace in Syria is not desired.”

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Free Syrian Army
  • Belligerents reported killed
    18–50
  • Belligerents reported injured
    50–70

Sources (24) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • Rashid Al-Biker, a media activist, was reported killed in an alleged Russian airstrike on a SNA military training camp in Al-Duwailah in Idlib on October 26th.
  • More than a hundred members of pro-Turkey Sham legion were killed as a result of a Russian airstrike on Idlib.
  • Satellite imagery showing the attack on Sham Legion military training camp in Al-Duwailah that according to local sources led to civilian casualties, including a media activist. (via Freedierazourradio)
  • Satellite imagery showing the attack on Sham Legion military training camp in Al-Duwailah that according to local sources led to civilian casualties, including a media activist. (via Freedierazourradio)
  • Statement by Special Representative for Syria Ambassador James Jeffrey on Idlib Airstrike by what he described as pro-regime forces. (via Raqqa.rwb)
  • Media activist Rashid Al-Bakr was killed in the Russian air strike that targeted the Jebel Al-Duwailah area in Idlib countryside.
  • Funeral of those killed in an alleged Russian airstrike on Al-Duwailah in Idlib on October 26th, 2020. (via Eye on Hasaka)
  • Funeral of those killed in an alleged Russian airstrike on Al-Duwailah in Idlib on October 26th, 2020. (via Eye on Hasaka)
  • Rashid Al-Bakr, a media activist, was reported killed in an alleged Russian airstrike on a SNA military training camp in Al-Duwailah in Idlib on October 26th. (via ShahbaPress).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Free Syrian Army
  • Belligerents reported killed
    18–50
  • Belligerents reported injured
    50–70

Sources (24) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4285

Incident date

October 21, 2020

Location

الرامي, Al Rami, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

A child was killed and up to six others, including children, were injured in alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Al Rami, Idlib governorate, on October 21st, 2020, according to local sources.

Euphrates Post wrote that “a child was killed and six others were wounded, as a result of the airstrikes by Russian warplanes that targeted the village of Al Rami in the countryside of Jabal Al Zawiya, south of Idlib, this morning.” Other sources did not report any civilian deaths.

@IdlibPlus reported that “several civilians were wounded as a result of airstrikes by Russian warplanes in the vicinity of the town of Al Rami, south of Idlib.”

Macro Media Center also reported injured civilians as the result of Russian airstrikes. Shaam News Network did not report any civilian harm but did mention Russian airstrikes on Al Rami on October 21st.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights documented the injury of six civilians, including two children. The Syrian Civil Defence reported five injured victims, including three children and a woman.

Step New Agency correspondent Hassan Al-Muhammad stated that residential homes were targeted with vacuum missiles by Russian warplanes, seriously injuring four civilians, including children. The victims were transferred to hospitals in Idlib city. The correspondent also reported damage to civilian property.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights reported that several civilian homes were destroyed.

Currently, further information is unavailable to Airwars.

The incident occured in the morning.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (9) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Translation: “Several civilians were wounded as a result of air strikes by Russian warplanes in the vicinity of the town of Al-Rami, south of Idlib” (via @IdlibPlus).
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    A child injured in alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Al Rami, Idlib governorate, on October 21st, 2020 (via Macro Media Center).
  • Translation: "The moment of implementation of the Russian warplanes on the village of Rami in the southern countryside of Idlib" (via Euphrates Post).
  • Syrian Civil Defence volunteers at the site after alleged Russian airstrikes on Al Rami, October 21st, 2020 (via SNHR).
  • Translation: “Five civilians, including three children and a woman, were wounded by Russian air strikes today, Wednesday, October 21, in Al Rami village in the southern countryside of Idlib. Any new military escalation of the regime and its Russian ally will lead to a humanitarian catastrophe in northern Syria and an unprecedented wave of displacement at a time when the Coronavirus is spreading in the camps for the displaced and has become a threat to them” (via Syrian Civil Defence).
  • Syrian Civil Defence volunteers helping the wounded after alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Al Rami, Idlib governorate, on October 21st, 2020 (via Syrian Civil Defence).
  • Aftermath of alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Al Rami, Idlib governorate, on October 21st, 2020 (via Syrian Civil Defence).
  • A Syrian Civil Defence volunteer in the aftermath of alleged Russian airstrikes on the town of Al Rami, Idlib governorate, on October 21st, 2020 (via Syrian Civil Defence).

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 child)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2–6
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Suspected target
    Unknown

Sources (12) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4278

Incident date

August 30, 2020

Location

الشيخ بحر, Sheikh Bahar, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

An unknown number of displaced civilians was injured in alleged Russian airstrikes on a camp for Internally Displaced People (IDP) near the village of Sheikh Bahar, Idlib governorate, on August 30th, 2020, as reported by local sources.

According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “Russian jets carried out airstrikes using air-to-air missiles, which exploded in north-western Idlib countryside. Shrapnel of missiles fell on a camp in Armanaz area, leaving injuries among the displaced people.”

Step News Agency wrote that “civilians were wounded as a result of the Russian raids that targeted the vicinity of a camp for the displaced near the village of Sheikh Bahar Shamal.” Baladi News reported the same news.

Currently, further information is unavailable to Airwars.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (3) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4277

Incident date

August 14, 2020

Location

البادية السورية, Syrian Badia, Homs, Syria

Airwars assessment

Civilians were reported killed and injured in alleged Russian airstrikes on the Syrian desert, or Al Badia Al Souria, on August 14th, 2020.

@so_ria98 reported intense airstrikes by Russian warplanes in several areas of the desert and stated there were reports of civilian casualties, as well as the targeting of a car believed to be a civilian vehicle.

Joftlk Al Hadath also reported killed and wounded civilian victims.

Currently, further information is unavailable to Airwars.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]

Russian Armed Forces Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Armed Forces
  • Russian Armed Forces position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Likely strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Fair
    Reported by two or more credible sources, with likely or confirmed near actions by a belligerent.
  • Suspected attacker
    Russian Armed Forces

Sources (2) [ collapse]