Russian Military in Syria

A Russian combat aircraft at Khmeimim airbase in Syria being prepared for action. (Russian Ministry of Defence)

Belligerent
Russian Military
Country
Syria
start date
end date
Civilian Harm Status
Belligerent Assessment
Declassified Documents
Infrastructure

Incident Code

R4630

Incident date

November 25, 2023

Location

قوقفين, village of Qoqfin in Jabal al-Zawiya, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

During the morning of Saturday, November 25, 2023, an artillery shelling allegedly perpetrated by Syrian regime forces and/or Russian forces on the village of Qoqfin in Jabal al-Zawiya, south of the town of Idlib, killed at least 10 and up to 11 civilians who were working in the olive fields harvesting olive crop, including at least seven children one woman and two men, and injured at least one woman, 50-year old Khadija Ibrahim. Khadija was the only survivor of the deadly attack in which she lost her husband and their three children.

All the victims were relatives and belonged either to one or two related families. Some sources reported that “several” civilians were injured. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), nine people died immediately on the spot, and one child died later as a result of the inflicted injuries. SOHR added that the number of the victims could rise as some wounded were in serious condition. Later Twitter/X accounts @zelal_katee and @molhamteam reported that the number of the victims reached 11. The Twitter/X user @alaaaldin_yousf posted pictures from the funerals of the victims. According to Abdul Hamid Qatini, a volunteer in the Syrian Civil Defense, the attack happened in the morning.

The Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) reported that the Syrian regime artillery forces allegedly fired multiple shells at Qoqfin village. Referring to a local source, Rozana news informed that the artillery shelling came from the positions of Syrian regime forces in the Shulin area, close to the village. Enab Baladi news added that “the Syrian regime’s artillery and missile bombardment coincided with the flight of Russian reconnaissance planes over the area since the early hours of the morning”, so the Russian military might have allegedly supported this attack. Where sources identified the belligerent, the majority of the sources attributed the strike to Syrian regime forces, with a number of sources attributing the bombing to both Russian forces and Syrian regime forces, or to Russian forces only.

The Syrian Human Rights Committee (SHRC) news as well as the Facebook post by Omran Shnan included the names of the identified victims of the attack. 50-year old Abdullah Muhammad Al-Saeed, presumably Khadija Ibrahim’s husband, was killed together with their three children – four-year old Hussein Abdullah Al-Saeed, 12-year old Asmaa Abdullah Al-Saeed and 16-year old Ahmed Abdullah Al-Saeed. Among the victims was also 48-year old Aisha Muhammad Al-Saeed, 20-year old Ibrahim Abdullah Qadi, 15-year old Huda Abdullah Qadi, 16-year old Heba Abdullah Qadi and three-year old Amna Abdullah Qadi. It was reported by SHRC news that the tenth victim was not identified. The name of the child who died from the injuries later was not provided in the sources either.

The Syrian Civil Defense reported that its crew had recovered the bodies of some of the victims of the strike and transported the injured people to the hospital, amid “great difficulty in reaching them due to regime forces monitoring the area”. It also featured the injured Khadija Ibrahim being transported to the hospital.

Additionally, the Civil Defense posted on Twitter/X social media platform a video and pictures from the place of the deadly attack where one can see a cap and a toy horse, accompanying it with the words full of grief: “It was a place full of life and hope, the happiest moments after a year of waiting to harvest the olives, turned into a tragedy… everything was scattered… bodies, souls and dreams… a scene repeated every season and a different kind of war that haunts the residents in their daily livelihood.”

Journalist M. faisal (@mhmdfaisel) also shared an emotional video on Twitter/X social media platform where he was standing in the the olive fields holding a toy horse that belonged to one of the deceased children in his hands and speaking about the children who had lost their lives in this attack.

In another touching video shared by the Syrian Civil Defense, a young boy Ahmed who lost his mother and five siblings in this incident was shown crying “I want my mother… I want to see my mother.”

The incident occured in the morning.

The victims were named as:

Family members (10)

Abdullah Muhammad Al-Saeed عبدالله محمد السعيد
50 years old male killed
Khadija Ibrahim خديجة إبراهيم
50 years old female injured
Hussein Abdullah Al-Saeed حسين عبدالله السعيد
4 years old killed
Asmaa Abdullah Al-Saeed أسماء عبدالله السعيد
12 years old killed
Ahmed Abdullah Al-Saeed أحمد عبدالله السعيد
16 years old killed
Aisha Muhammad Al-Saeed عائشة محمد السعيد
48 years old killed
Ibrahim Abdullah Qadi إبراهيم عبد الله قدي
20 years old killed
Huda Abdullah Qadi هدى عبد الله قدي
15 years old killed
Heba Abdullah Qadi هبة عبدالله قدي
16 years old
Amna Abdullah Qadi أمنة عبد الله قدي
3 years old

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    10 – 11
  • (7 children1 woman2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (53) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (47) [ collapse]

  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
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    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @nahermedia
  • Source: @aboalhodaalhoms
  • Source: @molhamteam
  • Source: @molhamteam
  • Source: @alaaaldin_yousf
  • Source: @alaaaldin_yousf
  • Source: @alaaaldin_yousf
  • Source: @alaaaldin_yousf
  • Source: SNHR news
  • Source: Omar al Baw
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    Source: Mohammed Al Abdo
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    Source: Mohammed Al Abdo
  • Source: Abo Amin 80 observatory
  • Source: Abo Amin 80 observatory
  • Source: Abo Amin 80 observatory
  • Source: Abo Amin 80 observatory
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Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Agriculture
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    10 – 11
  • (7 children1 woman2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Food
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (53) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4588

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

الأتارب, Al Atareb, Aleppo, Syria

Airwars assessment

Shortly before 3:37 AM on Saturday, October 7th, 2023, a civilian man was killed and a number of civilians were reportedly injured due to an artillery strike with the contested responsibility – allededly perpetrated by the Syrian regime and/or Russian or Iranian military in the city of Al Atareb in the western countryside of Aleppo, Syria.

At 3:37 AM, Twitter/X user Radwan Muhammad Al Shahwan Altai (@ralshhwan9) reported about the attack on the city of Al Atareb with cluster missile launchers. Later, at 4:29 AM the Syrian Civil Defense (SCD) also reported on the incident and noted treating an injured civilian and handling the body of the man who was killed to his family, in addition to a photo of one of its volunteers in the ambulance. Later SCD wrote in its report that one man was killed and another one was injured reportedly by regime forces missile strikes on October 7, 2023. Twitter/X user Ahmed Suleiman @ahmdsly89548159 and @Mohab_Nasser2 reported about a number of civilians injured the attack too, yet an exact number was not disclosed.

Twitter/X user @Wolveri07681751 reported  that cluster munitions were used on civilians, leading to fires, and shared a video where sounds of explosions were heard. However, it is not clear whether this video referred to the strike that led to the civilian casualties or to a later one.

According to the Twitter/X user Ahmed Suleiman (@ahmdsly89548159), the victim who was killed was Muhammad al-Bakri Abu Nidal, a refugee displaced from Hama. He was an elderly man with thick eyebrows, a big black and gray beard, and black eyes wearing a black turban, a white t-shirt, and a military color shirt on top of it.

Where sources identified the belligerents, they attributed the responsibility for the strike to the Syrian regime forces alongside the Iranian and Russian military.

The incident occured at approximately 3:37 am local time.

The victims were named as:

Mohammed Al Bakri محمد البكري
Adult male killed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military, Iranian Military

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (7) [ collapse]

  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @ahmdsly89548159
  • Source: Atareb Media Office
  • Source: Orient
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Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Iranian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iranian Military
  • Iranian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military, Iranian Military

Sources (20) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4590

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

طراف مدينة إدلب, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

On the evening of Saturday, October 7th, 2023, at least one civilian man was wounded on the outskirts of Idlib, Syria, in the bombardment allegedly perpetrated by the Russian military and/or Syrian regime forces.  However, some sources reported that a number of civilians were injured.

The Syrian Civil Defense, also known as the White Helmets, reported on the man’s injury in its Twitter/X post around 6:57 PM, noting that the incident happened “on the fourth day of an intense escalation campaign by regime forces and Russia in bombing civilians.” SCD also shared an image of a car with broken glass windows that was apparently damaged in the strike.

Reports differed on who was responsible for carrying out Saturday strike and on the type of strike. Al-Arabiya correspondent quoted by Arabic Syria Post and Al Hadath Syria news reported that Russian warplanes struck the city outskirts of Idlib with missiles. However, in another post by Arabic Syria it was reported that civilians were wounded by artillery shelling by the Syrian army. Therefore, Airwars has graded both strike status and civilian harm status as contested.

The incident occured in the evening.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (2) [ collapse]

  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @feraskaram01

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    Unknown
  • Civilians reported injured
    1–2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (8) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4591

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

جسر الشغورجسر الشغور, Jisr Al Shughour city, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Two civilians, including a 44-year-old woman and a man, were injured and a number of civilians were reportedly killed shortly before 8:56 AM on the morning of Saturday, October 7th, 2023, due to the bombardement reportedly perpetrated by Syrian regime forces and/or Russian military on the residential neighborhoods of the Jisr Al Shughour city, west of Idlib. The woman was injured by multiple shrapnel wounds derived from the attack. In the case of the injured man, there was no further description. Another strike happening at noon on the day before, October 6th, damaged three mosques, but there were no civilian casualties reported as of now.

A Facebook user Abdulrazaq Alsbeeh claimed that a number of civilians were killed as a result of the Russian airstrikes on the outskirts of Jisr Al Shughour, but this information was not corroborated by other sources.

The reported shelling damaged a lot of civilian infrastructure, including at least two mosques located on March 8 Street, Rabaa school in the city center, and a market. In particular, it damaged the internal structure of the Al-Tamra mosque, the walls and surroundings of the Al-Kareem mosque located on March 8 Street, and the wall of the Rabaa School.

Journalist Mohammed Belaas (@blaas083) shared a video report on Twitter/X saying that three mosques were damaged during the strike by Syrian regime forces and Russian military that happened during Friday prayer jumaa (apparently around noon on October 6, 2023). A local resident said that these mosques were called Al-Tamra, Al-Iman and Al-Kareem. He also added that the strike was carried out during the jumaa prayer time, but there were reportedly no civilian casualties. The journalist also carried a remnant of the weapons used in his hand.

The Syrian Civil Defence patrolled the areas where material damage was inflicted, and shared multiple images and a video on its social media accounts. Jisr Al-Shughur Media Center also shared the images of the damaged walls and roof of one of the mosques.

While most of the sources attributed the strike to the Syrian regime forces, two sources claimed that Russian military was responsible for the incident. Therefore, Airwars has graded both strike status and civilian harm status as contested.

The incident occured at approximately 8:56 am local time.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Marketplace, Religious Institution, School
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Education
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (19) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (13) [ collapse]

  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: Duraid Haj Hammoud posT
  • Source: Duraid Haj Hammoud posT
  • Source: News now?

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Airstrike and/or Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Marketplace, Religious Institution, School
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Education
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (19) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4593

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

أريحا, Ariha, Idlib, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

On Saturday, October 7th 2023, one civilian was killed and ten civilians, including two children (one boy) with serious injuries, were wounded by an alleged artillery attack by the Russian military and/or Syrian regime and/or Iranian forces. Reportedly, Mustafa Wadah Ghandoura was killed; Anwar Eido Al Deek, Abdulqader, Samer Ahmed and Mohammed Imad Qar’iya were among the injured. The alleged artillery attack damaged civilian homes in the city of Ariha, south of Idlib, including two fires in civilian homes.

Multiple sources reported on the event. Notably, Syrian Civil Defense reported civilian harm tolls throughout the day and ultimately concluded: “A civilian was killed and 10 civilians were injured, including two children, as a result of artillery shelling by regime forces targeting the city of Ariha, south of Idlib, which was targeted by regime forces several times during the day.” Other sources only reported on civilian casualties without providing a toll.

In an image posted by @SyriaCivilDefe, a mother is seen with her injured son: “In the presence of her injured son and her dearest son, “Muhammad,” she gently leans toward him, kisses his foot, and begs him to recover. Her face frowns with worry and fear, and she hopes that the danger will go away from him, with her eyes full of prayers and hope.”

In another video posted by @SyriaCivilDefe, a father is saying goodbye to his son who was killed as his body is being placed in a black bag while others try to comfort him in his sorrow.

Mahmoud Al-Othman, a volunteer in the Syrian Civil Defense spoke about trying to comfort civilians during the bombardment of Ariha: “Talin, a two-year-old girl, was crying unnaturally with her siblings, heartbroken. We tried to reduce the fear when we evacuated them from the place, but the amount of terror they experienced during the moments of bombing and hearing the sound of the shells was enough to erase the safety and smiles from their faces and replace fear and terror in their hearts.”

Many of the sources documented the fires that resulted from the shelling of Ariha, with at least one source describing “Houses are burning and civilians are trapped.”

Sources were conflicted as to whether the Syrian regime or Russian forces or Iranian forces were responsible, with the majority of sources blaming the Syrian regime. A post from Tariq Al-Dimashqi accused Russian forces of using “napalm and phosphorus bombs” against Ariha while other sources mentioned rocket launchers and missiles.

The local time of the incident is unknown.

The victims were named as:

Mustafa Wadah Ghandoura مصطفى وضاح غندورة
Adult male killed
Anwar Eido Al Deek أنور عيدو الديك
Age unknown injured
Abdulqader عبدالقادر
Age unknown injured
Samer Ahmed سامر أحمد
Age unknown injured
Mohammed Imad Qar’iya محمد عماد قرأئية
Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    10
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (30) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (26) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
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    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
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    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @idleb_online
  • Source: @Ivarmm tweeet
  • Source: @Ivarmm tweeet
  • Source: @mzmgr941
  • Source: Editor moment by moment
  • Source: News of the village of Nahlia and its environs
  • Source: Idlib News Network/Idlib
  • Source: Ariha, the bride of the north
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Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    10
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Syrian Regime, Russian Military

Sources (30) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4594

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

احسم, Ihsim, Idlib, Idlib, Syria

Airwars assessment

Shortly before 6:22 PM on Saturday, October 7th, 2023, two civilians – a woman and a child –  were killed, and five civilians, including at least two children and a woman, were injured in an alleged artillery attack conducted by the Russian military and/or the Syrian regime forces on the residential neighborhoods of the town of Ihsin in the southern countryside of Idlib, Syria. Crime Documentation Office claimed that Syrian regime forces were shelling the town from the surrounding checkpoints.

Multiple sources reported on the event. Twitter/X user @mzmgr941 reported at 6:22 PM that the intense bombardement of Ihsin was still ongoing and resuted in one death and several injuries among civilians. He shared an image of the clouds of smoke arising over the town.

As reported by Rami Al-Saeed, a child named Rawa Naser Al Zain (apparently a girl judging from her name) and a woman named Haifa Radwan Kanj Al-Youssef were killed. Bader Al Din Mohammed Qassam, Rawa Ayoush Al ZainBayan Mohammed Ja’yas, Jihan Naser Al Zain, and the sister of Jihan were reportedly among the injured.

The Syrian Civil Defense reported at 6:38 PM that three children and two women, one of whom was the sister of one of the children, were injured as a result of regime forces artillery shelling. Later, at 7:44 PM SCD updated the information, noting that  “two of the casualties died, bringing the toll of this bombing on the town to the death of a child and a woman and the injury of three civilians, including two children”. Many Twitter/X users reposted this information.

However, Rami Al-Saeed reported a total of four injured; ᎷᎥᏞᎻᎥᎷ ᎷᏫᎻᎯᎷᎬᎠ ᎷᎥᏞᎻᎥᎷ and Al-Muharrer Media Network – the latter basing itself on Syrian Civil Defense – alleged that the injured amount to five: three children and two women. ᎷᎥᏞᎻᎥᎷ ᎷᏫᎻᎯᎷᎬᎠ ᎷᎥᏞᎻᎥᎷ shared an image of an injured small boy being treated in a hospital.

A picture shared by @SyriaCivilDefe showed a little girl with her face and legs covered in blood while two men put her in a bed inside an ambulance. The volunteers of Syrian Civil Defence brought some of the injured of the alleged attack to the hospital to get treatment. Crime Documentation Office shared a picture of an injured elderly man without specifying any further details.

Sources were conflicting on whether the Russian military or the Syrian regime forces were responsible for the attack. However, the majority of the sources reported the Syrian regime forces as the one behind the alleged attack.

The incident occured at approximately 6:22 pm local time.

The victims were named as:

Family members (3)

Jihan Naser Al Zain جيهان نصير الزين
Child injured
sister of Jihan أخت جيهان
female injured
Rawa Naser Al Zain روعة ناصر الزين
Child female killed

The victims were named as:

Haifa Radwan Kanj Al-Youssef هيفاء رضوان كنج
Adult female killed
Bader Al Din Mohammed Qassam بدر الدين محمد قسام
Age unknown injured
Rawa Ayoush Al Zain روعة عيوش الزين
Age unknown female injured
Bayan Mohammed Ja’yas بيان محمد جعياص
Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 child1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime

Sources (25) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (12) [ collapse]

  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
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    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
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    Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @mzmgr941
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    Source: Rami Al-Saeed
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    Source: Crime Documentation Office
  • Source: Crime Documentation Office
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    Source: ᎷᎥᏞᎻᎥᎷ ᎷᏫᎻᎯᎷᎬᎠ ᎷᎥᏞᎻᎥᎷ
  • Source: Muhammad Al-Hamoud
  • Source: Ahsam News posT
  • Source: Martyrs of Ehsim district posT
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Omar Al-Talawi

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    2
  • (1 child1 woman)
  • Civilians reported injured
    5
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime

Sources (25) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4595

Incident date

October 7, 2023

Location

دارة عزة, Darat Izza, Aleppo, Syria

Airwars assessment

On the evening of Saturday, 7th October 2023, intense artillery shelling with the reported use of the internationally banned phosphorus shells allegedly carried out by the Russian military and/or Iranian military and/or Syrian regime forces resulted in the death of one or two civilians, including an elderly man, and the injury of two civilians in residential neighborhoods in the city of Darat Azza, west of Aleppo, Syria. Al-Kinana Hospital was reportedly attacked as documented by a video from local sources.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported the killing of an elderly man in the bombing. He was allegedly a victim of the phosphorus shells that fell in the city. The Syrian Civil Defense (SDC) reported at 11:14 PM on Saturday on Twitter/X that the death toll rose to two civilians. In a report published on its official website, SDC also wrote about two injuries resulting from this bombardment.

Local sources pointed to different perpetrators responsible for the attacks such as the Russian military, Iranian military and/or Syrian regime forces. Moreover, it was reported that the attacks also contained napalm and internationally banned phosphorus bombs.

Video footage on Facebook from @AldanaNews and @AlaaYounis documented the condition of the city of Darat Azza under said bombardment. Facebook accounts Darat Azza and Hussein Al-Khatib shared videos showing flashes resembling fireworks in the night sky which were charactestic for phosporus bombs.

On X (former Twitter) social media platform the posts from @Rian_almasri, @DeryNews and @mzmgr941 documented the moment the Al-Kinana Hospital in the city of Darat Azza became a target of the missiles sent in the same evening. Twitter/X user Muslim Minorities Observatory (@turkistantuzbah) also shared a video showing red flashes from the explosions and their sounds over the city.

Several fires broke out from the shelling with artillery shells and missiles in various cities, including Darat Azza, and were extinguished by the fire brigades of the Syrian Civil Defense as reported by SDC. Darat Azza also reported that the bombardment led to fires in civilians’ houses.

The incident occured in the evening.

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime, Iranian Military

Sources (19) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (13) [ collapse]

  • Source: Hamado clothing posT
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  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Iranian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iranian Military
  • Iranian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    1 – 2
  • (1 man)
  • Civilians reported injured
    2
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime, Iranian Military

Sources (19) [ collapse]

Incident Code

R4587

Incident date

October 6–7, 2023

Location

ترمانين, town of Termanin, north of Idlib, Idlib governorate, Syria

Airwars assessment

From the evening of Friday, 6th October 2023, and into the morning of Saturday, October 7th, 2023, artillery strikes, with the use of “Smerch” missiles and cluster ammunition, allegedly perpetrated by Syrian regime forces and/or the Russian and/or Iranian military, hit residential neighborhoods and a medical facility in the town of Termanin, north of Idlib, Syria. At least seven civilians were killed, including including at least one child, and up to 30 civilians, including at least two women and five children, were injured as a result of this attack.

The Syrian Civil Defense Twitter/X account @SyriaCivilDefe later, on Ocober 7, 2023, reported that the death toll has risen – five civilians, including a child, were killed after a man died from the wounds he sustained, and 30 civilians were injured, including five children and two women.

A Facebook user Mohammed Sh wrote that the attack “killed 6 martyrs, including four children. Because of the bombing that hit the city a short while ago”, attaching a graphic image of the bodies of four small children wrapped in white cloth. A Facebook user Farid Al Mohammed wrote that they were brothers. Muhannad Al-Khaled also shared the same image and blamed Syrian regime forces, Russian and Iranian military for the killings. A Twitter/X user @inpic0 alleged that those children were killed by the Syrian regime forces as retaliation for the killing of his officers on October 5, 2023, at the Military College in Homs. Media-set’ Shafak and Idlib Facebook account also shared that image which apparently became viral on social media.

Social media tributes helped to identify some of the victims fof the bombardement. Abdul Qader Muslehlou (16 y.o.), Ayham Bastin (23 y.o.) and Mahmoud Arour (23 y.o.) were reportedly killed, according to the Twitter/X user @Gurbtwatan. The identities of the four small children who were also killed have not been found by Airwars, but it was reported they were brothers.

It was reported that Ahmed Arour (17 y.o.), Dergham Muslehlo (14 y.o.) and Ahmed Amouri (age unknown) were injured. Ahmed Amouri’s cousin wrote that Ahmed received a head injury and posted a graphic image of him with the bandaged head.

A Facebook user Abo Tarq shared pictures of injured children being treated in a hospital, but there is no additional information about them. A Twitter/X user @Omar_Madaniah shared an image of three injured children – a  small boy and a girl along with an infant, –  with a capture “Tired after a bloody night. Children were injured by shrapnel from the missiles of the criminal Bashar al-Assad a short while ago.”

Syrian News Agency (SANA) documented the effects of destruction on the town of Termanin after being the subject of the missile strikes through its monitoring lens, sharing the images where burnt cars and other destroyed vehicles could be seen. A Twitter/X user @mzmgr941 reported about the “intense bombardment by the external #Russian occupation and the regime, with a large number of reconnaissance aircrafts”, sharing a video where sounds of expolosions can be heard.

Syrian Civil Defense (SCD), also known as White Helmets, alleged that cluster munition was used during the bombardment. A video shared by the organization on Twitter/X captured the first moments of SCD teams’ response to the bombardment of missiles “loaded with internationally banned cluster munitions on residential neighborhoods and a medical facility” in the town of Termanin, which led to the wounding of 9 civilians, including a boy and a woman. The video shows how White Helmets carried a body on an injured person to an ambluance.

According to SCD, cluster munitions were used after midnight on Saturday, October 7, 2024. SCD shared an image of the remains of the 9M55K cluster bomb incubator, which carries high-explosive anti-personnel cluster bombs of the 9N210 and 9N235 types, alleging that two missiles of this type were used. The organization shared the images documenting the effects of destruction resulting from the bombardment with missiles carrying internationally banned cluster bombs. Also Al-Zeer Company on Facebook shared an image of the” remnants of the incubator of a Smerch cluster missile” when the attack struck the town of Termanin the evening. A part of the missile stuck in the pavement near parked cars can be seen.

Human Rights Watch also spoke on November 5th, about the use of cluster ammunitions in Termanin on October 6th, 2023. According to HRW, the attack killed two civilians and wounded nine others.

“Syrian government forces’ use of cluster munitions while bombing opposition-controlled areas demonstrates the tragic indiscrimination of these weapons and their devastating and chronic effects,” said Adam Coogle, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. “In the midst of this ongoing bombardment by Syrian and Russian forces, the children of Idlib are falling victim once again. A victim of cruel and illegal military actions.”

A post by Khalid Mahmoud on Facebook stated that the Russian regime and foreign occupation allegedly had claimed that they were targeting the Al-Julani Committee, which is classified as an international terrorist group, but instead they were bombing civilians, women and children. Khalid shared a graphic image of the dead person lying on the pavement with traces of blood around. Orient News communicated that hundreds of civilians were displaced from the town of Termanin as a result of the escalation of the attacks by Syrian regime forces and/or the Russian military.

The suspected attacker is alleged to be the Syrian regime forces and/or the Russian military and Iranian military, as reported by most of the sources, including @SyriaCivilDefe Twitter/X account, Orient News, and Syrian News Agency, although responsibility has not been accepted explicitly. Therefore, the Airwars graded both Strike Status and Civilian Harm Status as Contested.

The incident occured during the night.

The victims were named as:

Abdul Qader Muslehlou عبد القادر مصلحلو
16 years old killed
Ayham Bastin أيهم بصطين
22 years old killed
Mahmoud Arour محمد عرعور
23 years old killed
Ahmed Arour أحمد عرعور
17 years old injured
Dergham Muslehlo درغام مصلحلو
14 years old injured
Ahmad Amouri أحمد عموري
Age unknown injured

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 7
  • (1–5 children2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    9–30
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime, Iranian Military

Sources (41) [ collapse]

Media
from sources (47) [ collapse]

  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: Mohammed Sh
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    Source: Mohammed Sh
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    Source: Ahmed Al-Ahmad
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    Source: Abo tarq
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    Source: Abo tarq
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    Source: Abo tarq
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    Source: Abo tarq
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    Source: Mahmoud Amory
  • Source: Akbaar madeent idlib
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Syrian News Agency
  • Source: Al-Zeer Company - Abu Aws
  • Source: @Ahmad_1alshble
  • Source: @Ahmad_1alshble
  • Source: @Ahmad_1alshble
  • Source: @Ahmad_1alshble
  • Source: @KalhaaS44326
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • Source: @SyriaCivilDefe
  • This media contains graphic content. Click to unblur.

    Source: HRW news
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Russian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Russian Military
  • Russian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Syrian Regime Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Syrian Regime
  • Syrian Regime position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Iranian Military Assessment:

  • Suspected belligerent
    Iranian Military
  • Iranian Military position on incident
    Not yet assessed

Summary

  • Strike status
    Contested strike
  • Strike type
    Artillery
  • Civilian infrastructure
    Healthcare facility
  • Civilian harm reported
    Yes
  • Civilians reported killed
    3 – 7
  • (1–5 children2 men)
  • Civilians reported injured
    9–30
  • Cause of injury / death
    Heavy weapons and explosive munitions
  • Airwars civilian harm grading
    Contested
    Competing claims of responsibility e.g. multiple belligerents, or casualties also attributed to ground forces.
  • Impact
    Healthcare
    Impact on services or infrastructure relating to education, health or food supply. See methodology note for details.
  • Suspected attackers
    Russian Military, Syrian Regime, Iranian Military

Sources (41) [ collapse]